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Media Streaming


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  • 1. Media Streaming 12
  • 2. What is Streaming Media?
    • The delivery of audio/video/data between a server and a client (user), as a continuous digital stream
    • Eliminates waiting for an entire file to download
    • Content is converted to digital files sent over the internet as data packets.
    • Playback begins as soon as first packets arrive or as requested by the end user
    • No impact on end-user’s computer
    • Leading architectures: RealMedia, Windows Media, QuickTime
  • 3. It’s a Challenge
    • Uncompressed digital video produces data at the rate of 27 MB/sec (1.6 GB/min)
    • A challenge to store
    • A challenge to transport
  • 4. Factors in Architecture Selection
  • 5. Streaming Media Formats
    • Major player formats
      • Real Networks
        • Real Media Player – RM
      • Microsoft
        • Windows Media Player – WMV
      • Apple
        • Quicktime Player – MOV
    • Other formats
        • Audio downloads – MP3
        • Capture and editing - AVI
        • Flash and animation - SWF
        • CD audio playback – CDA, WAV
  • 6. Things to Consider
    • Identify your user audience
      • Player compatibility
        • Are they using PC or Mac
        • Offices, Dorms, Computer Labs, Homes
        • Wireless and other mobile devices
      • Internet Connection
        • Low speed – 28kbps to 80kbps
        • High speed – 80kbps to 300kbps
        • Broadband – 300kbps to 1.0mbps
      • Audience members
        • Staff, Dept. Admins, Managers, Directors
        • Anonymous users on WWW
  • 7. Things to Consider
      • Media delivery
        • On-Demand
        • Live Webcasting
        • CD-ROM, DVD
      • Network
        • User connectivity
        • Firewalls, multicast enabled routers
      • Other
        • Password restrictions
        • E-Commerce
        • Media reports on viewer usage
  • 8. On-Demand content and live broadcasts
    • Streams on demand
      • File-based Streaming
      • Available to users at any time, and are sent on demand.
    • Live Streaming
      • Live broadcast event
      • Encoder…
  • 9. Streaming Media Options
    • Encoding
      • Choosing a format
        • Real Media
        • Windows Media
        • Quicktime
      • Determine a window size
      • (Width x Height in pixels)
        • 160x120
        • 240x180
        • 320x240
        • Even larger
  • 10. Streaming Media Options
    • Encoding
      • Bitrate selection
        • Single rate - 28k, 56k, 120k, 200k, 400k
          • One stream per bitrate
          • One encoded file for each user’s connect speed
          • One URL for each connect speed
        • Multirate – (28k-56k-200k)
          • Real - SureStream
          • Windows - Intelligent Stream
          • Quicktime - Alternate Movies
          • One encoded file can reach multiple connect speeds
          • Server finds optimum connect speed and adjusts as network bandwidth usage changes
          • Only one url needed for all connect speeds
          • Larger file size for archive media
  • 11. Streaming Media Options
    • Authoring
      • Include powerpoint slides sync’d to video
      • Insert graphics, images, logos
      • Add URL links to other sites or content
      • Create a URL to play only parts of the media
      • Create a playlist within one URL to stream multiple clips or media files
      • Set player commands, end-user controls
      • Pop-up or embedded player
  • 12. Streaming Media Options
    • Indexing
      • Assign keyframes to your content media
      • Allows you to create smaller segments of your media and store them as clips
      • Add keywords to clips for users to search your media from a website
      • Convert speech, closed captioning and ppt slides to text for searching
      • Save clips in a playlist and share them with other users
  • 13. Streaming Media Options
    • Webcasting
      • Live presentations over the internet
      • One multicast stream to many users
      • Include powerpoint or other rich media
    • Hosting
      • On demand playback of archived media
      • Multiple streaming server platforms
      • Unlimited streams
      • Low storage costs
      • No impact on your own network
      • No hardware resources to maintain
  • 14. Combining Media Limitations
    • Web browsers are not designed to fully support multimedia features
    • Limited coordination of media elements
  • 15. The Problem
    • Lots of Bits
      • Images, audio and video are beyond Internet design specs
      • Results in space/ time constraints at:
        • the server
        • the network( s)
        • the client
    • Not All Bits are Equally Important
      • Time between samples often more important than bits in sample,
      • for example lip synchronization (but not always...)
    • Content may be Distributed Across Network
      • Need to synchronize presentation
    • Objectives
      • Add synchronization to the Web
      • Allow interoperability
      • Use declarative format, preferably text — thus XML
  • 16. Solution
    • Use of a single timeline for all media
    • Creation of time-based multimedia delivery over the web
    • Synchronization
    • Coordination
  • 17. What Is SMIL?
    • SMIL stands for Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
    • SMIL is pronounced "smile"
    • SMIL is a language for describing audiovisual presentations
    • SMIL is easy to learn and understand
    • SMIL is an HTML-like language
    • SMIL is written in XML
    • SMIL presentations can be written using a text-editor
    • SMIL is a W3C standard
      • SMIL 2.0 August 2001
  • 18. What Is SMIL?
  • 19. A Simplified SMIL Example
    • <smil>
    • <body>
    • <seq repeatCount=&quot;indefinite&quot;>
    • <img src=&quot;image1.jpg&quot; dur=&quot;3s&quot; />
    • <img src=&quot;image2.jpg&quot; dur=&quot;3s&quot; />
    • </seq>
    • </body>
    • </smil>
  • 20. What Can SMIL Do?
