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Adventures in Information

 Adding Video to Your Web Site

          February 24, 1999
              Eileen Flick
      In...
Today’s Overview

Why ?
             What ?
                            How ?


  The goal for today is that you leave her...
Why Add Video?
• Only one reason . . .



              –MOTION!
Why Motion?

•   Visual information / learning
•   Sense of “being there”
•   Create a mood
•   Excite the viewer!
•   Hol...
Types of Use

• Video Programs

• Distance Learning

• Archives


       Examples Page
What is the Technology?

• Digitizing

• Compressing

• Streaming
Digitizing

• “Regular” video is an analog signal
• Computers use digital data
• Use a „digitizing‟ or „capture‟ card to
 ...
Compression
– Uncompressed video is approximately:
  •   640 x 480 resolution
  •   24 bit color
  •   7,372,800 bits per ...
Compression
• Occurs while digitizing and when
  preparing clips for streaming
• Reducing the quality reduces the amount o...
Codecs (Types of Compression)
• Intel Indeo
   – PC platform, not compatible w/Quicktime
   – doesn‟t maintain video quali...
Video File Formats
• Quicktime 3 - Mac standard
  – Cross-platform, good compression (Sorenson)
  – Must flatten movie for...
Streaming

• Data is played back as it arrives
• Non streamed clips must download
  completely before playing back
• The A...
Streaming is Good

• Faster time to initial start of playback
• Almost no storage space is needed on client
  computer
• R...
Streaming is bad

• Generally lower quality
• Can be more susceptible to the quality of
  the network connection
• Require...
True Streaming

              Request for meta file

Web Server                        Web Browser

               pnm met...
Pseudo-Streaming

             Request for meta file

                                  Web Browser
              http met...
How Does One Do All This?

• Step 1 - Capture/Digitize the Video

• Step 2 - Encode/Compress it

• Step 3 - Publish it on ...
Step 1a - Capture the Video
                      - The Hardware -
On a PC:
• First - Video capture card
      • Recommend...
Capturing the Video - cont’d
On a Mac:
• AV-capable Mac (7600+ or an AV model)
• 4GB+ hard drive
• Fast processor (pre-Pow...
Step 1b - Capture the Video
                    - The Software -
• Only basic functionality is needed
• Most bundled softw...
Capturing Video - software cont’d
• Use Adobe Premiere if more capabilities are
  needed (editing, filters, etc)
   – Avai...
Step 2 - Encode the video

• Must make the Stream vs. Non-Stream
  decision
• Non-Stream
  – QuickTime vs. AVI
  – QuickTi...
Step 2 - Encode the Video

• Streaming Video
  – RealMedia is recommended solution
  – Use RealEncoder to encode
        h...
Step 3 - Publish to the Web

• Non-Streaming
  – Almost identical to publishing any other
    document
     • Upload to se...
Step 3 - Publish to the Web
                      Linking the Clip
• Simple link
  – File downloads, then plays
  – <A HRE...
Step 3 - Publish to the Web
                        Real Media

• True Streaming
  – Requires access to RealServer
  – Mov...
Step 3 - Publish to the Web
                     Linking Real Media
• Reference file in local directory points to a
  meta...
CWIS Issues
• RealServer is only available on CWIS
• Open to any CWIS user/dept
• Fill out agreement form
  http://www.usc...
How to Get Setup

•   HTTP Pseudo Stream has no setup!
•   Create content directory
•   Turn in agreement form
•   Link is...
Use video on your website ...

… not because it is hard ...


