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  • 1. The Personal Server: Transforming The Cell Phone into the Next Personal Computer Trevor Pering Intel Research
  • 2. Trends in Mobile Computing Hard disk density 230Gb/sq.inch in 2005 100000000 Hard Disk Storage Density 10000000 1000000 100000 10000 Kilobits per sq.in. 1000 100 10 1 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Storage Trends (Dataquest) Wireless Trends Intel® StrongARM™ 233MHz at 1W Intel® XScale™ with DVM PXA255 400MHz at 0.6W PXA271 624MHz at 1.4W Mobile Processor Trends
  • 3. Personal Wireless Web Server “My Mobile Web Page”
  • 4. Personal Server Demo
  • 5. Personal Media Server: video & audio streaming from a cell phone Wireless Drive Letter PHONE MANAGER List cell phones in the locality Streaming Media Application e.g A video plays in a new window Documents: access from a Mobile Web Page Phones Nearby Indication
  • 6. Using System Standards and Interoperation with Existing Infrastructure PERSONAL SERVER ACCESS COMPUTER (e.g Desktop PC) UPnP UPnP SETUP FILE SERVER [Samba] FILE VIEWER SETUP WEB SERVER [Apache] HTTP IEXPLORER RTSP STREAMING SERVER QUICKTIME [Darwin] TUPLED RPC Neighborhood UPNP DESC Manager (NM) UPnP LINUX OS WINDOWS OS UPnP PAN PROFILE PAN PROFILE TCP/IP Connectivity BLUETOOTH BLUETOOTH RADIO RADIO Wireless Baseband
  • 7. Personal Servers: From Prototype to Commercial Platform E680: Motorola XScale Based Linux Cell Phone Stargate - Embedded Intel® Xscale™ Processing Zoar: XScale Cell Phone reference platform for CHG
  • 8. A Personal Server Ecosystem: Foundation to Experience User Experience Application Contexts Musicology Photographic Authentication “The” Personal Server Hierarchical Radios Technology Foundation
  • 9. Hierarchical Radios Overview Trading-off Power and Bandwidth – Coordinating the use of Bluetooth and WiFi (and Mote/Zigbee) – Low-power quiescent mode using Bluetooth – High-bandwidth transfer using WiFi – …use the best aspect of each technology Develop Technologies for Multiple Radios – Demonstrate basic effectiveness – Develop and fine-tune management policies – Incorporate into standard environments and applications
  • 10. Radio Characteristics WiFi: – Currently the technology of choice 500 250 for home/laptops Energy/Bit (nJ/bit) Idle Power (mW) – Optimized for coverage and 400 200 bandwidth – Not well suited for mobile phones 300 150 because of power consumption 200 100 Bluetooth: – Currently the technology of choice 100 50 for mobile phones – Optimized for low-power operation 0 0 and standby – Not as efficient as WiFi for bulk Zigbee BT 802.11 transfers (power, bandwidth) 0.25Mbps 1.1Mbps 11Mbps Given that emerging systems will have both WiFi and Bluetooth…
  • 11. Experimental Setup Include Mica Mote, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi Repeatedly measure handoff between various radios Focus on discovery and connection process
  • 12. Bluetooth Mica Mote
  • 13. Wireless Hierarchy Results 4.0 Experimental Results: MM -> BT BT -> WF Connection Latency (s) 9.3 mW 61 mW – BT & WiFi can be used together 3.0 BT Only to trade-off power vs. latency 61 mW 2.0 MM -> WF – The MicaMote (possibly Zigbee) 9.3 mW Bluetooh (BT) WF Only Wi-Fi (WF) would be a good complement 1.0 398 mW MicaMote (MM) Size = Discovery Power 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Discovery Latency (s) Application Integration: – Integrated into IE for constrained- bandwidth media – High-res, low-res, or automatic selection of video format …the basic Hierarchal Radio concept is feasible, but range and system integration issues need to be fully addressed…
  • 14. Wireless “CoolSpot” Model An Island of optimization within a coverage area Within a CoolSpot, the system will have enhanced capabilities: … it will be lower power and have an always-on connection … otherwise, you need to manually activate your WiFi … or move to a nearby CoolSpot. Bluetooth The CoolSpots model CoolSpots specifically frames Bluetooth Wi-Fi as an optimization to WiFi, “HotSpot” addressing the network- centric laptop and Digital Home usage models.
