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  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.INTRODUCTION The project “Video Conference Over Intranet Using RTP” is a software package to make a conferencing facility between two or more computers connected over a Network. Video Conferencing deals with the way people communicate and several conferences takes place between them through computers. For this purpose several software packages were available to conduct conference over internet. But not many
  4. 4. packages available for video conferencing over intranet. This project aims at developing a software package for making video conference by using java media framework, swings for graphical user interface applications, jdbc and MS-Access database for information storage. Videoconferencing needs a web cam and microphone through which transmission of audio and video were possible in locally connected networks. By simply install the package different group of peoples can make Video Conference simultaneously over the Network. Here Text,Audio,Video are transmitted and shared for this conference in a controlled way. The video conference over Network is conducted by enabling the delivery of dynamic interactive Media content across the Network. To send or receive a live media and conduct a conference over a Network,We need to receive and transmit the media frames in real time. 1.1 Motivation of the Project: Problems in Existing System: There are a variety of softwares existing for Video conferencing over Internet, but not so for Intranet. Some product for Intranet exists but not well known. Most of the systems do not provide proper authentication. No proper hierarchy is maintained.The existing systems are not suitable for official use in
  5. 5. an Organization.Some existing systems like net-meeting can be used only in windows platform. Proposed System: Our package overcomes all the drawbacks in the existing system.since it was developed in Java and hence remains portable across operating system and provides interoperability across network of different operating systems. Proper authentication is provided.It is using Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP) which is of Internet standard and hence the system is flexible and future enhancements can be provided with less cost and easy maintenance. 1.2 LITERATURE SURVEY In this project media frames are transmitted in real-time. Hence, java media framework 2.1.1 is used . Swing (for GUI Applications), jdbc3.0 and MS Access database are used in this project. Overview of Swings
  6. 6. The user interface is designed using Java Swing.The main reason behind using swing is that they are more flexible and has more features than AWT.Moreover AWT is a depreciated API.Hence it is adviseable to use swing. Swing is a set of classes that provides more powerful and flexible components than are not possible with the AWT.In addition to the familiar components, such as buttons, checkboxes, and labels, swings supplies exciting additons,including tabbed panes, scroll panes, trees and tables. Even familiar components such as buttons have more capabilities in swing. Unlike AWT components, Swing components are not implemented by platform specific code. Instead, they are written entirely in java and therefore, are platform independent. The term lightweight is used to describe such elements. Fundamental to swing is the JApplet class, which extends Applet. Overview of JMF2.1.1 Using java media framework we can contact with different types of media devices. It contains lot of classes for transmission of media frames. It contains in- built classes for creating players and processors . The JMF-RTP can be used for transmission of the media.It has classes for processing the media and converting,compressing media. Generating Live Audio/Video Data JMF shows you how to create a custom PushBufferDataSource, which is new to JMF2.1.1. A PushBufferDataSource contains streams of type PushBufferStream. Such a stream typically generates audio/video data that is organized as frames, rather than a continuous stream of bytes. So each Buffer object carries an entire frame of video or a good sized chunk of audio (anywhere between
  7. 7. say 25 millisecs to 2 seconds worth). The data can be in a compressed or uncompressed format. The stream needs to advertise the Format of its data through the getFormat method. 2.HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION
  8. 8. 2.HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION HARDWARE REQUIRMENTS Processor - Pentium II and above Hard disk - minimum 100 MB of Free Space RAM - 128 MB Capture Devices - Webcam , Headphone and Speakers SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: Platform : Java OS : Windows 2000/NT/XP
  9. 9. GUI : Swing Database : MS Access Media Package : JMF 2.1.1 Protocol : RTP 3.METHODOLOGY
  10. 10. 3. Methodology: The project follows proper authentication features and permits access in a controlled manner. USER MANAGEMENT: It deals with adding users to the database and assigning the roles for the users and deleting users from the database. AUTHENTICATION: The first step is the login where the username and password are checked and provides access if the details are found to be valid.It also checks for the role of the user and makes sure that access is provided accordingly. STARTING THE CONFERENCE:
  11. 11. When the user presses the start button and enter the conference a chat session is created where all the users who are logged in can have text chat.The list of users who are logged in are displayed in a list box.A button will be provided for adding users to the conference.Another button will be provided for removing users from the conference. Java media framework uses RTP to transmit the media. The data thatone user want to send to another user can be sent at an instance with accuracy. Two or more users are also able to chat and interact over an issue, and these transmission is performed using the JMF-RTP API. Using jmf to capture audio: JMF uses multicasting for sending, receiving and controlling of audio.JMF Processor captures the voice/audio and sent it over the network. JMF supports various formats like .wav,.au,.aiff,.rmf etc.,.We are using .rtp format which is platform independent and fits to any operating system. Using JMF to capture video: JMF API supports .mpeg, .avi formats for receiving of video over locally connected networks. It uses multicasting for receiving media frames and transmitting media frames. Codecs are provided by JMFAPI for compressing and decompressing frames and storing it in database. Video frames are transmitted in frames/second.
