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  • Cisco provides a complete toolset of QoS features and solutions for addressing the diverse needs of voice, video, and data applications. Cisco QoS technology lets complex networks control and predictably service a variety of networked applications and traffic types. Small to medium businesses and enterprises benefit from deploying Cisco QoS on their networks. Bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss can be effectively controlled. By ensuring the desired results, the QoS features lead to efficient, predictable services for business-critical applications. Not only is Cisco’s QoS feature set very rich with tools, but also includes important new features, such as AutoQoS, which significantly simplifies deployment
  • Cisco provides a complete toolset of QoS features and solutions for addressing the diverse needs of voice, video, and data applications. Cisco QoS technology lets complex networks control and predictably service a variety of networked applications and traffic types. Small to medium businesses and enterprises benefit from deploying Cisco QoS on their networks. Bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss can be effectively controlled. By ensuring the desired results, the QoS features lead to efficient, predictable services for business-critical applications. Not only is Cisco’s QoS feature set very rich with tools, but also includes important new features, such as AutoQoS, which significantly simplifies deployment
  • Delay: Jitter: Variability of delay Packet loss: Packets not forwarded (dropped) [Added post-submission.]
  • Video conferencing has the same loss, delay, and delay variation requirements as voice, but the traffic patterns of video conferencing are radically different from voice. For example, video conferencing traffic has varying packet sizes and extremely variable packet rates. The video conferencing rate is the sampling rate of the video stream, not the actual bandwidth the video call requires. In other words, the data payload of the video conferencing packets are filled with 384 kbps worth of video samples. The headers of the IP, UDP, and RTP packets (40 bytes per packet) need to be included in IP/VC bandwidth provisioning, as does the Layer 2 overhead of the media in use. Testing has shown a conservative rule of thumb for IP/VC bandwidth provisioning is to assign a Low-Latency Queuing bandwidth equivalent to the IP/VC rate plus 20%. For example, a 384 kbps IP/VC stream would be adequately provisioned with an LLQ of 460 kbps. Note Cisco's LLQ algorithm has been implemented to include a default burst parameter equivalent to 200 ms worth of traffic. Testing has shown that this burst parameter is adequate and does not require additional tuning. 33% LLQ Rule: To achieve the goal of convergence, namely allowing voice, video and data applications to transparently share a single network, it is important not to assign the dominant share of the bandwidth to Real-Time applications, such as voice and video. Testing has shown that when more then 33% of WAN links are dedicated for voice and video conferencing, then data application response times deteriorate significantly. Therefore, a conservative and successfully deployed recommendation is to limit the sum of all LLQ traffic to 33%. It is important to recognize, though, that this is a best-practice rule of thumb and not a mandate. When specific objectives and constraints exist that do not allow for this design rule, then the administrator must design according to the individual needs of the enterprise.
  • The slide shows a Frame Relay or ATM network. You should pay close attention to the speeds of the access lines to the remote sites on the left. Suppose each site has a CIR close to the access speed, with bursting up to the access bandwidth. What happens at the central site if the bottom two sites burst at the same time? What happens at the central site if a server rapidly transmits data for the top left remote site? What happens if the bottom two left sites try to send a large amount of data to the top left site? In this section, we will see some of the QoS techniques that help resolves issues such as these.
  • In this illustration, the packages on the conveyer belt represent data packets moving through the network. Now let’s take a closer look at how advanced QoS features help ensure each one of the packets is delivered in a timely, efficient manner.
  • Cisco provides a complete toolset of QoS features and solutions for addressing the diverse needs of voice, video, and data applications. Cisco QoS technology lets complex networks control and predictably service a variety of networked applications and traffic types. Small to medium businesses and enterprises benefit from deploying Cisco QoS on their networks. Bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss can be effectively controlled. By ensuring the desired results, the QoS features lead to efficient, predictable services for business-critical applications. Not only is Cisco’s QoS feature set very rich with tools, but also includes important new features, such as AutoQoS, which significantly simplifies deployment
  • 802.1Q/p Class of Service— Ethernet frames can be marked at Layer 2 with their relative importance by setting the 802.1p User Priority bits of the 802.1Q header. Only three bits are available for 802.1p marking. Therefore, only 8 classes of service (0-7) can be marked on Layer 2 Ethernet frames.
