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Serving Multimedia in Web


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  • 1. Multimedia Concepts
  • 2. Topics
    • Multimedia Basic Terms
    • Multimedia Compression/Decompression
    • Multimedia Protocols
  • 3. Basic Terms
    • Multimedia Definition
      • The term multimedia usually implies that at least one of text ( structured/unstructured, hypertext, etc ), graphics (drawings), or image ( discrete media ) is associated with either audio or motion video information ( continuous media ).
  • 4. Basic Terms
    • Multimedia streaming
      • Multimedia streaming is the overlapping the playout of the data at the receiver with the transmission by the sender.
        • A video stream consists of a sequence of images or frames.
          • A frame consists of a grid of pixels.
          • ( Table 1 )
        • An audio stream consists of a sequence of audio samples.
  • 5. Basic Terms Table 1. Hierarchy of multimedia content. Picture element Two-dimensional grid of pixels Sequence of frames over time Synchronized set of streams Set of multimedia sessions Pixel Frame Stream Session Presentation Definition Term
  • 6. Basic Terms
    • The advantage of streaming is that it can enable easier access to multimedia resources.
    • Another possibility is the integration of video and audio with other web-based applications, such as chat and other real-time collaboration tools.
  • 7. Basic Terms
    • Streaming vs. downloading
    • What Is The Difference Between Downloading and Streaming ?
      • When you download a video, you have to copy the
      • entire file to your hard disk before you can play it.
  • 8. Basic Terms
      • When the video is streamed , there is a small wait as the stream 'buffers' but there is no need to save the file.
      • Streaming is the act of sending media files (audio and/or video) over the Internet from one computer to another computer so that the media plays as it is being delivered.
  • 9. Basic Terms Figure 2. To hear or view a media file without downloading it
    • Multimedia Streaming
    Media Encoding Audio Video Animation Clients Send Request To Servers Web Server Send Request to Media Server Media Server Proprietary Format
    • Multicast capable
    • More Robust
    • Access to Storage
    • Relieves Web Server
    Send Stream To Clients
    • Standalone player
    • Java based player
    • Browser plug-in player
    • Appliance
    • Decode
    • Buffer
    • Sync.
  • 10. Basic Terms
    • A media stream proceeds through the following stages before it is displayed to a recipient:
      • Capturing
        • The audio or video stream must be captured from an analog device, such as a microphone or a video camera, and converting to a digital form.
        • 25 fps (frame per second) for video and 16-bit for audio is suitable.
  • 11. Basic Terms
      • Encoding
        • An encoder converts the raw digital data into a particular audio or video format.
      • Storing
        • A server may store the encoded stream for future transmission.
      • Delivering
        • The stream is transmitted to one or more recipients. A live stream may be transmitted as it is captured and encoded, whereas a prerecorded stream is transmitted by a server.
  • 12. Basic Terms
      • Decoding
        • The receiver decodes and displays the data as they arrive. Alternatively, the receiver may store the entire stream before initiating playback.
        • ( Figure 3 )
  • 13. Basic Terms Figure 3. Capturing Video
  • 14. Basic Terms
    • There are two different types of streaming :
      • Progressive download
        • The client begins playback of the multimedia file as it is delivered. The file is ultimately stored on the client computer.
        • Use standard web server
        • Quality is better than real-time streaming
      • Real-time streaming
        • The multimedia file is delivered to the client computer but the file is not stored on the client computer.
        • Require a special streaming server
  • 15. Basic Terms
    • two different types of real-time streaming :
      • Live streaming
        • used to deliver a live event while it is occurring.
        • Examples: live soccer game, live concerts, live radio, and videoconferences.
      • On-demand streaming
        • used to deliver archived media streams.
        • Examples: video clips, movies, and
        • lectures.
  • 16. Basic Terms
    • Why Streaming Media?
      • No waiting for complete downloads.
      • Streamed files are not written to disk.
      • Presentation of live events is possible.
  • 17. Basic Terms
    • Major streaming formats
      • Microsoft Windows Media
      • Real Networks
      • Apple Quicktime
  • 18. Basic Terms Figure 4. Streaming media development process
    • How does streaming work?
  • 19. Basic Terms Figure 5. Streaming media playback
    • How does streaming work?
  • 20. Basic Terms Figure 6. Streaming media from a conventional Web server
  • 21. Basic Terms Figure 7. Realtime Streaming protocol
  • 22. Basic Terms
    • RTSP States
      • SETUP - the server allocates resources for a client session.
      • PLAY - the server delivers a stream to a client session.
      • PAUSE - the server suspends delivery of a stream.
      • TEARDOWN - the server breaks down the connection and releases the resources allocated for the session.
  • 23. Basic Terms Figure 8. RTSP state machihne
    • RTSP State Machine
  • 24. Basic Terms RTSP operation
  • 25. Basic Terms
    • Clip
      • Clip is a media file that contains audio, video, or both.
  • 26. Basic Terms
    • Webcast
      • A webcast uses streaming media technology to take a single content source and distribute it to many simultaneous listeners/viewers by broadcasting over the Internet.
