Introduction to
    Streaming Video
               Eric Smith
              Assistant Director
      Information Security ...
What is Streaming Video?

Goal: to replicate typical TV broadcasts.


         Transmission of digital audio and video
   ...
Challenges

TV is easy:
   Everyone has the same Channel 3.


In streaming video, you have to address diverse:

       >> ...
The Institutional Repository (IR) Audience

                 Patron location is not fixed – local versus remote.
         ...
Approaches to Streaming Video

       HTTP: File Download

       Streaming Media Servers

       Hybrids

       Multicast
HTTP “Streaming”: File Download




  .AVI (.MOV, etc.)    File is saved to the   Client plays the
 file on a webserver   ...
HTTP “Streaming”: File Download


      Easy – Just put the AVI on your webserver.
      Client machine must download enti...
HTTP “Streaming”: Demo
http://www.bucknell.tv/demos


        Copy AVI to webserver
        Test with audience
Approaches to Streaming Video

       HTTP: File Download

       Streaming Media Servers

       Hybrids

       Multicast
Streaming Media Servers
Windows Media (and QuickTime / Real / etc.)

      Each client’s connection is negotiated with the...
Streaming Media Servers
Windows Media Services




       Files to be streamed must be in a compatible WMV
       format
 ...
Streaming Media Servers: Demo
Windows Media Services


        Convert source video to WMV

    ffmpeg –b 2000k -i /upload...
Approaches to Streaming Video

       HTTP: File Download

       True Streaming

       Hybrids

       Multicast
HTTP “Streaming” Hybrids




                                          Playback begins
   FLV file on a
                  ...
HTTP “Streaming” Hybrids


                           Played
                           Downloaded
HTTP Streaming Hybrids Demo
www.bucknell.tv


       Upload source video to server

       Convert to FLV

       Test wit...
Approaches to Streaming Video

       HTTP: File Download

       True Streaming

       Hybrids

       Multicast
Multicast Video

                    Single AV stream
                              sent to a
                  multicast ...
Multicast: Digital CATV Equipment




 MPEG2 Encoder




                   Set-Top Box (STB)
BUTV: Bucknell University’s Digital Cable TV
         Subscription        Foreign Language &
         CATV                ...
BUTV: Bucknell University’s Digital Cable TV




     D&E Communications
         Datacenter
      State College, PA
Multicast Video: Pros and Cons

        High bandwidth, broadcast-quality streams
        Very efficient use of network ba...
Multicast Demo


      Obtain packet capture

      Re-transmit the packets

      Test with a BUTV set-top box
Automating the Process: www.bucknell.tv




   Archival           FLV          Streaming
    Video          Transcoder    ...
Streaming Video: Bandwidth Issues

                               Internet
              200Mb



              320x240 30...
The tubes are full: Akamai to the rescue




              34,000 Servers – 70 Countries – 900 Networks
                  ...
The tubes are full: Akamai to the rescue




              34,000 Servers – 70 Countries – 900 Networks
                  ...
The tubes are full: Akamai to the rescue




              34,000 Servers – 70 Countries – 900 Networks
                  ...
Akamai and Streaming Video




            Content is served by the closest Akamai server.
               All major ISPs h...
Akamai Streaming Video: Case Study
Patron connecting from a Time-Warner Cable Modem

          Streaming directly to Buckn...
Akamai Demo
www.bucknell.tv/demos

         Upload source video to server

         Convert to FLV

         Upload to Aka...
Thank you for your attention. Questions?


                  References and Resources:

                 VLC: www.videolan...
Appendix A: Archival Formats & Key Frames
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Introduction to Streaming Video