  • • IP Type of Service Byte— As Layer 2 media often changes as packets traverse from source to destination, a more ubiquitous classification would occur at Layer 3. The second byte in an IPv4 packet is the Type of Service (ToS) byte. The first three bits of the ToS byte alone are referred to as the IP Precedence (IPP) bits. These same three bits, in conjunction with the next three bits, are known collectively as the DSCP bits. The IP Precedence bits, like 802.1p CoS bits, allow for only 8 values of marking (0-7). IPP values 6 and 7 are generally reserved for network control traffic (such as routing). IPP value 5 is recommended for voice. IPP value 4 is shared by video conferencing and streaming video. IPP value 3 is for voice-control. IPP values 1 and 2 can be used for data applications. IPP value 0 is the default marking value. Many enterprises find IPP marking to be overly restrictive and limiting, favoring instead the 6-Bit/64-value DSCP marking model.
  • • Differentiated Services Code Points (DSCPs) and Per-Hop Behaviors (PHBs)— DSCP values can be expressed in numeric form or by special keyword names, called Per-Hop Behaviors. There are four broad classes of DSCP markings: Best Effort (BE or DSCP 0), Class Selectors (CS1-CS7, which are identical to IPP values 1-7), Assured Forwarding PHBs (AF xy ), and Expedited Forwarding (EF). There are four Assured Forwarding classes, each of which begin with the letters “AF” followed by two numbers. The first number corresponds to the Class Sector/IP Precedence level of the AF group and can range from 1 through 4. The second number refers to the level of Drop-Preference within each AF class and can range from 1 (lowest drop preference) through 3 (highest drop preference). DSCP values can be expressed in decimal form or with their PHB keywords; for example DSCP EF is synonymous with DSCP 46, also DSCP AF31 is synonymous with DSCP 26.
  • While the majority of data applications can be identified by using Layer 3 or Layer 4 criteria (i.e. discrete IP addresses and/or well-known TCP/UDP ports), there are applications that cannot be identified such criteria alone. This may be due to legacy limitations, but more likely due to deliberate design. For example, peer-to-peer media-sharing applications deliberately negotiate dynamic ports with the objective of penetrating firewalls. When Layer 3 or 4 parameters are insufficient to positively identify an application, then Network-Based Application Recognition (NBAR) may be a viable alternative solution. NBAR identifies application layer protocols by matching them against a Protocol Description Language Module (PDLM), which is essentially an application signature. NBAR’s deep-packet classification engine examines the data payload of stateless protocols against PDLMs. There are over 70 PDLMs embedded into IOS 12.2 code. Furthermore, since PDLMs are modular, they can be added to system without upgrading requiring an IOS upgrade NBAR is Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) dependent, and performs deep-packet classification only on the first packet of a flow; the remainder of the packets belonging to the flow is then CEF switched.
  • Cisco provides a complete toolset of QoS features and solutions for addressing the diverse needs of voice, video, and data applications. Cisco QoS technology lets complex networks control and predictably service a variety of networked applications and traffic types. Small to medium businesses and enterprises benefit from deploying Cisco QoS on their networks. Bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss can be effectively controlled. By ensuring the desired results, the QoS features lead to efficient, predictable services for business-critical applications. Not only is Cisco’s QoS feature set very rich with tools, but also includes important new features, such as AutoQoS, which significantly simplifies deployment
  • Scheduling tools refer to the set of tools that determine how a frame/packet exits a device. Whenever packets enter a device faster than they can exit it (as with speed mismatches) then a point of congestion, or bottleneck, can occur. Devices have buffers that allow for scheduling higher-priority packets to exit sooner than lower priority ones, which is commonly called queuing. Queueing algorithms are activated only when a devices is experiencing congestion and are deactivated when the congestion clears. Scheduling tools include: Class-Based Weighted-Fair Queueing Low-Latency Queueing
  • Queueing buffers are finite in capacity and act very much like a funnel for water being poured into a small opening. However, if water is continually entering the funnel much faster than it exits, then eventually the funnel will being overflowing from the top. When queuing buffers begin overflowing from the top, packets may be dropped either as they arrive (tail-drop) or selectively before all buffers are filled. Selective dropping of packets when the queues are filling is referred to as congestion avoidance. Congestion avoidance mechanisms work best with TCP-based applications, as selective dropping of packets causes the TCP windowing mechanisms to 'throttle-back' and adjust the rate of flows to manageable rates. Congestion avoidance mechanisms are complementary to queuing algorithms; queuing algorithms manage the front of a queue, congestion avoidance mechanisms manage the tail of the queue. Therefore, congestion avoidance mechanisms indirectly affect scheduling. Congestion avoidance algorithms include WRED and DSCP-Based WRED (which selectively drops according to the ‘Drop-Preference bit as defined in the Assured-Forwarding PHB standard – RFC 2597)
