The Flow of Collaboration: Streaming Video Cataloging and its Use in
Motion Media Terminology
Lorraine Knight – Marc4Media
Tom Adamich – Robert Morris University
Alex Eykelhof – Bibliocentre
Source of terms (used with permission)
A series of still images displayed quickly to simulate motion. Some key examples of Web animation include
Shockwave, Flash, and animated GIFs.
Most streaming media files encoded for use on the Windows Media platform have a .asf extension. This is an
actual audio/video file, as opposed to an ASX file.
A metafile which points to a Windows Media audio/video presentation.
(Audio/ Video Interleaved) - A Microsoft-specified format for saving audio and/or video clips, referred to by
Windows as "Video for Windows." You can play the files through the Media Player in Windows or through many
popular browser plug-in multimedia players.
The speed at which data travels from one place to another on a computer network, such as the Internet.
Process of digitizing audio and video content from an analog format.
Digital video is the key to content when streaming media. Digital video is an alternative way of storing or
distributing video. Digital video is usually converted from an analog video source. A digital video signal is
represented in '1's and '0's, whereas an analog video signal is represented by a fluctuating voltage signal that is
stored on magnetic tape. This difference is similar to the difference between analog audio and digital audio.
Process of capturing or "bringing in" audio and/or video (usually analog source tapes such as Beta SP, 3/4,
VHS, etc.) into a computer. Digitizing is made possible by video hardware, a computer hardware card, cables,
and a software application that all work together to convert the original signal into digital media. This digital
media can then be edited and transferred back to numerous formats for Internet streaming, CD-Rom, DVD, and
other forms of distribution.
Submitted by: Brian Tane
The number of frames of video displayed during a given time -- usually measured in seconds. Standard
television video is almost 30 Frames Per Second (fps).
A vector-based animation format released by Macromedia often used for narrative productions on the web.
Interframe method is a type of video compression used by MPEG which compresses three types of frames: I-
Frames, P-Frames and B-Frames.In I-Frames, the entire scene is compressed. P-Frames are compressed with
reference to a Past-I or P-Frame. B-Frames provide the highest amount of compression but require both a past
and a future frame as a reference. The image sequence in MPEG is flexible, depending on application specific
Any web-based advertisement which occurs before, after, or during a narrative content presentation. For
example, if streaming media terminology were applied to regular television, standard television commercials
would be called interstitials, since they interrupt programming
(Integrated Services Digital Network). A set of standards for transmitting digital information over ordinary
telephone copper phone lines and other media. With an ISDN adapter (both at your computer and at your
Internet service provider), you can send and receive transmissions much faster than using a conventional
A metafile which points to an MP3 stream.
MP3 is the MPEG audio layer 3 standard. Layer 3 is one of three coding schemes (layer 1, layer 2 and layer 3)
for the compression of audio signals defined by the MPEG committee. Layer 3 uses perceptual audio coding
and psychoacoustic compression to remove the redundant parts of a sound signal. It also adds a MDCT
(Modified Discrete Cosine Transform) that implements a filter bank, increasing the frequency resolution 18 times
higher than that of MPEG audio layer 2.
MPEG is a digital video and audio compression format that was defined by the Moving Pictures Experts Groups
which is part of the International Standards Organization (ISO). MPEG is a lossy compression method which
uses Interframe compression. Interframe compression assumes that although action is happening, the
background in most video frames remains the same. This means that it is not necessary to compress each
entire frame, but only the differences between them. The Interframe method compresses three types of frames:
I-Frames, P-Frames and B-Frames
MPEG-4 defines how multimedia streams – video, audio, text, data – are transmitted as individual objects.
MPEG-4 is a compression/decompression technology that aims to achieve interactivity, efficiency and stability in
narrow-band transmissions. On a broader level, MPEG-4 aims to pave the way toward a uniform, high quality
encoding and decoding standard, that would replace the many proprietary streaming technologies in use on the
Internet today. MPEG-4 is also designed for low bit-rate communications devices, such as mobile receivers or
wristwatches that can display video. These devices are usually wireless and can have different access speeds
depending on the type of connection and traffic. To overcome this problem, MPEG-4 supports scalable content.
Content is encoded once and automatically played back and transmitted at different rates, depending on the
available network connection.
A process which allows a server to send one stream to multiple recipients. This is different from traditional
streaming media, where each user connects separately to a server.
To send data to a specific list of recipients. On the Internet, narrowcasting has also come to refer to
programming developed for "niche" interest groups.
A chunk of data organized in a block for transmission over an IP network. Usually contains header information
with origin and source address, and employs error-correction.
Text files that point to the actual location (server and filename) of a streaming file. Almost all systems use
A method of delivering audio/video data over the Internet that involves playing the downloaded portion of a file
while the download is still in progress. Also referred to as "Pseudo-Streaming".
Syncrhonized Multimedia Integration Language. A text-based mark-up language used to synchronize disparate
media elements (such as text, animations, audio and video) within one streaming media presentation.
Streaming media technology enables the real time or on demand distribution of audio, video and multimedia on
the internet. Streaming media is the simultaneous transfer of digital media (video, voice and data) so that it is
received as a continuous real-time stream. Streamed data is transmitted by a server application and received
and displayed in real-time by client applications. These applications can start displaying video or playing back
audio as soon as enough data has been received and stored in the receiving station’s buffer. A streamed file is
simultaneously downloaded and viewed, but leaves behind no physical file on the viewer's machine.
User Datagram Protocol. A method of communicating between computers which does not guarantee that ever
bit arrives at its end destination. Favored for time-sensitive data such as streaming media.
A process which forces each individual user to make an individual connection to a server to receive a stream (as
opposed to Multicast, which allows multiple, simultaneous access to a stream).
The process through which a complete video file is reduced in size. Video Compression algorithms take
advantage of the fact that there is minimal difference from "one" frame to the next. The first frame is encoded
and then the sequence of differences between frames. This is also known as "inter-frame" coding or "3D coding"
Video On Demand
Describes video content which may be viewed by the end-user from beginning to end, at any time.
(Wave Form Audio) - Files with the .wav extension are digital representations of sound and typically take up a
good deal of space to store (typically 50MB for a 5 minute song, for instance). If you use software to rip files
from an audio CD, it is usually stored in .wav format. Standard Windows sounds are also stored in .wav format.
A live broadcast format over the World Wide Web (WWW).