  • 27. Basic Terms
    • Three general methods for delivering content from a server to a client across a network:
      • Unicasting
        • The server delivers the content to a single client. 
      • Broadcasting
        • The server delivers the content to all clients, regardless whether they want the content or not. 
      • Multicasting
        • The server delivers the content to a group of receivers who indicate they wish to receive the content.
  • 28. Basic Terms
    • Broadcasting
      • Broadcast means a piece of information is sent or transmitted from one point to all other points.
      • There is just one sender, but the information is simultaneously sent to all connected receivers.
      • In telecommunications, broadcasting means propagation of a flow of information from one source to all potential recipients.
  • 29. Basic Terms
    • Broadcasting
      • In networking, a distinction is made between broadcasting and multicasting .
        • Broadcasting sends a message to everyone
        • on the network.
        • Multicasting sends a message to a select list of recipients.
  • 30. Basic Terms Figure 10. Unicast delivering
  • 31. Basic Terms Figure 11. Multicast delivering
  • 32. Basic Terms Figure 12. Unicast/Multicast delivering
    • Unicast/Multicast
    Host Router Unicast Host Router Multicast
  • 33. Basic Terms
    • Bit rate
      • Bit rate is amount of data that can be carried from one point to another in a given time period (usually a second).
      • Bit rate is sometimes called data rate or transfer rate or bandwidth .
    • Multiple Bit Rate Encoding
      • Combine several streams with different bit rate into a single file
      • The appropriate bit rate stream is automatically selected
      • ( Figure 13 )
  • 34. Basic Terms Figure 13. Multiple bit rate encoding
  • 35. Basic Terms
    • Aspect Ratio
      • This is the ratio of width to height that the encoded video will be.
      • This information is present in the output video stream and used by the decoder to display the video at the correct aspect ratio.
      • The computer display is designed for an aspect ratio of 1.33:1 , which means that the width of the display area is only 1.33 times the height, almost square.
  • 36. Basic Terms
    • Frame
      • Frame means one still picture.
      • By changing still pictures (frames) quickly, human eye "thinks" that the video is smooth and can't separate pictures from each others and instead sees smooth video.
  • 37. Basic Terms
    • Frame rate
      • Frame rate is the number of video frames (complete pictures) that will be presented to the viewer each second.
      • Human eye can sees smooth video with the frame rate more than ~24 fps (frames per second).
      • In American TV system, NTSC, the frame rate is approximately 29.97 fps.
      • In European PAL system the frame rate is 25fps.
  • 38. Basic Terms
    • Frame Buffer
      • Frame buffer is a special memory to hold the complete digital representation of the frame to be displayed on a computer screen.
      • The frame buffer is scanned line by line by the digital-to-analog converter system of the display.
  • 39. Basic Terms
    • Color depth
      • Color depth or bit depth is the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel in a bitmapped image or video frame buffer.
      • It is known as bits per pixel (bpp).
      • Higher color depth gives a broader range of distinct colors.
      • ( Table 2 )
  • 40. Basic Terms Table 2. Color depth chart. Number of Colors Bit-Depth 16,777,216 (True Color + Alpha Channel) 32 16,777,216 (True Color, SVGA) 24 65,536 (High Color, XGA) 16 256 (VGA) 8 16 (EGA) 4 4 (CGA) 2 2 (monochrome) 1
  • 41. Basic Terms
    • Jitter
      • In transmission technology, jitter refers to the variation of the delay generated by the transmission equipment.
      • In data communications, jitter refers to the variation over time of the network transit delay.
  • 42. Multimedia Compression
    • Lossless compression
    • Lossy compression
    • Compression/Coding Standards
    • Decompression
    • Codec
  • 43. Multimedia Compression
    • Compression is the process of eliminating redundant information to decrease file size.
    • Compression converts frames and pixels to mathematical algorithms that the computer can understand.
    • Decompression converts mathematical algorithms back to frames and pixels for playback.
  • 44. Multimedia Compression
    • Two compression methods are:
      • Lossless compression
        • Run-Length coding
        • Huffman coding
        • Arithmetic coding
      • Lossy compression
        • Transform coding
  • 45. Lossless compression
    • Lossless compression retains all of the data of the original file as it's converted to a smaller file size.
    • In lossless compression the information is recovered without any alteration after the decompression stage.
    • When a lossless file is opened, algorithms restore all compressed information, creating a duplicate of the source file.
  • 46. Lossless compression
    • It generally preferred for creating high-quality or professional applications.
    • Lossless compression is applied where the accuracy of the information is essential, such as in medical imaging where it's important to retain fine detail.
    • Lossless compression is also called bit-preserving compression .
  • 47. Lossy compression
    • Lossy compression refers to the case where the decompressed information is different from the original uncompressed information.
    • With this kind of compression, some of the source file's information is discarded to conserve space.
  • 48. Lossy compression
    • When the file is decompressed, this information is reconstructed through algorithms.
    • This method results in some loss of sound quality or image detail when compared to the original.
    • This mode is suitable for most continuous media such as sound and motion video as well as for many images.