  • Cisco provides a complete toolset of QoS features and solutions for addressing the diverse needs of voice, video, and data applications. Cisco QoS technology lets complex networks control and predictably service a variety of networked applications and traffic types. Small to medium businesses and enterprises benefit from deploying Cisco QoS on their networks. Bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss can be effectively controlled. By ensuring the desired results, the QoS features lead to efficient, predictable services for business-critical applications. Not only is Cisco’s QoS feature set very rich with tools, but also includes important new features, such as AutoQoS, which significantly simplifies deployment
  • • Policing and Shaping Tools— Both policers and shapers usually identify traffic violations in an identical manner; however, their main difference is the manner in which they respond to violations: A policer typically drops traffic. A shaper typically delays excess traffic using a buffer to hold packets and shape the flow when the data rate of the source is higher than expected. NMBA networks, like ATM and Frame-Relay, typically have varying physical link-speed access rates on either end of the WAN circuit (e.g. WAN Aggregators may be T3 or higher speeds, while Remote Branches may be only T1 or slower speeds) to accommodate such physical speed mismatches, logical PVC shaping is required in order to guarantee service levels (bursting to port speed may work *most* of the time, but no guarantees can be made unless Shaping is activated on individual PVCs)
  • Cisco provides a complete toolset of QoS features and solutions for addressing the diverse needs of voice, video, and data applications. Cisco QoS technology lets complex networks control and predictably service a variety of networked applications and traffic types. Small to medium businesses and enterprises benefit from deploying Cisco QoS on their networks. Bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss can be effectively controlled. By ensuring the desired results, the QoS features lead to efficient, predictable services for business-critical applications. Not only is Cisco’s QoS feature set very rich with tools, but also includes important new features, such as AutoQoS, which significantly simplifies deployment
  • This is applicable to video as well. The migration of ISDN base video to IP presents the same issues. High bandwidth video may also present a CAC issue in the campus. “PUT on Slide”
  • In the commands where Zone can be specified if it is left blank the bandwidth command applies to all zones defined on the Physical gatekeeper. If a Zone is defined in the bandwidth command then that specified bandwidth applies only to that Zone.
  • Cisco provides a complete toolset of QoS features and solutions for addressing the diverse needs of voice, video, and data applications. Cisco QoS technology lets complex networks control and predictably service a variety of networked applications and traffic types. Small to medium businesses and enterprises benefit from deploying Cisco QoS on their networks. Bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss can be effectively controlled. By ensuring the desired results, the QoS features lead to efficient, predictable services for business-critical applications. Not only is Cisco’s QoS feature set very rich with tools, but also includes important new features, such as AutoQoS, which significantly simplifies deployment
  • The slide shows a Frame Relay or ATM network. You should pay close attention to the speeds of the access lines to the remote sites on the left. Suppose each site has a CIR close to the access speed, with bursting up to the access bandwidth. What happens at the central site if the bottom two sites burst at the same time? What happens at the central site if a server rapidly transmits data for the top left remote site? What happens if the bottom two left sites try to send a large amount of data to the top left site? In this section, we will see some of the QoS techniques that help resolves issues such as these.
  • The slide shows a Frame Relay or ATM network. You should pay close attention to the speeds of the access lines to the remote sites on the left. Suppose each site has a CIR close to the access speed, with bursting up to the access bandwidth. What happens at the central site if the bottom two sites burst at the same time? What happens at the central site if a server rapidly transmits data for the top left remote site? What happens if the bottom two left sites try to send a large amount of data to the top left site? In this section, we will see some of the QoS techniques that help resolves issues such as these.