  12. 12. 4.DESIGN DETAILS
  13. 13. 4.1 TOOLS USED 4.1.1 JAVA Java was conceived by James Gosling, Patrick Naughton, Chris Wrath, Ed Frank and Mike Sheridan and SUN Micro Systems Incorporation in 1991. It took 18 months to develop the first working version. This language was initially called "OAK", but was renamed "JAVA" in 1995. Before the initial implementation of OAK in 1992 and the public announcement of Java in 1995, many more contributed to the design and evolution of the language. JAVA OVERVIEW Java is a powerful but lean object oriented programming language. It has generated a lot of excitement because it makes it possible to program for Internet by creating applets, programs that can be embedded in web page. The context of an applet is limited only by one's imagination. For example, an applet can be animated with sound, an interactive game or a ticker tape with
  14. 14. constantly updated stock prices. Applets can be just little decoration to liven up web page, or they can be serious applications like word processors or spreadsheet. But Java is more than a programming language for writing applets. It is being used more and more for writing standalone applications as well. It is becoming so popular that many people believe it will become standard language for both general purpose and Internet programming. Java has added garbage collection, multi threading and security capabilities. The result is that Java is actually a platform and easy to use. Java is actually a platform consisting of three components: 1. Java programming language 2. Java library of classes and interfaces 3. Java virtual machine FEATURES OF JAVA OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMING Object-oriented programming is at the core of java. In fact, all java programs are object-oriented As we know, all computer programs consist of two elements: code and data. Furthermore, a program can be conceptually organized around its code or around its data. That is, some programs are written around "what is happening" and other is written around "who is being affected”. These are the two paradigms that govern how a program is constructed.
  15. 15. Classes A class is a combination of similar type. The combination of both data and the code of an object can be made a user defined data type with the help of a class. A class defines shapes and behaviors of an object and data. In class has been defined we can create any number of object belonging to that class. A said already classes are user defined data types and behave likes the built in types of programming language. Data Abstraction An essential element of object -oriented programming is abstraction. Humans manage complexity through abstraction. For example, people do not think of a car as a set of tens of thousands of individual parts. They think of it as a well -defined object with its own unique behavior. The point is that you manage the complexity of car (or any other complex system) through the use of hierarchical abstraction. Hierarchical abstraction of complex system can also be applied to computer program .The data from a traditional process-oriented program can be transformed by abstraction into its component object. A sequence of process steps can became a collection of messages between these object. Thus each of this object describes its own unique behavior. The java programming language and environment is designed to solve a number of problem in modern programming practice Data abstraction is an act of representing essential features without including the background details and explanations.
  16. 16. Encapsulation Encapsulation is the mechanism that binds together code and data it manipulates, and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. It is the protective wrapper that prevents the code and data being accessed by other code from outside. Access to the code and data inside the wrapper is tightly controlled through a well-defined interface,. In java the basis of encapsulation is class. A class defines the structure and behaviour that will be shared by a set of objects. Objects are reffered as instances of a class. Data Encapsulation is one of the most striking features of java. Encapsulation is the wrapping up of data and functions into a single unit called class. The wrapped defines the behavior and protects the code and data from being arbitrarily accessed by the outside world and only those functions, which are wrapped in the class, can access it. This type of insulation of data from direct access by the program is called 'Data hiding'. Inheritance Inheritance is the process by which objects of a class can acquire the properties of objects of another class i.e. in java the concept of inheritance provides idea of reusability providing the means of adding additional features to an existing class without modifying it. This is possible by deriving a new class from the existing on thus the newly created class will have the combined features of both the parent and the child classes. Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability to take more than one form i.e. one object, many shapes. Polymorphism plays an important role in allowing objects
  17. 17. having different internal structure to share the same external interface. This states a general class if operations may be accessed in the same manner ever though, specific actions with each operation may differ. Polymorphism is a feature that allows one interface to be used for a general class of actions. This helps to reduce complexity by allowing the same interface to be used to specify a general class of action. It is the compilers job to select the specific action as it applies to each situation. The advantages of Java are:  Simple  Object-Oriented  Robust  Multithreaded  Portable  Secure THE BYTE CODE The key that allows java to solve both the security and the portability problems is that the output of a java compiler is not executable code. There, it is byte code. Byte code is a highly optimized set of instructions designed to be executed by the java run-time system, which is called java virtual machine (JVM). Translating a java program into byte code helps makes it much easier to run a program in a wide variety of environments. The reason is straightforward: only the JVM needs to be implemented for each flat form. Once the run-time package exists for a given system, any java program can run on it. Remember although the details of the JVM will differ from platform to platform, all interpret
