How the Internet Works


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  • Web, Email, Chat, IM, Internet Telephony (PLUS Message boards and FTP)
  • 4 main computers (Hosts: provides services to other computers….)
  • Draw cloud
  • Providers = AT&T, T-Mobile, etc.
  • Liken IP Addy (Domain name) to Phone #... (When we want to call our friend we dial ….) MSCD.EDU
  • Netscape stock traded between 1995 and 2003, subsequently as a subsidiary of AOL LLC . However, it became a holding company following Netscape's purchase by AOL in 1998. The Netscape brand is still extensively used by AOL. Some services currently offered under the Netscape brand, other than the web browser, include a discount Internet service provider and a popular social news website. As of December 2007, AOL announced it would no longer be updating the Netscape browser. Tom Drapeau , director of AOL's Netscape Brand, announced that the company would stop supporting Netscape software products as of March 1, 2008. Developed SSL
  • 2 interpretations: 1. First page displayed by say IBM’s website 2. First page displayed in your browser – you set it. Downloading Files for assignments
  • Protocol;domain name; path; web page
  • Enter search text
  • From
  • Portal: Yahoo (search engine, weather, maps, email, …) Wiki (info collected and reviewed – versus Blog, an online diary/journal, where you cannot change someone’s post). Content aggregator: gathers info and pushes it (pulled according to Wiki) to subscribers using Really Simple Syndication (RSS) – get info from news, other sites, blogs, etc, (Newsgator in book) Social Networks: Youtube share vids; Flickr share photos;
  • Criteria for evaluating – ignore. No one verifies content. No one verifies content. No one verifies content.
  • VR = 3D walk thru room with furniture Extensions: JPEG, GIF, MP3, MPEG
  • MP3, WAV ( WAV (or WAVE ), short for Waveform audio format , is a Microsoft and IBM ) Podcast = recorded audio (mp3). Download to computer, iPod. Register with Content Aggregators
  • NPR Archives Fortunately, the majority of these clips, while they stream in . . . are being saved to a file on your hard drive.  This file is usually in the "Temporary Internet Files" folder. When the clip is finished loading, the file usually stays there until you move to another web page or close your browser.         But I don't see any video Files in my "Temporary Internet Files" Folder ?? In some cases the clip is either saved somewhere else (who knows where? - but check the "temp" folder) or is stored in memory (RAM), and therefore no file is created and you cannot save it !!   For example, clips use an integrated Internet Explorer Real Player, which plays clips in RAM only.  But most clips are stored as a file, since RAM is so precious.
  • MPEG Vs animation
  • Parachuting
  • PLUG-INS extends capability of browser -- Adobe Acrobat, Windows Media Player
  • Not 5 steps Dreamweaver
  • Electronic storefront and shopping cart
  • [email_address]
  • Just know there are Mail Servers. Mail Server to your computer
  • AOL Instant Messenger. 1-1 (vs chat room) ICQ before AIM MSN Messenger Yahoo Messenger Many IM can talk (sound card…)
  • Need Chat Client (in browser usually) - AIM
  • Voice over IP
  • Newsgroups need News reader. Message Boards (forums) do not.