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  • 1. NJEDge.Net DRG/VRG Video QoS NEXT GENERATION NETWORK Walter King [email_address] Account System Engineer
  • 2. Agenda
    • QoS Technologies Review
    • NJEDGE Model
  • 3. QoS Technologies Review
    • QoS overview
    • Classification Tools
    • Scheduling Tools
    • Policing and Shaping Tools
    • CAC - Call Admission control
  • 4. Different Types of Traffic Have Different Needs
    • Real-time applications especially sensitive
      • Interactive voice
      • Videoconferencing
    • Causes of degraded performance
      • Congestion
        • Convergence
        • Peak traffic load
      • Link speed & capacity differences
    • Set application service level objectives
    Sensitivity N N N Bulk Data Email File Transfer N N Y Transactional/ Interactive Y Y N Streaming Video Y Y Y Interactive Voice and Video Packet Loss Jitter Delay Application Examples
  • 5. Video QoS Requirements Provisioning for Interactive Video
    • Latency ≤ 150 ms
    • Jitter ≤ 30 ms
    • Loss ≤ 1%
    • Minimum priority bandwidth guarantee required is
      • Video-stream + 10–20%
      • e.g., a 384 kbps stream could require up to 460 kbps of priority bandwidth
    • CAC must be enabled
    Video
    • Bursty
    • Drop sensitive
    • Delay sensitive
    • UDP priority
    One-Way Requirements
  • 6. Video QoS Requirements Video Conferencing Traffic Example (384 kbps)
    • “ I” frame is a full sample of the video
    • “ P” and “B” frames use quantization via motion vectors and prediction algorithms
    “ P” and “B” Frames 128–256 Bytes “ I” Frame 1024–1518 Bytes “ I” Frame 1024–1518 Bytes 15pps 30pps 450Kbps 32Kbps
  • 7. Video QoS Requirements Video Conferencing Traffic Packet Size Breakdown 65–128 Bytes 1% 129–256 Bytes 34% 513–1024 Bytes 20% 1025–1500 Bytes 37% 257–512 Bytes 8%
  • 8. Problems in non-CoS Network Scenario
      • Central to Remote Site Speed Mismatch
      • Remote to Central Site Over-subscription
      • Predictable (contractual) sharing of bandwidth
    Remote Sites 1000M Central Site METRO-E Frame Relay, ATM 10M 20M 30M 50M 100M Result: Buffering = Delay or Dropped Packets
  • 9. Quality of Service Operations How Do QoS Tools Work? Classification and Marking Queuing and (Selective) Dropping Post-Queuing Operations
  • 10. QoS Technologies Review
    • QoS overview
    • Classification Tools
    • Scheduling Tools
    • Policing and Shaping Tools
    • CAC - Call Admission control
  • 11. Classification Tools Ethernet 802.1Q Class of Service
    • 802.1p user priority field also called Class of Service (CoS)
    • Different types of traffic are assigned different CoS values
    • CoS 6 and 7 are reserved for network use
    TAG 4 Bytes Data FCS PT SA DA SFD Pream. Type Ethernet Frame Three Bits Used for CoS (802.1p User Priority) 802.1Q/p Header PRI VLAN ID CFI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 Best Effort Data Bulk Data Critical Data Call Signaling Video Voice Routing Reserved CoS Application
  • 12. Classification Tools IP Precedence and DiffServ Code Points
    • IPv4 : three most significant bits of ToS byte are called IP Precedence (IPP)—other bits unused
    • DiffServ : six most significant bits of ToS byte are called DiffServ Code Point (DSCP)—remaining two bits used for flow control
    • DSCP is backward-compatible with IP precedence
    ID Offset TTL Proto FCS IP SA IP DA Data Len Version Length ToS Byte IPv4 Packet 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) IP ECN IP Precedence Unused Standard IPv4 DiffServ Extensions
  • 13. Classification Tools MPLS EXP Bits
    • Packet class and drop precedence inferred from EXP (three-bit) field
    • RFC3270 does not recommend specific EXP values for DiffServ PHB (EF/AF/DF)
    • Used for frame-based MPLS
    Payload Frame Encapsulation Label Header Label Header Label Stack Layer-2 Header 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Label EXP S TTL MPLS Shim Header EXP 3 2 1 0 MPLS EXP S
  • 14. Classification Tools DSCP Per-Hop Behaviors
    • IETF RFCs have defined special keywords, called Per-Hop Behaviors, for specific DSCP markings
    • EF: Expedited Forwarding (RFC3246)
      • (DSCP 46)
    • CSx: Class Selector (RFC2474)
      • Where x corresponds to the IP Precedence value (1 – 7)