    • SMIL can be used to create Internet or Intranet presentations
    • SMIL can be used to create slide show presentations
    • SMIL has been described as the Internet answer to PowerPoint
    • SMIL presentations can display multiple file types (text, video, audio...)
    • SMIL presentations can display multiple files at the same time
    • SMIL presentations can display files from multiple web servers
    • SMIL presentations can contain links to other SMIL presentations
    • SMIL presentations can contain control buttons (stop, start, next, ...)
    • SMIL has functions for defining sequences and duration of elements
    • SMIL has functions for defining position and visibility of elements
  • 21. SMIL Files
    • A SMIL file contains all the information necessary to describe a multimedia presentation
    • SMIL files are stored with the extension *.smil
    • A SMIL file contains the following:
      • The layout of the presentation
      • The timeline of the presentation
      • The source of all multimedia elements
  • 22. How to Play a SMIL File?
    • You will need a SMIL player. Different SMIL players can be found
      • RealOne Platform by RealNetworks has full support for SMIL 2.0
      • SMIL Player by InterObject supports the SMIL 2.0 Basic Profile
    • With Internet Explorer 5.5 or later, SMIL elements can be inserted into HTML files
    • This way any SMIL presentation can run over the Internet as standard HTML files
  • 23. SMIL in HTML
    • Adding References
      • Adding a &quot;time&quot; namespace definition to the <html> tag
      • Adding an <?import> element to import the &quot;time&quot; namespace
      • Adding a <style> element to define the class &quot;time&quot;
    <html xmlns:time=&quot;urn:schemas-microsoft-com:time&quot;> <head> <?import namespace=&quot;time&quot; implementation=&quot;#default#time2&quot;> <style>.time {behavior: url(#default#time2)}</style> </head> <body> <time:seq repeatCount=&quot;indefinite&quot;> <img class=&quot;time&quot; src=&quot;image1.jpg&quot; dur=&quot;3s&quot; /> <img class=&quot;time&quot; src=&quot;image2.jpg&quot; dur=&quot;3s&quot; /> </time:seq> </body> </html>
  • 24. SMIL Timing
    • time formats:
      • hh:mm:ss.f
      • number [h|min|s|ms]
      • wallclock (YYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss+zone)
    • Duration
      • The duration ( dur =&quot;5s&quot;) attribute
    • When To Start?
      • The begin ( begin =&quot;2s&quot;) attribute
  • 25. SMIL Sequence
    • <seq> - the most common SMIL element - defines a sequence
    • The <seq> element can have a number of attributes:
      • begin, dur, repeatCount
    <html xmlns:t=&quot;urn:schemas-microsoft-com:time&quot;> <head> <?import namespace=&quot;t&quot; implementation=&quot;#default#time2&quot;> <style>.t {behavior: url(#default#time2)}</style> </head> <body> <t:seq repeatCount=&quot;indefinite&quot;> <h2 class=&quot;t&quot; dur=&quot;1s&quot;> I will display for one second</h2> <h2 class=&quot;t&quot; dur=&quot;2s&quot;> I will display for two seconds</h2> <h2 class=&quot;t&quot; dur=&quot;3s&quot;> I will display for three seconds</h2> </t:seq> </body> </html>
  • 26. SMIL in Parallel
    • Objects inside the <par> element will be played at the same time
      • Attributes: begin , dur , endsync = &quot;first&quot;|&quot;last&quot;|id(clip), repeatCount
    <html xmlns:t=&quot;urn:schemas-microsoft-com:time&quot;> <head> <?import namespace=&quot;t&quot; implementation=&quot;#default#time2&quot;> <style>.t {behavior: url(#default#time2)}</style> </head> <body> <par> <t:audio src=&quot;liar.wav&quot; repeatCount=&quot;indefinite&quot; type=&quot;wav&quot; /> <t:seq repeatCount=&quot;indefinite&quot;> <h2 class=&quot;t&quot; dur=&quot;1s&quot;> I will display for one second</h2> <h2 class=&quot;t&quot; dur=&quot;2s&quot;> I will display for two seconds</h2> </t:seq> </par> </body> </html>
  • 27. SMIL Transitions
    • IE 6 supports transitions based on the SMIL 2.0. Transitions are implemented with the element <transitionfilter>
      • Attributes: type, begin, mode, from, to
    • Transition Filters
      • fade, barnDoorWipe, barWipe, clockWipe, ellipseWipe, fanWipe, irisWipe, pushWipe, slideWipe, snakeWipe, spiralWipe, starWipe
    <t:transitionfilter targetelement=&quot;keyb&quot; type=&quot;clockWipe&quot; begin=&quot;keyb.begin&quot; dur=&quot;2s&quot; /> <img id=&quot;keyb&quot; class=&quot;t&quot; src=&quot;pic_keyb.jpg&quot; dur=&quot;4s&quot; width=&quot;128&quot; height=&quot;107&quot; />
  • 28. SMIL Media Elements
    • <animation> <audio> <brush> <img> <param> <ref> <text> <textstream> <video>
    • Attributes: erase src type
    <html xmlns:t=&quot;urn:schemas-microsoft-com:time&quot;> <head> <?import namespace=&quot;t&quot; implementation=&quot;#default#time2&quot;> </head> <body> <t:video src=&quot;; repeatCount=&quot;indefinite&quot; type=&quot;wmv&quot; /> </body> </html>