Mobile Video Services
The next step in mobility
and visual gratiﬁcation
Executive summary 2
Business opportunities for operators and content providers 3
Build up the content database for video evolution phases 4
Video services are happening now with 2.5G 5
Nokia’s vision 5
Nokia’s strategic intent 6
The common building blocks of mobile video services 6
Technological readiness 6
Business model readiness 11
User acceptance 12
Nokia’s value proposition 13
The future 14
Conclusion – life goes mobile 14
Glossary of terms 15
Many service and content providers launched with a minimum of effort. Mobile users can also view video
see mobile video services as the way Most pieces of the jigsaw are in place content in several other ways,
to continue the wireless evolution into and there is already a good including video download via browser
the era of rich multimedia services. understanding of what needs to be and streaming. These two methods
The ability to watch a video with done to bring video MMS to the market. both have their respective merits.
simultaneous audio effects is seen as The wide industry support for MMS For instance, video downloading
a powerful form of visual gives a good foundation for all parties allows user selection, local storage and
communication that is now becoming to continue the work already done. playback of video content, while video
available to the consumer. streaming gives the user access to
MMS is entering a new phase of large video ﬁles that can be real time.
With the proliferation of MMS in the advanced features, including message
marketplace and with over 120 presentation capabilities, video and As an experienced professional in
operators launching services in content protection. Nokia believes that the operator industry has said,
12 months, video messaging or video users will discover mobile video by “Bandwidth will improve, but if you
MMS is widely tipped to be the ﬁrst trying out video capturing and sending are not ready with content, it is not
video services experienced by mobile video messages from their own mobile enough. Don’t wait for UMTS”.
users. The current state of technical devices. This will be followed by content Another operator noted that, “Mobile
and business systems means that that can be purchased or is sponsored Video is a natural addition to the
video services over MMS can be and delivered to the users’ devices. range of services we already offer like
media messaging and games, and fully The key ﬁndings from the global
exploits the technology we have market research among non-MMS users
available today”. According to an Other in ﬁve countries (Finland, Germany,
application provider who is delivering the United Kingdom, the United States
SMS, WAP, instant messaging and and Singapore) and multimedia-
MMS, they want to have ﬁrst-mover Content enabled users in Japan showed the
advantage, acquire skills and Messaging following:
knowledge of the market quickly and 38% • Users want an imaging capable
deliver breakthroughs in the area of phone with a large colour screen
the next generation of mobile service • The ability to take, watch and
provisioning. download video clips is amongst
the top ﬁve criteria when buying the
Figure 1. Data revenue ARPU% from J-Phone,
Educating subscribers about the next phone
Vodafone Japan, FY02, 1Q. Source: J-Phone
possibilities of video services before the September 2002. • Services, especially the more time
network achieves its peak capacity is critical ones, were perceived to be
not far fetched if we look at the early In market research studies more appealling with video than
market trials and launches. Building commissioned by Nokia, video is seen with still images: these included
TCP/IP, EDGE and WCDMA networks as the exciting next step in Person-to- breaking news, sports results,
will greatly increase the download Person messaging as well as Content- news on a sports team, other
speed and improve the experience for to-Person services. When asked which entertainment areas, share prices
users, as well as give cost-effective best describes the users’ feelings and and weather reports
ways of delivering video services. interest in video messaging, 62% of • More than half (56%) of the
the respondents indicated that they respondents in ﬁve countries are
were genuinely interested and that it deﬁnitely interested in receiving
Business opportunities would be a real improvement. MMS-based content and 30% said
Source: Nokia commissioned MMS they might be interested
for operators and study 2003, qualitative research • In Japan, respondents’ use of other
Figure 2. Hong Kong: Encouraging early MMS market success. Source: Hong Kong CSL, November 2002.
Early market research has shown that
mobile imaging and messaging are
Age Group GSM GPRS MMS 50%
good revenue generators. An example
is J-Phone, whose ﬁndings indicate
signiﬁcant revenue potential for 38% 37%
mobile imaging and video. They found 31% 32% 32%
that image mail users had 53% higher
ARPU than non-image mail users and
video mail users had 91% higher ARPU
than non-video mail users.