      • (DSCP 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56)
    • AFxy: Assured Forwarding (RFC2597)
      • Where x corresponds to the IP Precedence value (only 1–4 are used for AF Classes)
        • And y corresponds to the Drop Preference value (either 1 or 2 or 3)
          • With the higher values denoting higher likelihood of dropping
      • (DSCP 10/12/14, 18/20/22, 26/28/30, 34/36/38)
    • BE: Best Effort or Default Marking Value (RFC2474)
      • (DSCP 0)
  • 15. Classification Tools Network-Based Application Recognition
    • Identifies over 90 applications and protocols TCP and UDP port numbers
      • Statically assigned
      • Dynamically assigned during connection establishment
    • Non-TCP and non-UDP IP protocols
    • Data packet inspection for matching values
    ToS Source IP Addr Dest IP Addr Src Port Sub-Port/Deep Inspection Dst Port Protocol TCP/UDP Packet Data Area IP Packet Stateful and Dynamic Inspection
  • 16. Cisco Service Control Engine Traffic Shaper (All QoS Tools) State of the Art Performance and Carrier-grade Reliabilty
    • 4-GB Ethernet interfaces
    • System bypass mechanism
    • Deep Packet Inspection for up to 2 million concurrent unidirectional application flows
    • Up to 4Gbps throughput
    • Up to 80,000 concurrent subscribers
    • Support for redundant topologies
    • FRU AC or DC power supplies/fans
    • Redundant management interfaces
    SCE 2000 Series
    • 2-GB Ethernet interfaces
    • System bypass mechanism
    • Deep Packet Inspection for up to 2 million concurrent unidirectional application flows
    • Up to 2Gbps throughput
    • Up to 40,000 concurrent subscribers
    • FRU AC or DC power supplies/fans
    • Redundant management interfaces
    SCE 1000 Series
  • 17. Traffic Reports Bi-Directional Bandwidth per Video Service Global Concurrent Session per VoIP/Video Service Global Hourly Call Minutes per VoIP/Video Service Hourly SIP/H323 Top Talkers Top SIP Domains by Volume Understand Usage Trends of VoIP Service and Other Offerings Voice Experience Reports (Part of 3.0.X)
  • 18. Voice Reports—Example Top SIP Domains by Volume Voice Experience Reports (Part of 3.0.X) Bi-Directional Bandwidth per VoIP Service Global Concurrent Session per VoIP Service Global Hourly Call Minutes per VoIP Service Hourly SIP Top Talkers Example—Call Minutes Usage My Broadband Customers Are Using Skype for 500min of Call Time per Hour…
  • 19. QoS Technologies Review
    • QoS overview
    • Classification Tools
    • Scheduling Tools
    • Policing and Shaping Tools
    • CAC - Call Admission control
  • 20. Scheduling Tools Queuing Algorithms
    • Congestion can occur at any point in the network where there are speed mismatches
    • Routers use Cisco IOS-based software queuing
      • Low-Latency Queuing (LLQ) used for highest-priority traffic (voice/video)
      • Class-Based Weighted-Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) used for guaranteeing bandwidth to data applications
    • Cisco Catalyst switches use hardware queuing
    Voice Video Data 3 3 2 2 1 1
  • 21. TCP Global Synchronization: The Need for Congestion Avoidance
    • All TCP flows synchronize in waves
    • Synchronization wastes available bandwidth
    Time Bandwidth Utilization 100% Tail Drop Three Traffic Flows Start at Different Times Another Traffic Flow Starts at This Point
  • 22. Scheduling Tools Congestion Avoidance Algorithms
    • Queueing algorithms manage the front of the queue
      •  Which packets get transmitted first
    • Congestion avoidance algorithms manage the tail of the queue
      •  Which packets get dropped first when queuing buffers fill
    • Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED)
      • WRED can operate in a DiffServ-compliant mode
      •  Drops packets according to their DSCP markings
      • WRED works best with TCP-based applications, like data
    TAIL DROP Queue 3 1 2 3 0 2 0 2 1 2 0 1 3 3 3 WRED 0 1 0 1 0 3
  • 23. Scheduling Tools DSCP-Based WRED Operation Average Queue Size 100% 0 Drop Probability Begin Dropping AF13 Drop All AF11 Max Queue Length (Tail Drop) Drop All AF12 Drop All AF13 Begin Dropping AF12 Begin Dropping AF11 50% AF = (RFC 2597) Assured Forwarding
  • 24. Congestion Avoidance
    • IP header Type of Service (ToS) byte
    • Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) bits
    ECT Bit: ECN-Capable Transport CE Bit: Congestion Experienced 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ID Offset TTL Proto FCS IP SA IP DA Data Len Version Length ToS Byte DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) CE IPv4 Packet ECT RFC3168: IP Explicit Congestion Notification
  • 25. QoS Technologies Review
    • QoS overview
    • Classification Tools
    • Scheduling Tools
    • Policing and Shaping Tools
    • CAC - Call Admission control
  • 26. Policing Tools RFC 2697 Single Rate Three Color Policer Action Action Overflow B<Tc B<Te Conform Exceed Violate CBS EBS CIR Yes Yes No No Action Packet of Size B
  • 27. Policing Tools RFC 2698 Two Rate Three Color Policer Action Action B>Tp B>Tc Exceed Violate PBS CBS PIR Yes Yes No No Conform Action Packet of Size B CIR
  • 28. Traffic Shaping
    • Policers typically drop traffic
    • Shapers typically delay excess traffic, smoothing bursts and preventing unnecessary drops
    • Very common on Non-Broadcast Multiple-Access (NBMA) network topologies such as Frame Relay and ATM
    Line Rate Shaped Rate Traffic Shaping Limits the Transmit Rate to a Value Lower Than Line Rate With Traffic Shaping Without Traffic Shaping
  • 29. QoS Technologies Review
    • QoS overview
    • Classification Tools
    • Scheduling Tools
    • Policing and Shaping Tools
    • CAC - Call Admission Control
  • 30. Introduction Why Is Call Admission Control (CAC) Needed? PSTN Circuit-Switched Networks Packet-Switched Networks PBX Physical Trunks STOP IP WAN Link’s LLQ Is Provisioned for Two Calls (Equivalent to Two “Virtual” Trunks) Third Call Rejected No Physical Limitation on IP Links; Third Call Can Go Through, but Voice Quality of All Calls Degrades  Call Admission Control Blocks Third Call IP WAN Link IP WAN Router/ Gateway Call Manager
  • 31. Gatekeeper Zones Basics
    • Cisco IOS feature, based on H.323 RAS protocol
    • Can be used between Cisco CallManager clusters, H.323 gateways and H.323 endpoints
    • Provides CAC using concept of zones and associated bandwidth counters
    • Static configuration approach limits supported topologies (mainly hub-and-spoke)
    gatekeeper zone local A abc.com 10.10.10.10 zone local B abc.com zone remote C abc.com 10.10.20.20 zone remote D abc.com bandwidth interzone zone A 384 bandwidth interzone zone B 256 bandwidth remote 512 GK
  • 32. Gatekeeper Zones Zone Concept GK 1’s Local Zones GK 1 GK 2’s Local Zones GK 2 Zone B Zone A Zone D Zone C . Zones A Logical Representation of a Physical Location Gatekeeper A Physical Device Gatekeeper A Physical Device GK GK
  • 33. Gatekeeper Zones Bandwidth Configuration Zone B Zone A Zone D Zone C GK 1’s Local Zones GK 1 GK 2’s Local Zones GK 2 “ bandwidth interzone zone xyz max-bw ” This Is the Total Bandwidth Allowed in/out of the Zone “ bandwidth total zone xyz max-bw ” The Total Bandwidth Allowed Within a Zone as Well as in/out of the Zone “ bandwidth session zone xyz max-bw “ This Is the Maximum Bandwidth Allowed per Session GK GK Bandwidth Remote “ bandwidth remote max-bw ” The Total Bandwidth Allowed in/out of the Physical GK
  • 34. Gatekeeper Zones Bandwidth Calculations GK2 Remote = 48K In Use = 0 Zone C InterZone = 32K In Use = 0 Total = 32K In Use = 0 Zone D InterZone = 32K In Use = 0 Total = 32K In Use = 0 Session = 16K GK1 Remote = 32K In Use = 0 Zone A InterZone = 32K In Use = 0 Total = 48K In Use = 0 Zone B InterZone = 48K In Use = 0 Total = 48K In Use = 0 Session = 16K Zone B Zone A Zone D Zone C GK 1’s Local Zones GK 2’s Local Zones Blue Text Represents Configured Bandwidth Assume Requested Bandwidth for Each Call Equals 16K GK 1 GK 2 X 16 16 32 16 16 GK GK 16 32 48 16 0 0 16 16 32 32 48 32 32 32 16 16
  • 35. Gatekeeper Zones Bandwidth Provisioning Provision LLQ PQ with These Values For More Details, Refer to the QoS SRND and IP Telephony SRND at: www.cisco.com/go/srnd 420 Kbps (384K + est. L2/L3 Headers) 24 Kbps (8K + Header) 80 Kbps (64K + Header) L3 Bandwidth 25.6 Kbps (24K + L2 Hdr) 16 Kbps (8K x 2) G.729 Audio 768 Kbps (384K x 2) 384K Video 81.6 Kbps (80K + L2 Hdr) 128 Kbps (64K x 2) G.711 Audio L2 Bandwidth (Frame Relay) Gatekeeper
  • 36. Agenda
    • QoS Technologies Review
    • NJEDGE Model
  • 37.  