                                      … but because it is ea...
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  1. 1. Adventures in Information Adding Video to Your Web Site February 24, 1999 Eileen Flick Information Services Division
  2. 2. Today’s Overview Why ? What ? How ? The goal for today is that you leave here with enough knowledge to be able to start adding video to your website.
  3. 3. Why Add Video? • Only one reason . . . –MOTION!
  4. 4. Why Motion? • Visual information / learning • Sense of “being there” • Create a mood • Excite the viewer! • Hold interest
  5. 5. Types of Use • Video Programs • Distance Learning • Archives Examples Page
  6. 6. What is the Technology? • Digitizing • Compressing • Streaming
  7. 7. Digitizing • “Regular” video is an analog signal • Computers use digital data • Use a „digitizing‟ or „capture‟ card to convert the signal into data • Just like digitizing audio • Except it‟s video :)
  8. 8. Compression – Uncompressed video is approximately: • 640 x 480 resolution • 24 bit color • 7,372,800 bits per frame • 30 frames per second
  9. 9. Compression • Occurs while digitizing and when preparing clips for streaming • Reducing the quality reduces the amount of information that must be compressed – 320x240, 24 bit, 15fps = 26.37 Mbps • Want to recompress as few as times as possible • Most used compressed sizes: – 320x240 and 160x120
  10. 10. Codecs (Types of Compression) • Intel Indeo – PC platform, not compatible w/Quicktime – doesn‟t maintain video quality well • MPEG – best compression – only use if end result will be an MPEG file • Sorenson – good compression & quality – requires Quicktime 3 • Animation – okay if source is computer-generated, not good with videotape source
  11. 11. Video File Formats • Quicktime 3 - Mac standard – Cross-platform, good compression (Sorenson) – Must flatten movie for the Web (default Quicktime has two forks, data & resource) – movies can stream • AVI - PC (Windows) standard – Audio & video interleaved for better quality – Macs need special apps to play or convert to QT • MPEG - UNIX standard – very high compression, good quality – special encoding tools needed for max use – more info: http://www.mpeg.org/
  12. 12. Streaming • Data is played back as it arrives • Non streamed clips must download completely before playing back • The Analogy … – Streaming is like watching television – Non-Streaming is like renting a movie
  13. 13. Streaming is Good • Faster time to initial start of playback • Almost no storage space is needed on client computer • Random access to stream • Capability to send live streams
  14. 14. Streaming is bad • Generally lower quality • Can be more susceptible to the quality of the network connection • Requires more time to encode to get the best quality • Requires a special server to get all the benefits of streaming video
  15. 15. True Streaming Request for meta file Web Server Web Browser pnm meta file pnm meta file Request for stream RealPlayer RealServer Stream
  16. 16. Pseudo-Streaming Request for meta file Web Browser http meta file http Web Server meta file Request for media file RealPlayer media file
  17. 17. How Does One Do All This? • Step 1 - Capture/Digitize the Video • Step 2 - Encode/Compress it • Step 3 - Publish it on the web
  18. 18. Step 1a - Capture the Video - The Hardware - On a PC: • First - Video capture card • Recommend Osprey 100 or 1000 • Miro DC30 is a poor choice for most users • Video cards recommended by Real Networks: http://www.real.com/devzone/library/stream/vidcard.html • Second - Enough disk space • Recommend 4+ GB drive • Third - The Computer • As fast as possible • 200+ MHz Processor
  19. 19. Capturing the Video - cont’d On a Mac: • AV-capable Mac (7600+ or an AV model) • 4GB+ hard drive • Fast processor (pre-Power PC okay, but verrrry slow) • Lots of RAM (at least 64MB, more better) • Note on Firewire: – New technology for using peripheral devices, including digitizing video, new G3s use this method – For more info: http://www.apple.com/firewire/
  20. 20. Step 1b - Capture the Video - The Software - • Only basic functionality is needed • Most bundled software is fine • On the Mac, that means Apple Video Player:
  21. 21. Capturing Video - software cont’d • Use Adobe Premiere if more capabilities are needed (editing, filters, etc) – Available in user rooms for PCs and Macs • Other software possibilities: Avid Cinema, Strata VideoShop • For real media, can also encode directly (live, as in webcasts) • More on capturing video: – Real Media: http://www.real.com/devzone/library/stream/videohints.html – Quicktime 3: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/authors/auth-docs.html
  22. 22. Step 2 - Encode the video • Must make the Stream vs. Non-Stream decision • Non-Stream – QuickTime vs. AVI – QuickTime is more universal – Use Premiere if it‟s necessary to re-encode the clip
  23. 23. Step 2 - Encode the Video • Streaming Video – RealMedia is recommended solution – Use RealEncoder to encode http://www.real.com/products/tools/producer/ – One or multiple versions? • Who is your audience? – Use Premiere to prepare clips as necessary • Add titles, soundtrack, filters
  24. 24. Step 3 - Publish to the Web • Non-Streaming – Almost identical to publishing any other document • Upload to server then link it in HTML – QuickTime 3 now cross-platform, can be streaming or non-streaming http://www.apple.com/quicktime
  25. 25. Step 3 - Publish to the Web Linking the Clip • Simple link – File downloads, then plays – <A HREF=“movie.mov”>link the clip</A> – Let people know format and size: (1.3MB, QT) • Embedded link – <EMBED SRC=“movie.mov” autoplay=false width=160 height=120></EMBED> – Controller & window appear in page – Clip plays while downloading
  26. 26. Step 3 - Publish to the Web Real Media • True Streaming – Requires access to RealServer – Move files to content directory • At USC, that means the CWIS server – Create meta-files using pnm URL‟s – Embed or link to meta-files
  27. 27. Step 3 - Publish to the Web Linking Real Media • Reference file in local directory points to a metafile: – <A HREF=“movie.ram”>real video clip</A> • Movie.ram file contain actual clip location: – pnm://www.usc.edu/dept/real/movie.rm – .ram file is simple text, contains no HTML tags
  28. 28. CWIS Issues • RealServer is only available on CWIS • Open to any CWIS user/dept • Fill out agreement form http://www.usc.edu/uscweb/authoring/RealMedia – Agree to 200 MB limit – Agree to not hog streams • HTTP Pseudo-streaming available from any web server
  29. 29. How to Get Setup • HTTP Pseudo Stream has no setup! • Create content directory • Turn in agreement form • Link is created to your directory • Start streaming!
  30. 30. Use video on your website ... … not because it is hard ... … but because it is easy! –For more information, and an excellent tutorial, check out: –http://builder.com/Graphics/Video/ss02.html
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