Chapter 28 Multimedia
Figure 28.1   Internet audio/video
Streaming stored audio/video refers to on-demand requests for compressed audio/video files. Note :
Streaming live audio/video refers to the broadcasting of radio and TV programs through the Internet. Note :
Interactive audio/video refers to the use of the Internet for interactive audio/video applications. Note :
28.1  Digitizing Audio and Video Digitizing Audio Digitizing Video
Compression is needed to send video over the Internet. Note :
28.2  Audio/Video Compression Audio Compression Video Compression
Figure 28.2   JPEG gray scale
Figure 28.3   JPEG process
Figure 28.4   Case 1: uniform gray scale
Figure 28.5   Case 2: two sections
Figure 28.6   Case 3: gradient gray scale
Figure 28.7   Reading the table
Figure 28.8   MPEG frames
Figure 28.9   MPEG frame construction
28.3  Streaming Stored Audio/Video First Approach Second Approach Third  Approach Fourth Approach
Figure 28.10   Using a Web server
Figure 28.11   Using a Web server with a metafile
Figure 28.12   Using a media server
Figure 28.13   Using a media server and RTSP
28.4  Streaming Live Audio/Video Broadcasting of live  audio/video over the Internet
28.5  Interactive Audio/Video Characteristics RTP RTCP
Figure 28.14   Time relationship
Jitter is introduced in real-time data by the delay between packets.  Note :
Figure 28.15   Jitter
Figure 28.16   Timestamp
To prevent jitter, we can timestamp the packets and separate the arrival time from the playback time. Note :
Figure 28.17   Playback buffer
A playback buffer is required for real-time traffic. Note :
A sequence number on each packet is required for real-time traffic. Note :
Real-time traffic needs the support of multicasting. Note :
Translation means changing the encoding of a payload to a lower quality to match the bandwidth of the receiving network.  ...
Mixing means combining several streams of traffic into one stream. Note :
TCP, with all its sophistication, is not suitable for interactive multimedia traffic because we cannot allow retransmissio...
UDP is more suitable than TCP for interactive traffic. However, we need the services of RTP, another transport layer proto...
Figure 28.18   RTP
RTP uses a temporary even-numbered UDP port.  Note :
Figure 28.19   RTCP message types
RTCP uses an odd-numbered UDP port number that follows the port number selected for RTP. Note :
Figure 28.20   SIP messages
Figure 28.21   SIP formats
Figure 28.22   SIP simple session
Figure 28.23   Tracking the callee
Figure 28.24   H.323 architecture
Figure 28.25   H.323 protocols
Figure 28.26   H.323 example
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004

  1. 1. Chapter 28 Multimedia
  2. 2. Figure 28.1 Internet audio/video
  3. 3. Streaming stored audio/video refers to on-demand requests for compressed audio/video files. Note :
  4. 4. Streaming live audio/video refers to the broadcasting of radio and TV programs through the Internet. Note :
  5. 5. Interactive audio/video refers to the use of the Internet for interactive audio/video applications. Note :
  6. 6. 28.1 Digitizing Audio and Video Digitizing Audio Digitizing Video
  7. 7. Compression is needed to send video over the Internet. Note :
  8. 8. 28.2 Audio/Video Compression Audio Compression Video Compression
  9. 9. Figure 28.2 JPEG gray scale
  10. 10. Figure 28.3 JPEG process
  11. 11. Figure 28.4 Case 1: uniform gray scale
  12. 12. Figure 28.5 Case 2: two sections
  13. 13. Figure 28.6 Case 3: gradient gray scale
  14. 14. Figure 28.7 Reading the table
  15. 15. Figure 28.8 MPEG frames
  16. 16. Figure 28.9 MPEG frame construction
  17. 17. 28.3 Streaming Stored Audio/Video First Approach Second Approach Third Approach Fourth Approach
  18. 18. Figure 28.10 Using a Web server
  19. 19. Figure 28.11 Using a Web server with a metafile
  20. 20. Figure 28.12 Using a media server
  21. 21. Figure 28.13 Using a media server and RTSP
  22. 22. 28.4 Streaming Live Audio/Video Broadcasting of live audio/video over the Internet
  23. 23. 28.5 Interactive Audio/Video Characteristics RTP RTCP
  24. 24. Figure 28.14 Time relationship
  25. 25. Jitter is introduced in real-time data by the delay between packets. Note :
  26. 26. Figure 28.15 Jitter
  27. 27. Figure 28.16 Timestamp
  28. 28. To prevent jitter, we can timestamp the packets and separate the arrival time from the playback time. Note :
  29. 29. Figure 28.17 Playback buffer
  30. 30. A playback buffer is required for real-time traffic. Note :
  31. 31. A sequence number on each packet is required for real-time traffic. Note :
  32. 32. Real-time traffic needs the support of multicasting. Note :
  33. 33. Translation means changing the encoding of a payload to a lower quality to match the bandwidth of the receiving network. Note :
  34. 34. Mixing means combining several streams of traffic into one stream. Note :
  35. 35. TCP, with all its sophistication, is not suitable for interactive multimedia traffic because we cannot allow retransmission of packets. Note :
  36. 36. UDP is more suitable than TCP for interactive traffic. However, we need the services of RTP, another transport layer protocol, to make up for the deficiencies of UDP. Note :
  37. 37. Figure 28.18 RTP
  38. 38. RTP uses a temporary even-numbered UDP port. Note :
  39. 39. Figure 28.19 RTCP message types
  40. 40. RTCP uses an odd-numbered UDP port number that follows the port number selected for RTP. Note :
  41. 41. Figure 28.20 SIP messages
  42. 42. Figure 28.21 SIP formats
  43. 43. Figure 28.22 SIP simple session
  44. 44. Figure 28.23 Tracking the callee
  45. 45. Figure 28.24 H.323 architecture
  46. 46. Figure 28.25 H.323 protocols
  47. 47. Figure 28.26 H.323 example
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