  • 38. SES EVC VLAN Internet Purchased Rate Policed Rate Inherited SubRates Based on Usage Traffic Classes Internet2 NJEDge Video Extranet Other SES EVC VLAN Internet Purchased Class Best Effort Policed Rate Purchased Rate Policed Rate Inherited SubRates Based on Usage Traffic Classes Internet2 NJEDge Video Purchased Class Priority Data Policed Rate Extranet Other Class Marking 2 Class Marking 0 EVC Full Policed Rate EVC Full Policed Rate Purchased Class Best Effort Policed Rate Purchased Class Priority Data Policed Rate Class Marking 0 Class Marking 2 SES EVC RATES and CLASSES TODAY
  • 39. Classifying Traffic from Internal Network ip access-list extended njedge-allother-traffic permit ip any any ip access-list extended mc-control-acl permit ip any 224.0.0.0 15.255.255.255 ip access-list extended njedge-VoIP permit udp any any range 16384 32768 ip access-list extended njedge-h323-VC permit tcp any any eq 1720 permit udp any any eq 1719 permit tcp any any eq 1719 permit udp any any eq 1718 permit ip host 155.246.1.10 any permit tcp any any eq 1718 class-map match-any in-EF match ip dscp ef match ip precedence 5 match access-group name njedge-VoIP class-map match-all in-CS4 match access-group name mc-control-acl class-map match-any in-af41 match ip precedence 4 match access-group name njedge-h323-VC class-map match-all in-best-effort match access-group name njedge-allother-traffic Applying Classification from Internal Network policy-map in-SETDSCP class in-EF set ip dscp ef class in-af41 set ip dscp af41 class in-CS4 set ip dscp cs4 class in-best-effort set ip dscp default ! interface GigabitEthernet 0/3 ip address 155.246.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode load-interval 30 duplex auto speed auto media-type rj45 no negotiation auto service-policy input in-SETDSCP
    • Interface GigabitEthernet 0/3
    • Interface GigabitEthernet0/0
    • Packets
    1 2 Video1 ToS = 4 802.1p=0 HTTP ToS = 0 802.1p=0 Video2 ToS = 0 802.1p=0
  • 40. Classifying Traffic out to SES class-map match-all out-ROUTING match ip dscp cs6 class-map match-all out-VOICE match ip dscp ef class-map match-any out-INTERACTIVE-VIDEO match ip dscp af41 af42 af43 match precedence 4 class-map match-all out-STREAMING-VIDEO match ip dscp cs4 class-map match-any out-DEFAULT-BEST-EFFORT match ip dscp default policy-map SCHOOL-EDGE-TWO-CLASS-SES class out-ROUTING bandwidth percent 1 set cos 2 class out-VOICE priority percent 4 set cos 2 class out-INTERACTIVE-VIDEO priority percent 12 set ip dscp cs4 set cos 2 class out-STREAMING-VIDEO set cos 0 class out-DEFAULT-BEST-EFFORT bandwidth percent 83 random-detect set cos 0 Applying Classification on to SES Interface policy-map SHAPE-PARENT class class-default shape average percent 4 service-policy SCHOOL-EDGE-TWO-CLASS-SES Interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address load-interval 30 duplex auto speed auto media-type rj45 no negotiation auto ! interface GigabitEthernet 0/2.93 description to CORE (I1) NJEDGEI1 VRF encapsulation dot1Q 93 ip address 130.156.250.94 255.255.255.252 ip pim sparse-mode no snmp trap link-status service-policy output SHAPE-PARENT
    • Interface GigabitEthernet 0/3
    • Interface GigabitEthernet 0/2.93
    • Packets
    3 4 Video1 DSCP=af41 802.1p=2 HTTP DSCP = 0 802.1p=0 Video2 DSCP = af41 802.1p=2