  • CAPS
  • How the Internet Works

    1. 1. Chapter 2 The Internet and World Wide Web
    2. 2. The Internet • What are some services found on the Internet? Fig. 2-1
    3. 3. The Internet - Origins • 4 hosts ……. Millions of hosts ARPANET Networking project by Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Goal: Agency (ARPA) Goal: To allow scientists To function if at different part of network locations to share were disabled information Became functional September 1969 p. 50
    4. 4. The Internet • Who controls the Internet? – No one — it is a public, cooperative, and independent network – Several organizations set standards World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)  Oversees research, sets standards and guidelines p. 51
    5. 5. How the Internet Works • How can you connect to the Internet? Slow-speed High-speed technology connection Dial-up access Digital subscriber line (DSL), modem in your cable telephone Internet computer uses a services (CATV), cable modem, standard telephone line fixed wireless, and satellite modems to connect to the Internet Connection must be established Connection is always on— each time you log on. whenever the computer Slow but inexpensive is running p. 51
    6. 6. How the Internet Works • What are ways to access the Internet? – ISP, regional or national – OSP (AOL and MSN, for example) – Wireless Internet Service Provider p. 52 Next
    7. 7. How Data Travels over the Internet
    8. 8. IP Addresses and Domain Names • Domain name = ―text version‖ of Internet protocol (IP) address • IP Address uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to Internet Figs. 2-3
    9. 9. Top-Level Domain Names Figs. 2-4
    10. 10. The World Wide Web A worldwide collection of electronic documents Also called the Web Each electronic document is called a Web page Can contain text, graphics, sound, video, and built-in connections A Web site is a collection of related Web pages p. 54
    11. 11. The World Wide Web – Web Browsers • Firefox • Internet Explorer • (Netscape)
    12. 12. The World Wide Web • Home page? – The first page that a Web site displays – Second interpretation • Downloading? – The process of a computer receiving information – Depending upon connection speed, downloading can take from a few seconds to several minutes p. 55 Next
    13. 13. The World Wide Web - URL • Unique address for a Web page Fig. 2-6
    14. 14. The World Wide Web - Hyperlinks • A link can be text or an image • Text links are usually underlined and in a different color Fig. 2-7
    15. 15. The World Wide Web – Search Engines • Program used to find Web sites and Web pages by entering words or phrases called search text •  Hits Fig. 2-8
    16. 16. The World Wide Web – Subject Directory • Search tool with organized set of topics and subtopics
    17. 17. The World Wide Web – Types of Web Sites • Portal • Advocacy • News • Blog • Informational • Wiki • Business/Marketing • Online Social Networks • Educational • Content Aggregator • Entertainment • Personal p. 61
    18. 18. The World Wide Web • Guidelines for evaluating the value of a Web site? Fig. 2-12
    19. 19. The World Wide Web - Multimedia • Text with other media elements – Graphics • Gif/jpeg • thumbnails – Animation – Audio – Video – Virtual reality p. 64 Fig. 2-13
    20. 20. The World Wide Web - Audio • Music, speech, or any other sound • Common Web audio file formats are AA, AAC, AIFF, ASF, MP3, WAV, WMA, RA, and QT • Once downloaded, you can play (listen to) the contents of the files p. 64 - 65 Fig. 2-14 Next
    21. 21. The World Wide Web - Streaming Audio • Transfers data in a continuous and even flow • Enables you to listen to the sound as it downloads to your computer • Radio stations use streaming audio to broadcast over the Web p. 64
    22. 22. The World Wide Web - Video • Consists of full-motion images with sound played back at various speeds • MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group) is popular video compression standard p. 65
    23. 23. The World Wide Web – Virtual Reality • Use of computers to simulate real or imagined environment • Appears as a three dimensional (3-D) space • Used for games and many practical applications p. 65
    24. 24. The World Wide Web – Plug-ins • Programs that extend the capability of a browser • You can download many plug-ins at no cost from various Web sites p. 66 Fig. 2-15
    25. 25. Web Publishing • Development and maintenance of Web pages Fig. 2-16
    26. 26. E-Commerce Business to consumer (B2C) Sale of goods to general public Consumer to consumer (C2C) One consumer sells directly to another Business to business (B2B) Business providing goods and services to other businesses p. 67 Fig.
    27. 27. Other Internet Services – E-mail • E-mail address – Unique name that consists of a user name and domain name that identifies the user • E-mail programs – Microsoft Outlook Fig. 2-19
    28. 28. Other Internet Services – E-mail Transmission Fig. 2-20
    29. 29. Other Internet Services – Instant Messaging • MSN Messenger, etc. Fig. 2-21
    30. 30. Other Internet Services - Chat • Real-time typed conversation that takes place on a computer • Chat room is location on server that permits users to discuss topics of interest Fig. 2-22
    31. 31. Other Internet Services – Internet Telephony • Enables users to speak to other users over the Internet using their computer • Voice-over-IP (VoIP) Fig. 2-23
    32. 32. Other Internet Services - FTP • File Transfer Protocol – Internet standard that permits you to upload and download files with other computers on the Internet p. 72
    33. 33. Other Internet Services – Newsgroups & Forums • Newsgroup – Online area where users discuss a particular subject – Need News Reader • Message board (Forum) – Type of discussion group p. 71 Fig. 2-21 Next
    34. 34. Other Internet Services – Mailing List • Group of e-mail addresses given a single name • When a message is sent to the mailing list, everyone on the list receives the message • To add your name to a mailing list you must subscribe to it; to remove your name you must unsubscribe p. 73
    35. 35. Netiquette Code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet Golden Rule: Treat others as you would like them to treat you. p. 73