  • 15. Next Steps Development of Underlying Technology – Detailed measurement and analysis of system – Policies for trade-off between latency and power – Incorporating Zigbee radio standard into hierarchy Complete the Conceptual Model – How does the device appear on a network? – How do CoolSpots fit into real environments? – Integrate with wide-area coverage models (e.g. GSM)
  • 16. A Personal Server Ecosystem: Foundation to Experience User Experience Application Contexts Musicology Photographic Authentication “The” Personal Server Hierarchical Radios Technology Foundation
  • 17. ? ? Semi-Trusted Terminals ?? ?? ??? Access Through Semi-Trusted Terminals – Public cafés, visiting, customer, etc… – Different authentication for different uses – Need for easy-to-use streamlined security Traditional Security Mechanisms – Rely on secure endpoints – Passwords can be compromised! – Requires a lot of remembering
  • 18. Suite of Security Possibilities The Personal Server Perspective – Increased reliance on infrastructure – Availability of secure trusted node – Pushing ease-of-use models Explore Multiple Capabilities – Alternate Authentication Techniques – Automated Paring and Connection – Split Access Models
  • 19. Photographic Authentication Use user’s personal photographs to authenticate – Recall vs. recognition memory – Really good at recognizing their own photographs – Respond to sequence of “mine” vs. “other” Security Properties – Roughly equivalent to bank PIN or simple password – Immune to replay and other common attacks – …introduces new class of semantic attacks
  • 20. Photo Auth Prototype
  • 21. Summary and Next Steps Consider End-to-End System – Exact constraints will depends on context – Implemented as a suite of capabilities Additional Security/Privacy Techniques – Time-sequence authentication – Optical Connect – Greeking & Split Browsing ?? ?? ?? ???
  • 22. A Personal Server Ecosystem: Foundation to Experience User Experience Application Contexts Musicology Photographic Authentication “The” Personal Server Hierarchical Radios Technology Foundation
  • 23. Musicology Overview Musicology – Understand next generation music players – Effect of wireless on the music ecosystem – Realize capability for multi-user interactions Why music? – Music is an extremely popular medium – Technically feasible with emerging smart-phones – Self-contained domain: no extensive integration
  • 24. Research Objectives “How is this different than the iPod?” – “Wireless” has a lot of different meanings – Music integrated with the environment – Focus on multi-user social situations Research Method – Interview and survey in and about public music spaces – Prototype a multi-device jukebox system and player – Explore the ecosystem for maximizing impact The TEN naviPlay Bluetooth headset… not quite there!
  • 25. http://www.livejournal.com/users/sgnpcomix
  • 26. Usage Model Musicology is: Seamless access to personal music in a variety of disparate locations
  • 27. Architecture: One to Many Embedded: Custom music playing center Audio out (stereo, tape adaptor, FM adaptor) Home: Limited interface (play/stop/next/previous) Standard Windows PC Bluetooth link Custom Java-based UI Home Bluetooth Wireless Master Music Collection mTunes Master Desktop Music Display Embedded Collection mTunes Mobile Ubiquitous Music Player: MUMP Away Cell-phone or Crim (Stargate) Music Music Desktop Built-in music player Subset Display Display On-board FLASH storage Away: mTunes Bluetooth communication goTunes Same as Home Subset of master music collection Except no Music Storage The underlying digital ecosystem is complex, and Musicology aims to simplify the overall interaction to provide seamless access to a user’s content…
  • 28. Architecture: Many to One Centralized music server mediates access to multiple Digital mobile music devices Jukebox mTunes Public Display Cell-phone Laptop Music Subset kTunes Music Subset kTunes Music Display Music Music Player Display Music Subset kTunes Personal mobile devices Music provide individual Display content or meta-data Create a digital artifact defined by the shared experience The underlying digital ecosystem is complex, and Musicology aims to simplify the shared music ecosystem to provide seamless access to digital content…
  • 29. Discussion: Power and Roles 1400 35 Battery Lifetime (H) Power Consumption 1000 mA/H Battery 1200 30 Power Consumption 1000 25 800 20 – Streaming data is more power 600 15 (mW) 400 10 200 5 efficient than local playback 0 0 Transfering Discoverable Sleep Playing Streaming – Basic usage model increases dependency on mobile device Device Mode (For Stargate MP3 Player) “Playing” is higher power because it Role Challenges in Shared Spaces requires the audio- amplifier to be on! – Producer: Managing music playlists – Consumer: Involvement with listening process – Proprietor: Maintaining desired ambiance – Providers: Fostering ecosystem and business models
  • 30. Summary and Next Steps Current Status: – Multi-device playback based on the Motorola e680 – “Here and now” surveys about music public places – Integrated with basic UPnP device discovery Next Steps – Target Intel reference cell-phone platform – Partner with content, device, or service providers – Extend with other research and technologies (e.g., location-based, DLNA-integration, music ident.)
  • 31. A Personal Server Ecosystem: Foundation to Experience User Experience Application Contexts Musicology Photographic Authentication “The” Personal Server Hierarchical Radios Technology Foundation
  • 32. Application Domains Personal Server Provides Capabilities – Web server – File server – Media server – … Integration with Application Domains – Digital Home: Consumer Electronics – Mobility: Public Terminals and Places – Business: Laptops and PIM Access – Enterprise: Enterprise Software and Systems
  • 33. Digital Home Standards: DLNA and UPnP
  • 34. Cafés & Homes Seamlessly coordinate music from multiple devices in and between shared spaces…
  • 35. Business Integration Integrate Cell Phone With Laptop – People will have both devices… – Aggregate of devices more powerful – Focused applications and usage models
  • 36. Personal Server in the Enterprise Show me Productio details! n stopped …
  • 37. Aspects of Integration Addressing Complete Ecosystems – Standard bodies – Wireless carriers – Device manufacturers – Consumers – Content providers
  • 38. Summary and Conclusion …“Personal Server Technology” integrated into your next cell phone… Any Questions?