  • 41. © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 42. DESIGN Phase I NJEDge INSTITUTION EDGE
  • 43. NJEDge II Applications and Network Services Internet2 Internet Video Conferencing National Lambda Rail National Research Foundation Apps Weather Modelling GRID Clustering GRID HPC Disaster Recovery Storage Video on Demand/Streaming Video DVI HDTV /Very High Bandwidth Video Multicast/Streaming Video Community Medical Computing VoIP IP Telephony VoIP Peering 1Mbps - 10Gbps and 40Gbps Access/Transport Ability Evolutional Growth Tiered Classified Site Models/Modularity Full Manageability/A-Z Provisioning Ability to bring on any service Rapid Enablement Shared Secure Access Any-to-Any Access Separation Segmentation Virtualization MPLS Security Scaling IPv6 QoS Redundancy/Resiliency/Multi-paths Non-Stop Forwarding Applications Network Services
  • 44. NJEDge II Applications and Network Services Next Gen Impact
    • Segmentation Differentiation
    • How
    • PVC
    • VLAN
    • MPLS
    • QoS
    ATM vs SES vs Fiber: 1.544Mbps -1GE - 10GE: QoS:
    • Implementation
    • How
    • Classification
    • Shaping
    • Policing
    • Sharing
    BGP or Not Default Routing – General Routing Full Routes - Specific routing BGP: T1 1.5Mbps 10Mbps,20Mbps,50Mbps OC-3,100Mbps,200Mbps 1GE 10 GE Dark Fiber, GE, WDM
  • 45. NJEDge II Applications and Network Services Next Gen Impact Institutional Routing Separation of I1 vs I2 vs DR vs Intra-campus bond traffic MPLS at the Edge: I2 Multicast Streams VPN IPv4 vs IPv6: PIX 6.3 vs 7.0 FWSM 2.3 vs 3.1 Traffic Control with RPs and QoS RPs Inside and Out Multicast: Regulatory : CLEA SOX HIPPA High Speed Synchronous Replication Moderate Asynchronous Replication Jumbo Frames Encryption Storage over IP :
  • 46. NJEDge Connectivity School Site CE Change Receiver for 10.3.245.238 Intranet/Internet 2 ATM PVC Internet ATM PVC SchoolX Internet ATM PVC Intranet /Internet2 ATM PVC Verizon MPLS CORE Commodity Internet Internet 2 Receiver for 10.3.245.238 Intranet/Internet 2 VRF under single PVC Internet VRF under singlePVC Internet VRF Intranet /Internet2 VRF SchoolX ATM Managed Service today ATM Managed Service Tomorrow Verizon ATM CORE 165 Halsey St. Carrier Hotel Commodity Internet MAGPI Internet 2 OR CE PE PE PE CE 10G 32Lambda GK GK
  • 47. NJEDge II Connectivity School Site CE Change Receiver for 10.3.245.238 Intranet/Internet 2 VRF under single PVC Internet VRF under singlePVC Internet VLAN VRF Intranet /Internet2 VLAN VRF SchoolX GE Managed Service or Dark Fiber Tomorrow 165 Halsey St. Carrier Hotel Commodity Internet MAGPI Internet 2 OR 100Mbps/1000Mbps Rate 3845NS, 7200 NPE-G1/2 or 7301/4 Router 100Mbps/1000/10000Mbps Rate 3400 3750M 3750 6500/Sup32 1GE/10GE Access Method Direct Fiber 100Mbps and Multiple 100Mbps Rates 10G 32Lambda GK GK CE CE CE CWDM and/or DWDM CE SES or Direct Fiber-Ethernet
  • 48. NJEDge II Connectivity Example Internet and DMZ Design – De-aggregation School DMZ Design IPS GUARD XT DDOS SSL /IPSEC VPN Public Servers Application Servers Database Servers Institution/Internet Edge Router Firewall IPS Global Loadbalancer Server LoadBalancer SSL Offload Content Engine WAAF Shown are de-aggregated functions of combination appliance as well appliance functions– various switch and firewall functions are virtual CS-MARS SCE Service Control Engine NJEDgeNet Core GK
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