Audio and Video

         Curtis Thomas

385E Information Architecture and
            Design I
Overview
•   The Medium
•   Popular Formats
•   Design Guidelines
•   Library of Congress Analysis
•   IA and Audio / Video
The Medium
• Streaming Media
• Codecs
Streaming Media
 Streaming media was made possible
 by the creation of two protocols:

• User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
• Re...
UDP and RTSP
• Continuously send information
  even when data dropout occurs
• Users get information in chunks
• Network c...
Codecs
• Transform data streams by discarding
  any unnecessary data

• Audio codecs discard frequencies that
  fall outsi...
Popular Formats
• RealMedia
• Apple’s QuickTime
• MPEG, MP3, WAV
RealMedia
    RealMedia is a streaming audio and
    video format

•   Useful for slower Internet connections
•   Reduced ...
QuickTime
  Offers a streaming format as well as
  smaller downloadable files

• Higher quality streaming format than
  Re...
Various Formats
MPEG (Video)
• High quality
• 9 megs per minute of video

MP3 (Audio)
• High quality, fast downloads

WAV ...
General Design
               Guidelines
•   Inform users of technological demands
•   Provide clear access to software
• ...
Video Guidelines
•   Plain page summary
•   Screenshots from video content
•   Segment long clips
•   Choose clips with mi...
Audio Guidelines
• Summarize content
• Give users control
• Provide estimated download times
Library of Congress
 American Memory Website
Video Content
Audio Content
IA and Audio /
             Video
The key to successful Web multimedia
is to tailor your content for Web
delivery.

Do not...
References
American Memory from the Library of Congress, Retrieved on October 20, 2004 from:
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/i...
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  1. 1. Audio and Video Curtis Thomas 385E Information Architecture and Design I
  2. 2. Overview • The Medium • Popular Formats • Design Guidelines • Library of Congress Analysis • IA and Audio / Video
  3. 3. The Medium • Streaming Media • Codecs
  4. 4. Streaming Media Streaming media was made possible by the creation of two protocols: • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) • RealTime Streaming Protocol (RTSP)
  5. 5. UDP and RTSP • Continuously send information even when data dropout occurs • Users get information in chunks • Network congestion can cause a lapse in the video or audio feed
  6. 6. Codecs • Transform data streams by discarding any unnecessary data • Audio codecs discard frequencies that fall outside of the range of human hearing • Video codecs predict picture content from previously viewed images in the stream
  7. 7. Popular Formats • RealMedia • Apple’s QuickTime • MPEG, MP3, WAV
  8. 8. RealMedia RealMedia is a streaming audio and video format • Useful for slower Internet connections • Reduced audio quality • Slower video playback (3 to 6 fps) • Heavily affected by Internet traffic
  9. 9. QuickTime Offers a streaming format as well as smaller downloadable files • Higher quality streaming format than RealMedia • Average file size is 5 to 6 megs per minute of video • Greater bandwidth demands
  10. 10. Various Formats MPEG (Video) • High quality • 9 megs per minute of video MP3 (Audio) • High quality, fast downloads WAV (Audio) • Highest audio quality • Longer download times • Must wait for download to finish completely
  11. 11. General Design Guidelines • Inform users of technological demands • Provide clear access to software • Avoid gratuitous “eye candy” • Stick with standard formats • Provide controls
  12. 12. Video Guidelines • Plain page summary • Screenshots from video content • Segment long clips • Choose clips with minimal motion
  13. 13. Audio Guidelines • Summarize content • Give users control • Provide estimated download times
  14. 14. Library of Congress American Memory Website
  15. 15. Video Content
  16. 16. Audio Content
  17. 17. IA and Audio / Video The key to successful Web multimedia is to tailor your content for Web delivery. Do not simply translate video and audio content to the computer screen. Employ design guidelines and use the strength of computers to make content exciting and approachable.
  18. 18. References American Memory from the Library of Congress, Retrieved on October 20, 2004 from: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html Beggs, J. and Thede D. (2001). Designing Web Audio: Chapter 5: Introduction to Streaming Media. Retrieved October on 22, 2004 from: http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/sound/chapter/ch05.html Nielsen, J. (1999). Video and Streaming Media. Retrieved on October 22, 2004 from: http://www.useit.com/alertbox/990808.html Streaming media – Wikipedia, Retrieved on October 22, 2004 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streaming_media Codec – Wikipedia, Retrieved on October 20, 2004 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codec QuickTime – Wikipedia, Retrieved on October 20, 2004 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QuickTime Windows Media – Wikipedia, Retrieved on October 20, 2004 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Media Windows Media Audio – Wikipedia, Retrieved on October 20, 2004 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Media_Audio Windows Media Video – Wikipedia, Retrieved on October 20, 2004 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Media_Audio
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