< 30 31–40 40 >
Data ARPU in 1st quarter 2002 was at
19.1% with the messaging and mail Data 55%
Penetration Data ARPU Total ARPU
services taking up 38% of total data
revenue and content download 53%. 43%
Source: J-Phone September 2002
Hong Kong has also been an 24% 100%
encouraging early MMS market success
as indicated by CSL’s results. MMS
users’ data ARPU is 132% higher than
for GSM users.
mobile services such as mobile
e-mail and voice has increased since Signs of early market service launch
acquiring multimedia phones Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa (PTC) has introduced “Video Era Omnix” where
• Usage projections amongst non-MMS subscribers can watch popular movies and TV series on their mobile devices,
enabled respondents are similar to as well as listen to their favourite radio stations (Source: 27th May 2003 /
actual multimedia usage in Japan. 3G Newsletter).
Rich media is perceived as adding
signiﬁcant value to content services O2 has launched video trials in which its customers can view a continuously
• The richer the media, the less elastic updated range of services from news, weather and entertainment, music and
is its demand. Consumption of rich movie trailers via three methods: streaming video, downloading clips and
media (e.g. video) is not as greatly video messaging (Source: 17th April 2003 / BBC News).
affected by changes in price as is
the consumption of less rich media A new service from Sprint and V-Star lets subscribers to Sprint’s CDMA2000
Source: Nokia commissioned MMS service stream news, entertainment and sports updates to their phones
study 2003, quantitative research (Source: 16th April 2003 / InfoSync World).
(16–45 yr. old mobile owners)
CFN/CNBC Mobile, the ﬁrst ﬁnancial-news TV channel in Italy, whose
It can be anticipated that both user broadcasts can be viewed via mobile phone, allows its customers to subscribe
generated and commercial video via their phones with a simple charge to their mobile account, without
services will become mass-market having to register through the Internet or to pay via a credit card.
phenomenon and provide a great
business potential for companies. Wind, an operator in Italy, launched video clips over GPRS in July 2002 and
has offered video messaging since Christmas 2002. The company offers a
wide range of services spanning various themes that have proved popular
Build up the content with subscribers, more than 50% of whom are said to be regular users.
database for video
The mobile device’s display, including
screen size and resolution, as well as Chat&date, communities, Commercials
local memory, make mobile video Breaking news
content different from content from Weather charts
other media, making it essential to (news, finding, travel, weather) Tutorials
design the content to suit the mobile Comics Funny videos, Bloobers
device and the method of distribution. Fun Soap operas Sports highlights
(sports, adult, lifestyle, comics) Goals
In order to ensure that video services Gossip
take off, a vast database of video Movie trailers Adult
content must be developed, one that is Visual Personalisation,
user generated content solution
Video greetings Drink recipes
constantly improved with new ideas
and substance. The video formats in Album previews
which the video content has been (tones, news, fan packs) Video karaoke
encoded, such as the open standards
3GPP ﬁle format, can be used
Figure 3. Mobile video ideas.
throughout the evolution of video
Some ideas of mobile video content
and categorization can be seen in
Video services are happening now with 2.5G
The term “video messaging”, or video and available device memory apply person. In effect, it allows the user
MMS, refers to the sending or receiving regarding local storage on the device. visual and verbal communications.
of a multimedia message containing a The conversation can be spiced up by
video clip, to a mobile device from “Video streaming” commonly indicates seeing what the other person sees or
another mobile device or an immediate consumption of on demand by seeing the person on the other end.
application. The clip within the or live video content on a mobile
message can be opened and played device and where the content is not “Broadcasting” refers to users tuning
back for viewing or saved on to the stored on the device. This method in to content that is being ‘aired’.
device memory if desired and allowed. allows the consumption of large video
There are two categories – Person-to- ﬁles without any dependence on This white paper discusses mobile
Person, or P2P, video messaging, where device memory, since the ﬁle is not video services expected to be available
the video is recorded and sent to physically stored on the client. This can to a mass-market by 2004 and focuses
another person and Content-to-Person, be compared to the broadcast model on the ﬁrst three complementary
or C2P, video messaging where the of watching television programs. As a video methods – video messaging,
video clip originates from a result, digital rights management is not video download and video streaming.
commercial service on a pull or an essential factor for video streaming.
subscription push basis. Digital rights
management will deﬁne the usage “See What I See” (SWIS) refers to real Nokia’s vision
rules for commercial quality content, time Person-to-Person communication
while the available memory capacity where one person is sharing what he Nokia’s vision of mobile video services
of the device will determine storage can see with another person. This is that they will evolve from the
possibilities. method allows a concurrent voice call current multimedia messaging of still
together with the video session to and animated pictures and
“Video download”, as the name share content. For example, James can presentations, to video messaging and
implies, refers to the delivery of video show his colleagues in the ofﬁce what playback. Video download and video
clips to a mobile device, usually the construction site looks like while streaming services will follow shortly
through discovery such as browsing asking them for comments. after, though exactly when these
and then followed by a WAP or TCP/IP services will be introduced will
session where the clip is sent to the “Video telephony” is about making or naturally differ from country to
device to be viewed or stored. receiving a video call where the mobile country. Nokia believes that “See What
Similarly, digital rights management user can see as well as talk to the other I See” (SWIS), video telephony and
Figure 4. Phases in the evolution of mobile video technology.
Introduction Take-up phase Mass market
phase Installed phase Video telephony
1st lead base of Large
products products installed
available reaching base of
critical mass products See What I See
MMS still pictures and
2H 2002 1H 2003 2H 2003 1H 2004 2H 2004 Future
broadcasting will be interesting to
certain market segments in the future.
The common building blocks
The introduction of new technologies
of mobile video services
such as multimedia messaging and
video capabilities is when the ﬁrst
lead products become available on the • Arouse interest in mobile video
market. The take-up phase is when the • Simple service activation and
number of products reaches a ‘critical • Compelling services
mass’, while the mass-market phase is
when a large installed base of acceptance
products exists in the market.
Nokia’s strategic intent
Nokia’s strategic intent in mobile video
services is to help the industry provide
the best audio-visual communications
experience to mobile users. To do this,
Nokia will ensure a clear evolution of
video services and the development of Technology Business model
standardized solutions, allowing
• Interoperable service enablers • Understanding the value chain
interoperability for other devices and based on open standards and roles
vendors. The aim is to assist the • Open and uniform content • Simple pricing
development environment and • Licensing agreements with
creation of a broad and proﬁtable tools content owners
• Optimisation of video content • Service interoperability between
business for video services for all for mobile consumption market participants
players in the value chain. • Infrastructure readiness and
• Differentiated billing and
• Digital rights management for
Figure 5. Downloading and storing a video clip
enhancing content services
in the Nokia 6600’s gallery folder.
Figure 6. Common building blocks of mobile video services.
Mobile video services will be Technological readiness
complementary to other established
multimedia applications. For instance, Interoperable video service
television did not die with the advent of enablers based on open
the Internet; similarly, other digital or standards
traditional media delivery applications Open standards are needed to ensure
will not disappear with the advent of mass deployment and take up of video
mobile video. The beneﬁts of mobile services, preventing market
video were outlined in the executive fragmentation by allowing the number
summary. The following chapter looks of potential customers to be
at the common building blocks of maximized. This concerns everyone in
mobile video services based on three the mobile business – the content
key criteria for mass-market take off: industry, application developers,
technological readiness, business operators and manufacturers alike.
model readiness and user acceptance. Open standards co-operation is done in
For each dimension, the main points standardization bodies such as the 3rd
will be covered. Generation Partnership Project (3GPP),
Telecommunications Consortium SMIL/XHTML
(IMTC) and Open Mobile Alliance (OMA).
3GP file format
3GPP Multimedia Content Management
3GPP has deﬁned an architecture of
multimedia coding technologies and Video Speech/Audio Text Synthetic Images 2D vector
formats based on open standards.
The overall structure is presented in Payload formats
Figure 7. HTTP RTS SDP
In its work, the 3GPP has deﬁned an UDP TCP (UDP)
architecture that addresses the basic
aspects of multimedia content IP
• Synchronization and presentation Codecs Mandatory Optional Transport Signaling/ Synchr./
(SMIL and XHTML)
• Media codecs (audio, video, still Figure 7. 3GPP Multimedia Content Management.
images, graphics, text)
• Transport protocols (RTP, RTCP, HTTP,
TCP, UDP, IP)
• Signaling and description (RTSP, SDP) In addition to the choice of appropriate MMS Interoperability: OMA deﬁnes
• Media ﬁle format *.3GP coding formats, the deployment of enabler and test speciﬁcations and
speciﬁc applications might require the arranges ‘test fests’ for OMA MMS 1.1
3GPP has adopted this architecture as issuing of appropriate implementation speciﬁcations. The OMA MMS
part of the speciﬁcation of two guidelines and interoperability test conformance document 2.0 deﬁnes
essential multimedia applications, speciﬁcations, addressing issues such the minimum set of requirements
the Multimedia Messaging Service as media bit rates, message size and guidelines for end-to-end
[REF: 3GPP TS 26.140] and the Packet limitations, display resolution & spatial interoperability of MMS devices and
switched Streaming Service [REF: 3GPP composition of media elements, etc. servers. It further serves as a baseline
TS 26.234]. For instance, a video clip in for MMS interoperability testing.
a 3PP media ﬁle can be composed of MMS is the ﬁrst application based on The focus is on the interoperability
H.263 video and AMR-NB audio tracks. this architecture to reach the market, between servers to devices, servers to
and new media types – always chosen servers and between devices. The next
When multimedia applications are from the architecture depicted above – version of the MMS conformance
implemented on embedded and are being added in upcoming products document 3.0 may include a video
constrained devices such as mobile to enrich the multimedia experience of content class for devices.
devices, it is important to optimize the user.
the number of codecs and formats Streaming Interoperability: IMTC hosts
that need to be supported. This has Interoperability efforts the IOP testing for streaming, with
been a leading design constraint for To stimulate the take up of services by 14 vendors involved since mid 2002.
the 3GPP team, which ensured that the the mass-market, interoperability of The scope includes 3GP ﬁle format,
selection of codecs and ﬁle format for services is seen as essential. The aim of coded bitstreams, transport & control
MMS and PSS is aligned. In this way, interoperability is that, regardless of protocols and the bilateral testing
interoperability between MMS and PSS, the device, operating system, service or between devices and servers in both
as well as future multimedia network a mobile user has, he can virtual cross-vendor tests over the
applications, will be ensured. Also, communicate and exchange information. Internet and in one-week long
uniform adoption of common open The ultimate goal is to have an enriched ‘plugfests’ at the end of each IOP cycle.
formats creates economies of scale for user experience across service
content developers, allowing them to providers, with a choice of a large
target a global mass-market. number of compelling new services.
Open and Uniform Content Infrastructure readiness
Development Environment No additional network servers are
and Tools required for offering video over
Content Creation Tools multimedia messaging or download.
In order to ensure a smooth In the case of video streaming,
integration of the mobile and Internet the additional components needed are
domains, the 3GPP codecs and formats a streaming server and a streaming
are being promoted to the major gateway.
manufacturers and integrators of
content creation tools. This will allow Video Messaging
personal and professional content In P2P video messaging, the operator
creators to tailor their content to give should ensure that its infrastructure:
the best experience for the user. • Supports large message sizes in its
network, as well as in performance by:
There is a growing momentum of new a. Ensure efﬁcient support in the
products that support the 3GPP codecs network for large messages –
and formats. For instance, Apple has 100kB now and larger ﬁles in the
recently released a new version of the future
popular QuickTime player and b. Ensure adequate performance of
QuickTime Pro content editing tools network elements (WAP gateway
that feature support for the 3GPP and MMSC)
Figure 8. Capturing a video clip with a Nokia 6600
codecs and formats. The Real producer • Supports delivery of messages
and sending it via MMS to a friend.
supports the creation of 3GPP- containing video clips, even if the
compliant streaming content. Philips users’ devices are not video or MMS
and Packet Video have PC players and the mobile device, making the viewing capable. For instance, if the recipient
content tools that support 3GPP more enjoyable for the soccer fan. of a message has a non-video capable
standards, and similar tools have been TV-broadcast footage would pan the MMS device, the MMSC could deliver
announced by VoiceAge. ﬁeld too wide and the action on the an adapted version of the multimedia
pitch would not be as visible on a message stripped of the video ﬁle.
Optimization of Video Content mobile display. The scene of a goal can, The original message is delivered to
for Mobile Consumption for instance, be zoomed in to give a a legacy application and the user is
Scaling video services to the mobile better effect. Different technical aspects told where he can retrieve it.
domain introduces an additional set of of content optimization and media A legacy application helps the
limitations for service providers. type combinations supported by Nokia recipient to view the original content
Challenges are presented by available phones are summarized in a paper of the message on the web when his
network connectivity speeds (streaming called ‘Video and Streaming in Nokia device does not have sufﬁcient
& download), limitations in storage Phones’. capabilities to render the content.
memory capacity, device performance
and screen resolutions. To maximize Content adaptation and ﬁltering will Early successes show that the service
the user’s experience, mobile services also play an important role in end-to- take-up rate increases once operators
cannot be simply unmodiﬁed copies of end mobile multimedia delivery agree on interconnection and roaming
Internet video domain services or solutions. This will ensure that, despite with other operators.
television broadcasts, even though devices having a wide diversity of
they offer the chance to deploy capabilities and features, the user will Video Downloading
additional delivery channels in parallel always be able to enjoy the best In video downloading cases, wireless
to the traditional media. possible experience. This is made proﬁle of TCP/IP is a key enabler for
possible via server-centric technologies the download of larger ﬁles. Although
An example is a soccer match. Scenes such as static UAProf and other simple large video ﬁles can be downloaded
should be edited and captured from and easy-to-deploy ﬁltering solutions over the WAP stack, the download time
the raw footage and adapted to that allow the capabilities of the is substantially faster with the same
suitable lengths and frame rates for receiving device to be recognized. network bandwidth if the transfer is
done over the TCP/IP stack. This is Video capable devices after it has left the content owner’s
better for the user, as there it reduces in volumes domain, as well as how long or how
the ‘waiting’ time while the ﬁle is There are a number of video capable many times an individual user may
being delivered from a server to the devices arriving on the market from use that content.
user’s device. The evolution of the Nokia as well as from other
underlying network to EDGE and companies. For example, the Series 60 Of course, some video content will be
WCDMA will secure capacity and Platform includes streaming and available even without DRM. All the
cost-effectiveness. Similarly, roaming video player capabilities. The Series 60 content created by mobile users
agreements between operators are Platform licensees, Nokia, Panasonic, themselves, such as capturing and
required for GPRS. Samsung, Sendo, and Siemens, sending of video clips, or advertising
represent roughly 60 percent of the content like sponsored movie trailers
Video Streaming global mobile device market. that promote new ﬁlms in the cinema,
Control of Quality of Service is needed The current Series 60 based mobile will be free. For these content types,
in the radio access and core network to devices on the market are the viral marketing and frequent
ensure that video applications work Siemens SX-1, Samsung SGH-D700, forwarding are key beneﬁts, so a DRM
properly. This can be done by network Nokia 7650, Nokia 3650, and the system would not be necessary.
dimensioning and conﬁguration to Nokia N-Gage. These phones bring
ensure sufﬁcient capacity for immediate business opportunities to DRM not only provides the means to
streaming users. Early GPRS is based both developers and operators and control the usage of content and
on best effort, where capacity is shared simultaneously build up a solid, thereby collect the rightful payment
evenly among the users in a cell. commercially viable applications for providers, but also provides the
In WCDMA and later EGPRS networks, market for future Series 60 phones. means to extend the current content
it will be possible to provide the user distribution models to include content
with a guaranteed bit rate for good Digital Rights Management for preview, rights refreshment or
service performance. enhancing content services “rental” schemes, and viral marketing
As video content services take off, from person to person.
When it comes to building service it is crucial to take into account Digital
awareness and end-to-end service Rights Management (DRM) for the The evolution of DRM technology
availability in carriers and service distribution and consumption of The evolution of DRM technology
providers’ networks, special care mobile content. With DRM, the content can be summarized in Figure 9.
should be devoted to RTSP (real time owner or service provider can The market has so far seen various
streaming protocol) trafﬁc passing determine for each available piece of proprietary solutions for content
through networks. Gateways at service content, if and how that content can protection. One solution worth
providers’ application levels should be be distributed from person to person, mentioning is the “device policy
conﬁgured to recognize RTSP and thus
manage the operator or service
provider ﬁrewalls to allow streaming Figure 9. Evolution of DRM technology.
operation. Interconnection and
roaming agreements of underlying
OMA DRM 2.0
network (GPRS, WCDMA) are required. Protection of high value
content such as music &
games, increased security
Differentiated billing and
charging capabilities OMA DRM 1.0
The billing and charging systems Combined delivery work ongoing
should allow a variety of charging Separate delivery
methods, such as event based, time
based, transaction based and 2003 onwards
subscription based. They should also Device Policy
be able to collect and report accurately,
based on the revenue sharing models
of the parties involved.
forward lock”, which typically
identiﬁes content received to the Forward Lock Combined Delivery Separate Delivery
device based on the MIME type used
FL Content Content Rights Content Rights
for its transmission. The content is
“You can play
then compared to a predeﬁned list of “You can play only once”
protected content and if these match the
content is considered to be protected.
The new OMA DRM version 1.0
standard will govern the use of
mobile-centric content types, whether
it is received by WAP download or
Allows single Enables content preview Enables superdistribution
MMS. This is the world’s ﬁrst truly purchase and single and rights to be specified from person to person
open DRM standard and was ofﬁcially delivery of content for content usage
Protect Preview Share & Promote
ratiﬁed in October 2002.
Figure 10. Three methods as deﬁned by OMA DRM v1.0: Forward-lock, Combined Delivery and
OMA is progressing with the next phase Separate Delivery.
of the DRM speciﬁcations to ensure the
continuity and development of open
standards and speciﬁcations jointly Forward-lock is intended for the Separate Delivery protects higher
developed by industry. delivery of news, sports, information value media and enables
and images that should not be sent on superdistribution, which allows the
Open Mobile Alliance Digital Rights to others. This often applies to device to forward the media, but not
Management – OMA DRM subscription-based services. The device the rights. This is achieved by
The wide adoption of OMA DRM is is allowed to play, display or execute, delivering the media and rights via
quickly leading to a critical mass of but it cannot forward the media object. separate channels, which is more
interoperable devices from many The content itself is hidden inside the secure than combined delivery.
vendors. This scenario is necessary to DRM message that is delivered to the The media is encrypted into DRM
enable, for example, device. A DRM message contains a Content Format (DCF) using symmetric
the business case for superdistribution. media object and an optional rights encryption, while the rights hold the
The open nature of these standards object. In the forward-lock method, Content Encryption Key (CEK), which is
also enables fast integration of these the DRM message contains only the used for decryption by the DRM User
technologies to the existing download media object. Forward-lock is Agent in the device.
platforms available from many important for driving multimedia
vendors. messaging and downloadable content Superdistribution is an application of
services and is being considered as a Separate Delivery that also requires a
Broad adoption of open standards requirement for all devices supporting Rights Refresh mechanism that allows
enables the mobile content business to content class Image Rich, Video Basic additional rights for the media.
achieve critical mass with high-quality in MMS Conformance Document 3.0. Recipients of superdistributed content
content. The content can be spread must contact the content retailer to
across all billable channels, while Combined Delivery allows usage obtain rights to either preview or
securing the business interests of rules to be set for the media object. purchase media. Thus, the separate
content owners. The new This method extends Forward-lock by delivery method enables viral
superdistribution business model is a adding a rights object to the DRM distribution of media, maximizing
cost-effective marketing channel that Message. Rights deﬁne how the device the number of potential customers,
generates more trafﬁc on the network. is allowed to render the content and while retaining control for the content
can be limited using both time and provider through centralized rights
The standard provides three DRM count constraints. Combined Delivery acquisition.
methods: Forward-lock, Combined allows content to be previewed.
Delivery and Separate Delivery.
Mobile video services Content
value chain Provider
Figure 11 depicts the value chain in a
mobile environment. The key players Developer
• Content owners are the rights
holders for video content and license Mobile
Content Operator, Device
them to aggregators or service Owner Service
providers, who then retail the
content to mobile users.
• Content tool vendors provide Figure 11. Mobile Video Services Value Chain.
professional tools to create and edit
the content to make it suitable for
the mobile domain, in addition to that pricing can be based on events or Service interoperability
other existing domains such as the bits if the price per bit is adjusted between market participants
Internet or broadcasting. accordingly. The early successes of messaging,
• Application developers create the both SMS and MMS, have shown that
video applications for mobile use. From the users’ perspective, service take-up increases once
• 3rd party content aggregators a successful MMS launch requires the operators in a speciﬁc market agree
aggregate content from various right device settings from the moment on interconnection and roaming with
sources. Service providers can also he walks out of the store with his new other operators.
take this role. MMS capable device. An operator can
• Mobile operators and other service help this by offering automatic device
providers offer mobile video services provisioning over the air through its
to mobile users, including also voice own network. Automatic service
and other data services. provisioning to the operator’s
• Mobile users are the consumers of middleware is also essential to
mobile video services. encourage users to experiment
There is not just a single model to
describe the roles in the value chain. Licensing agreements
In reality, the same player can perform with content owners
a combination of these functions. Start to source content owners who
An operator, for instance, can take the are creating and developing quality
role of a service provider and content mobile video content.
Content partners can be chosen based
Simple pricing on the content value or alternatively
An affordable pricing model that is the brand value they offer, while
easy to understand is a key to users content itself should be chosen to suit
accepting a new service. The cost of particular user segments. Licensing
providing capacity for video services agreements typically include the
will decrease with the improved rights to distribute the content for a
efﬁciency through radio network certain geographic region, a period
capacity such as EDGE and WCDMA. of time and a method of distribution
Prices must be affordable and match (say, broadcasting vs. Internet or
the value of the services – this means television rights).
User acceptance Video download services
The following could be something
Arouse interest that happens in the ﬁrst half of 2004.
Users need some time to become Eric likes a laugh. When he has a
‘savvy’ in using the integrated video moment on the train or bus, he visits
cameras and players of the mobile the “More Fun” pages, bookmarked
device. Once aroused, the interest users on his device, to see funny stories
demonstrate in sending and receiving and clips, such as funny home videos
video content can be used to support or scenes from a candid camera.
the launch of other mobile video The downloaded clips are about 20–30
phases. Users’ willingness to use the seconds in length (about 200kb ﬁle
services and pay for good and relevant size, over EDGE).
content has already been seen from
the early market cases as well as He ﬁnds most of them very funny and
consumer research. usually forwards them (or the link) to
his friends from work. Based on Eric’s
Simple service activation recommendation, his friends can
and discovery download the clips from “More Fun”
From the users’ perspective, a mobile (XHTML pages) and view the clips,
service is successful if the right device which they pay for, the same as Eric.
settings are either preconﬁgured or
Figure 12. Recording a video clip with a
can be installed over-the-air. A service Video streaming services
provider can make this easy by This scenario could be realized today,
offering automatic device provisioning though mass-market services are
over the air through its own network communications and mobility e.g. expected in the second half of 2004
once the device contacts the network. when other media are not available or with an EDGE or WCDMA network.
Automatic service provisioning to when time is of the essence. Matt is a Formula 1 fan, following all
the operator’s middleware is also Formula 1 races including warm ups,
essential to encourage the user to start An example of a C2P user scenario: qualifying rounds and the races.
experimenting with rich media Take an example that is feasible in If he cannot be in front of the TV while
services. The discovery of the new the second half of 2003. Isabel is a the heat is on, then he follows the
service should be so simple that it movie buff. She belongs to a mobile event with his mobile. Matt browses
either takes a few clicks on the portal marketing (“Entertainment”) channel, his service provider’s Formula 1
or the bookmark is already set in the to which she has given consent to XHTML-site where he can ﬁnd lots of
device. The goal is getting users to try receive movie trailers. These trailers background material, results,
the new services and integrate them are from movies that will be screening highlights and a live stream from the
into their regular lifestyle so that they in the coming weekend at the cinema race. Before the live video stream
will use the service over time. that she visits frequently. This service (over WCDMA) begins, Matt is asked to
is provided by the cinema and local accept the 3€ content fee for viewing.
Compelling services retail store, so Isabel does not have to
Video messaging services pay for it. She receives, on average,
Interest in P2P video MMS is driven a trailer every Thursday for the
by personal contact and situations coming weekend. Each movie trailer is
and occupies a different space than, about 10 to 15 seconds in length.
say e-mail. Examples of situations are Isabel is able to forward interesting
special occasions such as birthdays, trailers to her buddies, or a link to the
where video MMS can be used as a movie channel site. This way, they can
personalized way to send a longer also see the trailer and agree if that is
greeting to close family and friends. the movie they want to see that
C2P video MMS serves the needs of weekend.
Nokia’s value proposition
Nokia is working with industry
stakeholders to build the ecosystem for
mobile video services, consisting of
content and media companies, content
producers and server vendors,
operators and service providers.
In particular, Nokia is collaborating
with professional third party content
creation tool companies to ensure the
support for 3GPP content creation.
In personal content creation, Nokia is
already distributing media conversion
tools and 3GPP-system compatible
players for personal computers,
allowing consumption and distribution
of mobile-generated video content, as
well as transfer of typical Internet
content to the mobile device for
“mobile consumption”. An example is
the Nokia Multimedia Player that plays
Figure 13. Nokia 3650. Figure 14. Nokia 6650.
sounds, images and multimedia
messages on the PC, including videos
that have been created with the Nokia
3650. More information can be found Nokia plans to ship 10–15 million
on the Nokia 3650 Phone support video-enabled devices and has already
pages on www.nokia.com/phones. announced 22 different MMS-capable
models in 1st quarter of 2003. Nokia
Besides the player, Nokia is offering also expects to sell roughly 10 million
the Nokia Multimedia Converter 2.0 Series 60 based mobile devices in 2003.
via Forum Nokia. This is a tool for Nokia supports 3GPP open standards
converting common multimedia ﬁles in all device platforms and
(AVI, WAV, MPEG, MP3 etc.) into additionally, Real One™ in series 60
standard 3GPP/AMR, Wide Band and platforms.
Narrow Band supported formats for
use in mobile device applications such
In addition, Nokia has published a
“Video and Streaming in Nokia
Phones” paper to help developers
create audio-visual content and
services for video-capable Nokia
devices, such as Nokia 6650, Nokia
3650 and Nokia 6600.
Nokia and other key industry players Current standardized services and applications will be able to use the
are continuing the efforts to produce emerging 3rd party applications will same media base, this time within
an affordable, open standards based offer personal video experiences that the context of peer-to-peer or group
3GPP media framework, in order to no one expected mobile devices to messaging applications.
ensure a smooth integration of the offer only a few years ago. Personal
mobile and Internet domains, while video distribution to friends via
keeping in mind the versatility of MMS or in real-time without size or
mobile domain services and the store-and-forward delivery limitations
various devices that will be used in are Nokia’s next goals.
the mobile future.
For future standardization, 3GPP
The mobile connectivity of devices Release 6 will further strengthen the
will be extended from traditional existing media and protocol
mobile telephony to multiple access architecture, with tools emerging
technologies, with the most from bodies such as W3C, MPEG and
appropriate being used at any one IETF. Streaming video services will be
time. At the same time, the physical complemented by new media types,
limitations to mobile use will remain, improved dynamic rate adaptation
although the performance gaps mechanisms to combat performance
between mobile devices and PCs or variations, and digital rights
personal organizers will slowly management. Also, instant messaging
diminish. and presence based rich call
Conclusion – life goes mobile
A major part of personal paying for mobile video services.
communications, be it voice, data, Video clips consumed by users, The evolution of mobile
images or multimedia, will be wireless. received as MMS, is seen as the ﬁrst video services:
The converging digital industry is mass-market service, followed by • Launch video messaging services
taking shape, allowing people to create, video clips received over download to the mass-market
share, and consume digital content and streaming. It is important to start • Video download services are next
using interoperable devices. Video working as an industry on mobile with TCP/IP and EDGE networks
services for the mobile domain is seen video services, to get the market as • Lead the market with video
as the next step in the evolution of well as mobile users ready. Full-scale streaming services over EDGE and
imaging and multimedia content and commercial streaming services aimed WCDMA networks
a true business potential. at mass-market penetration is • The same 3GPP content can be
expected to become more common used throughout the evolution of
Early market trials and market place once EDGE/WCDMA networks mobile video services
research have indicated that users are and a wide installed base of capable
enthusiastic about consuming and devices are in place.