  • 49. Compression/Coding Standards
    • The MPEG Standards
      • MPEG standards developed and managed by Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG)
        • MPEG-1: VCD
        • MPEG-2: DVD, HDTV
        • MPEG-4: Content-based video coding
        • MPEG-7: Multimedia indexing and retrieval
        • MPEG-21: Multimedia delivery and consumption
  • 50. Compression/Coding Standards
    • The MPEG-1
      • Released in 1992
      • A standard for coded representation of
        • Moving pictures
        • Audio
        • Combination of above
      • Typical application – video CD (VCD)
  • 51. Compression/Coding Standards
    • The MPEG-2 Standard
      • Released in 1994
      • A standard to provide video quality not lower than NTSC/PAL with bit rates target between 2-10 Mbit/s
      • Applications
        • Digital cable TV distribution
        • Networked database service via ATM
        • Digital video tape recorder (VTR)
        • Satellite and terrestrial digital broadcasting distribution
      • It also supports HDTV applications, and so pre-emptied MPEG-3 standard
  • 52. Compression/Coding Standards
    • The MPEG-4 Standard
      • First released in 1998, and targeted for content-based multimedia applications and low bit-rate video coding.
      • Algorithms and tools for coding and flexible representation of audio/video to meet the challenges of multimedia applications.
      • The objective of low bit-rate video coding was later accomplished by H.264, the convergence of ITU-T H.263 and MPEG-2.
  • 53. Compression/Coding Standards
    • The MPEG-7
      • First release in 2001
      • Official name: Multimedia Content Description Interface
      • Objective:
        • To allow efficient search for multimedia content using standardized descriptors
      • The main research issues:
        • Optimum search engine
        • Feature analysis & query design
  • 54. Compression/Coding Standards
    • The MPEG-21 Standard
      • Aim at defining a normative open framework for multimedia delivery and consumption for use by all the players in the delivery and consumption chain.
  • 55. Decompression
    • Decompression is the process by which compressed information is expanded by addition of the redundant information eliminated at the compression stage.
    • After decompression, the resulting information may be identical to the original – lossless compression – or be different – lossy compression .
  • 56. Codec
    • Codec stands for Coder/Decoder or Compression/Decompression .
    • Codec is a piece of software or a driver that is mostly for compression to reduce file size but may also do some formatting.
    • Compression is the primary function of the Codec.
  • 57. Codec
    • With codec, your system recognizes the encoded video/audio format and allows you to play (decode) the audio/video file in a particular format.
  • 58. Codec Examples
    • Video
    • Audio
    • Image
      • JPEG, JPEG2000, PNG, GIF
    • Data
      • ZIP, STUFFIT
  • 59. Multimedia Protocols
    • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
    • UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
    • RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol)
    • RSVP (Resource ReSerVation Protocol)
    • ( Table 3 )
  • 60. Multimedia Protocols MULTIMEDIA CONCEPTS Table 3. Multimedia protocols. Disadvantage Advantage Network Protocol · Complicated request mechanism · Receivers may experience random packet loss for small reservation · Reliable connection · Receiver can obtain different levels of service RSVP · No guarantee for QoS · Header is larger than UDP · More complicated that UDP · No support for congestion control · Support real-time transmission · Provide timing reconstruction, loss detection, security and content identification · Allows retrieval of very interesting network statistics RTP/RTCP · Many network firewalls block UDP data · Need error concealment for video packet loss · No support for congestion control · Cannot be played using popular stream players such as QuickTime · Suitable for streaming · Allows packet drops; if packets arrive late or damaged, streaming will continue · No retransmission needed UDP · Typically need large buffer to handle data rate variation · Loss recovery needs retransmission causing further jitter or skew · No support for multicast · Dominate protocol for data transfer of data over the Internet · Streaming through firewall · Reliable TCP
  • 61. References
    • B.Krishnamurthy, J. Rexford. “Web Protocols and Practice” , 2001
    • A.Silberschatz, P.Garvin, G.Gange. “ operating system concepts”, 2005
    • H.Sun, A Vetro, J. Xin. “ An Overview of Scalable Video Streaming”. 2007
    • Z.Li and M.S.Drew. “Fundamentals of Multimedia”, Prentice-Hall 2004
    • R.Steinmetz, K.Nahrstedt, “Multimedia: Computing, Communications and Applications”, Prentice-Hall 1995
  • 62. References
    • T.Vaughan, “Multimedia: Making it Work, 7th Edition”, McGraw-Hill College 2006
    • L.Guan, S.Y.Kung, J.Larsen “Multimedia image and video processing”
  • 63. References
    • Image Compression
      • JPEG:
      • JPEG: http://
    • Video Compression
      • MPEG-4 pt. 2:
      • MPEG-4 pt. 10/H.264/AVC:
    • File Formats
      • General info: http://
      • Containers: http://
      • MPEG-4 pt. 14:
      • Codec list: http:// /
    • Audio
      • MP3:
  • 64. References DCT Basis Function Image: http:// , GNU licensed JPEG Example Image: http:// , by Ilmari Karonon at Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License MP3 File Image: