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  • 1. Adventures in Information Adding Video to Your Web Site February 24, 1999 Eileen Flick Information Services Division
  • 2. Today’s Overview Why ? What ? How ? The goal for today is that you leave here with enough knowledge to be able to start adding video to your website.
  • 3. Why Add Video? • Only one reason . . . –MOTION!
  • 4. Why Motion? • Visual information / learning • Sense of “being there” • Create a mood • Excite the viewer! • Hold interest
  • 5. Types of Use • Video Programs • Distance Learning • Archives Examples Page
  • 6. What is the Technology? • Digitizing • Compressing • Streaming
  • 7. Digitizing • “Regular” video is an analog signal • Computers use digital data • Use a „digitizing‟ or „capture‟ card to convert the signal into data • Just like digitizing audio • Except it‟s video :)
  • 8. Compression – Uncompressed video is approximately: • 640 x 480 resolution • 24 bit color • 7,372,800 bits per frame • 30 frames per second
  • 9. Compression • Occurs while digitizing and when preparing clips for streaming • Reducing the quality reduces the amount of information that must be compressed – 320x240, 24 bit, 15fps = 26.37 Mbps • Want to recompress as few as times as possible • Most used compressed sizes: – 320x240 and 160x120
  • 10. Codecs (Types of Compression) • Intel Indeo – PC platform, not compatible w/Quicktime – doesn‟t maintain video quality well • MPEG – best compression – only use if end result will be an MPEG file • Sorenson – good compression & quality – requires Quicktime 3 • Animation – okay if source is computer-generated, not good with videotape source
  • 11. Video File Formats • Quicktime 3 - Mac standard – Cross-platform, good compression (Sorenson) – Must flatten movie for the Web (default Quicktime has two forks, data & resource) – movies can stream • AVI - PC (Windows) standard – Audio & video interleaved for better quality – Macs need special apps to play or convert to QT • MPEG - UNIX standard – very high compression, good quality – special encoding tools needed for max use – more info: http://www.mpeg.org/
  • 12. Streaming • Data is played back as it arrives • Non streamed clips must download completely before playing back • The Analogy … – Streaming is like watching television – Non-Streaming is like renting a movie
  • 13. Streaming is Good • Faster time to initial start of playback • Almost no storage space is needed on client computer • Random access to stream • Capability to send live streams
  • 14. Streaming is bad • Generally lower quality • Can be more susceptible to the quality of the network connection • Requires more time to encode to get the best quality • Requires a special server to get all the benefits of streaming video
  • 15. True Streaming Request for meta file Web Server Web Browser pnm meta file pnm meta file Request for stream RealPlayer RealServer Stream
  • 16. Pseudo-Streaming Request for meta file Web Browser http meta file http Web Server meta file Request for media file RealPlayer media file
  • 17. How Does One Do All This? • Step 1 - Capture/Digitize the Video • Step 2 - Encode/Compress it • Step 3 - Publish it on the web
  • 18. Step 1a - Capture the Video - The Hardware - On a PC: • First - Video capture card • Recommend Osprey 100 or 1000 • Miro DC30 is a poor choice for most users • Video cards recommended by Real Networks: http://www.real.com/devzone/library/stream/vidcard.html • Second - Enough disk space • Recommend 4+ GB drive • Third - The Computer • As fast as possible • 200+ MHz Processor
  • 19. Capturing the Video - cont’d On a Mac: • AV-capable Mac (7600+ or an AV model) • 4GB+ hard drive • Fast processor (pre-Power PC okay, but verrrry slow) • Lots of RAM (at least 64MB, more better) • Note on Firewire: – New technology for using peripheral devices, including digitizing video, new G3s use this method – For more info: http://www.apple.com/firewire/
  • 20. Step 1b - Capture the Video - The Software - • Only basic functionality is needed • Most bundled software is fine • On the Mac, that means Apple Video Player:
  • 21. Capturing Video - software cont’d • Use Adobe Premiere if more capabilities are needed (editing, filters, etc) – Available in user rooms for PCs and Macs • Other software possibilities: Avid Cinema, Strata VideoShop • For real media, can also encode directly (live, as in webcasts) • More on capturing video: – Real Media: http://www.real.com/devzone/library/stream/videohints.html – Quicktime 3: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/authors/auth-docs.html
  • 22. Step 2 - Encode the video • Must make the Stream vs. Non-Stream decision • Non-Stream – QuickTime vs. AVI – QuickTime is more universal – Use Premiere if it‟s necessary to re-encode the clip
  • 23. Step 2 - Encode the Video • Streaming Video – RealMedia is recommended solution – Use RealEncoder to encode http://www.real.com/products/tools/producer/ – One or multiple versions? • Who is your audience? – Use Premiere to prepare clips as necessary • Add titles, soundtrack, filters
  • 24. Step 3 - Publish to the Web • Non-Streaming – Almost identical to publishing any other document • Upload to server then link it in HTML – QuickTime 3 now cross-platform, can be streaming or non-streaming http://www.apple.com/quicktime
  • 25. Step 3 - Publish to the Web Linking the Clip • Simple link – File downloads, then plays – <A HREF=“movie.mov”>link the clip</A> – Let people know format and size: (1.3MB, QT) • Embedded link – <EMBED SRC=“movie.mov” autoplay=false width=160 height=120></EMBED> – Controller & window appear in page – Clip plays while downloading
  • 26. Step 3 - Publish to the Web Real Media • True Streaming – Requires access to RealServer – Move files to content directory • At USC, that means the CWIS server – Create meta-files using pnm URL‟s – Embed or link to meta-files
  • 27. Step 3 - Publish to the Web Linking Real Media • Reference file in local directory points to a metafile: – <A HREF=“movie.ram”>real video clip</A> • Movie.ram file contain actual clip location: – pnm://www.usc.edu/dept/real/movie.rm – .ram file is simple text, contains no HTML tags
  • 28. CWIS Issues • RealServer is only available on CWIS • Open to any CWIS user/dept • Fill out agreement form http://www.usc.edu/uscweb/authoring/RealMedia – Agree to 200 MB limit – Agree to not hog streams • HTTP Pseudo-streaming available from any web server
  • 29. How to Get Setup • HTTP Pseudo Stream has no setup! • Create content directory • Turn in agreement form • Link is created to your directory • Start streaming!
  • 30. Use video on your website ... … not because it is hard ... … but because it is easy! –For more information, and an excellent tutorial, check out: –http://builder.com/Graphics/Video/ss02.html

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