  1. 1. Introduction to Streaming Video Eric Smith Assistant Director Information Security & Networking Bucknell University This is an interactive session: please connect your laptop to the bucknell_guests wireless network.
  2. 2. What is Streaming Video? Goal: to replicate typical TV broadcasts. Transmission of digital audio and video across a data network. Playback begins immediately (almost… after buffering). A copy of the content is not (should not) readily obtained by the client.
  3. 3. Challenges TV is easy: Everyone has the same Channel 3. In streaming video, you have to address diverse: >> Operating Systems>> Bandwidth >> Browsers >> Media Players >> Media Codecs >> Users
  4. 4. The Institutional Repository (IR) Audience Patron location is not fixed – local versus remote. No control over clients’ hardware or software. >> Present both high and low bandwidth options. >> Include tools to help the user decide which option to use. >> Use an operating system-agnostic stream.
  5. 5. Approaches to Streaming Video HTTP: File Download Streaming Media Servers Hybrids Multicast
  6. 6. HTTP “Streaming”: File Download .AVI (.MOV, etc.) File is saved to the Client plays the file on a webserver client’s hard drive downloaded file
  7. 7. HTTP “Streaming”: File Download Easy – Just put the AVI on your webserver. Client machine must download entire file before playback begins Client obtains a full copy of the media file.
  8. 8. HTTP “Streaming”: Demo http://www.bucknell.tv/demos Copy AVI to webserver Test with audience
  9. 9. Approaches to Streaming Video HTTP: File Download Streaming Media Servers Hybrids Multicast
  10. 10. Streaming Media Servers Windows Media (and QuickTime / Real / etc.) Each client’s connection is negotiated with the server on an individual basis Able to stream live events You already own the software: Included as part of Window Server 2003/2008
  11. 11. Streaming Media Servers Windows Media Services Files to be streamed must be in a compatible WMV format Clients must use a compatible version of WMP Mac / Linux users are problematic*
  12. 12. Streaming Media Servers: Demo Windows Media Services Convert source video to WMV ffmpeg –b 2000k -i /uploads/StarTrekTOS-TheLightsOfZetar-Clip.avi -acodec wmav2 TrekClip.wmv Create publishing point Test with audience
  13. 13. Approaches to Streaming Video HTTP: File Download True Streaming Hybrids Multicast
  14. 14. HTTP “Streaming” Hybrids Playback begins FLV file on a ~ immediately webserver Excess data cached to local disk
  15. 15. HTTP “Streaming” Hybrids Played Downloaded
  16. 16. HTTP Streaming Hybrids Demo www.bucknell.tv Upload source video to server Convert to FLV Test with audience
  17. 17. Approaches to Streaming Video HTTP: File Download True Streaming Hybrids Multicast
  18. 18. Multicast Video Single AV stream sent to a multicast IP address Clients join the multicast group Stream is duplicated and distributed by the network
  19. 19. Multicast: Digital CATV Equipment MPEG2 Encoder Set-Top Box (STB)
  20. 20. BUTV: Bucknell University’s Digital Cable TV Subscription Foreign Language & CATV Special Events Bucknell D&E Communications
  21. 21. BUTV: Bucknell University’s Digital Cable TV D&E Communications Datacenter State College, PA
  22. 22. Multicast Video: Pros and Cons High bandwidth, broadcast-quality streams Very efficient use of network bandwidth Requires multicast-aware routers and switches Inefficient for single-viewer applications Disastrous to wireless networks Does not work across the Internet
  23. 23. Multicast Demo Obtain packet capture Re-transmit the packets Test with a BUTV set-top box
  24. 24. Automating the Process: www.bucknell.tv Archival FLV Streaming Video Transcoder Flash In IR Video
  25. 25. Streaming Video: Bandwidth Issues Internet 200Mb 320x240 30FPS stream ~500k Streaming Server Max of 200 clients [n] assuming 50% load
  26. 26. The tubes are full: Akamai to the rescue 34,000 Servers – 70 Countries – 900 Networks Bucknell hosts 5 Akamai servers
  27. 27. The tubes are full: Akamai to the rescue 34,000 Servers – 70 Countries – 900 Networks Bucknell hosts 5 Akamai servers
  28. 28. The tubes are full: Akamai to the rescue 34,000 Servers – 70 Countries – 900 Networks Bucknell hosts 5 Akamai servers
  29. 29. Akamai and Streaming Video Content is served by the closest Akamai server. All major ISPs host Akamai cache servers.
  30. 30. Akamai Streaming Video: Case Study Patron connecting from a Time-Warner Cable Modem Streaming directly to Bucknell: 41ms Latency 24 Router Hops Streaming through Akamai: 10 ms Latency 7 Router Hops
  31. 31. Akamai Demo www.bucknell.tv/demos Upload source video to server Convert to FLV Upload to Akamai Prepare HTML Container Test with Audience
  32. 32. Thank you for your attention. Questions? References and Resources: VLC: www.videolan.org VirtualDub: www.virtualdub.org FFMPEG: sourceforge.net/projects/ffmpeg Ububtu: www.ubuntu.com Medibuntu: www.medibuntu.org SWFObject: http://code.google.com/p/swfobject Akamai: www.akamai.com PSKL: www.pskl.us
  33. 33. Appendix A: Archival Formats & Key Frames
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