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  1. Video Terminology <ul><li>Clip: source material for a movie. A clip can be a movie, a still image or an audio file. </li></ul><ul><li>Frame: basic unit of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NTSC (TV): 30 frames per second (f.p.s.) (29.97 for colour television); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motion picture: 24 f.p.s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digitisation : Capturing information from a video source for use on the computer </li></ul>
  2. SMPTE Timecode <ul><li>The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standard </li></ul><ul><li>Describes any frame of video in terms of: Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Frames </li></ul><ul><li>So 01:07:34:16 would be: 1 hour, 7 minutes, 34 seconds and 16 frames </li></ul>
  3. “Raw” Formats <ul><li>Different for platforms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QuickTime (MOV) - native to Mac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio-Video Interleave (AVI) - native to Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similar in use and appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Quicktime has become more flexible and modern (compression, streaming) </li></ul><ul><li>Special players required to play on opposite platforms </li></ul>
  4. Compression <ul><li>Compression: method by which data is restructured or removed to decrease the size of files. </li></ul><ul><li>Decompression: method by which data is restructured after compression to allow use of the files. </li></ul><ul><li>CODEC: Compression/Decompression system </li></ul>
  5. Why Compress? <ul><li>Video files are typically large </li></ul><ul><li>Internet is (mostly) a low-bandwidth environment </li></ul><ul><li>Large amounts of data contained in a video difficult to transmit on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, compression necessary to move the data effectively </li></ul>
  6. Compression Types <ul><li>Lossless compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>loses no data but... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small size reduction, max 3:1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lossy compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>loses information but... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>much greater compression </li></ul></ul>
  7. Compression Formats <ul><li>JPEG: for stills </li></ul><ul><li>Motion JPEG: a series of still JPEGs </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG-1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>released in November, 1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used with CD-ROMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frame size of 360 x 240 pixels. It has a VHS-like quality. </li></ul></ul>
  8. Compression Formats (cont.) <ul><li>&quot;MPEG-1.5&quot;: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>application of MPEG-1 to full-size video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;pixel-vision&quot; or &quot;chiclet-vision&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG-2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>released November, 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>full-motion broadcast video version of MPEG, used by DVD-Video. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG-3: never released by the Group. </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG-4: the HDTV standard </li></ul>
  9. MPEG Format <ul><li>Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly compressed, used on computers and for broadcast applications, MPG extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses a lossy CODEC </li></ul></ul>
  10. MPEG CODEC <ul><li>The MPEG CODEC uses this method: instead of saying “A VERY DETAILED FRAME OF VIDEO” “A VERY DETAILED FRAME OF VIDEO” “A VERY DETAILED FRAME OF VIDEO” “A VERY DETAILED FRAME OF VIDEO” etc. It says: “A VERY DETAILED FRAME OF VIDEO” - KEYFRAME <identical frame> <almost identical frame> “A VERY DETAILED FRAME OF VIDEO” - KEYFRAME <identical frame> etc. </li></ul>
  11. MPEG Stats <ul><li>30 frames per second </li></ul><ul><li>Audio - CD-quality with full 44 kHz, 16 bit, Stereo </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate - 140-170 kilobytes/sec or approximately 10 MB per minute </li></ul>
  12. Internet Video Basics <ul><li>Video files on the web are either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>linked from a page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embedded in the page </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Download time depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>file size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connection speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>general Internet traffic </li></ul></ul>
  13. Basics continued <ul><li>For “raw” video, every user has a copy of the video on their system </li></ul><ul><li>Most common video formats can be played back on a standard system with correct hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Some older systems require special hardware for MPEG playback </li></ul>
  14.  
  15. Surf Time! Quicktime and other “raw” video types
  16. Incorporating Video Files In Web Pages <ul><li>Standard Link tag: <A HREF=&quot;myvideo.avi&quot;> A video clip</A> </li></ul><ul><li>EMBED Tag: <EMBED SRC=&quot;myvideo.avi&quot; autostart=&quot;true&quot; width=&quot;176&quot; height=&quot;144&quot;> </li></ul>
  17. Streaming Video <ul><li>A number of formats exist today: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RealVideo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicktime Streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft MediaStreaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today we will look mostly at Real </li></ul>
  18. A RealVideo Demo http:// ots . utoronto .ca/ audvid /cat.html
  19. Creating RealVideo <ul><li>Capture video. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video tape, TV, camcoder, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digitize and edit video. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Into a raw (MOV or AVI) format first </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encode RealVideo clip. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using RealProducer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deliver RealVideo clip. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From web page - linked or embedded </li></ul></ul>
  20. Using RealProducer
  21. Putting RealVideo on your site <ul><li>Using Wizards in RealProducer </li></ul><ul><li>Using Dreamweaver </li></ul>
  22. Surf Time! RealVideo Sites
  23. What is SMIL? <ul><li>The Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) </li></ul><ul><li>A recommendation from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for the creation of time-based multimedia delivery over the web </li></ul><ul><li>Based on XML (Extensible Mark-up Language) </li></ul>
  24. SMIL <ul><li>Currently supported by RealPlayer G2, other systems are adopting it now (including Quicktime) </li></ul><ul><li>G2 SMIL includes these media types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RealText </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RealPix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RealAudio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RealVideo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RealFlash </li></ul></ul>
  25. SMIL Examples <ul><li>Sample SMIL File </li></ul><ul><li>SMIL including Flash animation with synchronized audio and captions </li></ul><ul><li>SMIL with audio and images created in RealSlideshow </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Examples </li></ul>
  26. RealSlideshow
  27. Working on Your Own Site

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