  18. 18. the same java byte code. If a java program were compiled to native code, then different versions of the same program would have to exist for each type of CPU connected to the Internet. This is, of course, not a feasible solution. Thus, the interpretation of byte code is the easiest way to create truly portable programs. DYNAMIC BINDING Binding refers the linking of a procedure call to the code to be executed in response to the call. Dynamic binding means that the code associated with a given procedure call is not known until the time of the call at the run time.Dynamic binding is closely associated with the concepts of polymorphic depends on the dynamic type of that reference. PACKAGES AND INTERFACES Java allows to groups classes in a collection called packages. Packages are convenient way of organizing the classes and libraries. Packages can be nested. A number of classes having same kind of behavior can be grouped under a package. Packages are imported into the required java programs using the import keyword. Interfaces provide a mechanism that allows unrelated classes to implement the same set of methods. An interface is a collection of method prototypes and constant values that is free from dependency on a specific class. Interfaces are implemented by using the implements keyword. INTRODUCTION TO API Application programming interface (API) forms the heart of any java program. These API's are defined in corresponding java packages and are imported to the program. Some of the packages available in java that are used in this projest are:  Java. Lang -includes all language libraries  Java.awt -includes AWT libraries, such as windows,
  19. 19. scrollbars, etc., for GUI applications  Java. Applet -includes API for applet programming  Java.io -includes all libraries required for input- output (io) applications.  Java.net -includes networking API's.  Java.util -includes general API's like vector, stack etc. 4.1.2 Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is a standard java extension for data access that allows Java programmers to code to a unified relational database API. By using JDBC, java programmer can represent database connections; issue SQL statements, process database results, implemented by a JDBC Drive, an adapter that known how to talk to a particular database in a proprietary way. JDBC is similar to the Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard. JDBC is a java database connectivity API that is a part of the Java Enterprise APIs .It is used to integrate relational database with java programs. It defines a set of API objects and methods to interact with the underlying database. JDBC provides database access via Java that is independent of both the platform and the database whose system the application runs on. A java program first opens a connection to a database, makes a statement object and retrieves the results as well as information about the
  20. 20. result sets. As a part of JDBC, a driver is also provided to access ODBC data sources from JDBC. This driver is called the JDBC-ODBC bridge . It is implemented as the JdbcOdbc.class and a native library to access the ODBC driver. As JDBC is close to ODBC in design, the ODBC bridge is a thin layer over JDBC. Internally, this driver maps JDBC methods to ODBC calls and, thus, intracts with any available ODBC driver. The advantage of this bridge is that now JDBC has the capability to access almost all database, as ODBC drivers are widely available. The JDBC- ODBC bridge allows JDBC driver to be used as ODBC drivers by converting JDBC method calls into ODBC function calls. 4.1.3 SWING JFC 1.2 consists of five major packages: • Swing • Pluggable Look-and-Feel (PL&F) • Drag and Drop • Accessibility • 2D Swing components allow for efficient graphical user interface (GUI) development. Swing components are a collection of lightweight visual components. They contain replacements for the basic heavyweight AWT components as well as complex user-interface components such as trees and tables. Swing components contain a pluggable look-and-feel, abbreviated as PL&F or plaf. This allows the same application to run with a native look-and-feel on different platforms. For example, when running on a Windows platform, the application will look like an application written specifically for the Windows-based computer. The same application, when run on an Apple Macintosh computer, looks like it was written specifically for the Macintosh. When the application is run on a
  21. 21. UNIX workstation, it looks like a UNIX application, and so on for any platform to which the JVM has been ported. Another use of the PL&F is to have an application behave the same on any platform on which it is executed. The JFC contains operating system-neutral look- and-feels that allow an application to present the same look-and-feel independent of the operating system where it executes. This capability can reduce the learning curve for users of applications running in a heterogeneous computer environment. As a developer, you are not limited to the PL&F shipped with the JFC. You can develop your own look-and-feel that can be used by any JFC application. An organization may want to develop its own to give applications a consistent look- and-feel for use on all its hardware platforms. Unlike their AWT equivalents, Swing components do not contain peers. Swing components are 100% pure Java and were designed to allow for mixing AWT heavyweight and Swing lightweight components in an application. However, in practice this has proven problematic. Whenever possible you should use all Swing components and components derived from them. The major difference between lightweight and heavyweight components is that a lightweight component can have transparent pixels while a heavyweight component is always opaque. By taking advantage of transparent pixels, a lightweight component can appear to be non-rectangular, while a heavyweight component must always be rectangular. A mouse event occurring in a lightweight component falls through to its parent component, while a mouse event in a heavyweight component does not propagate through to its parent component. When a lightweight component overlaps a heavyweight component, the heavyweight component is always drawn on top of the lightweight component, regardless of the relative z-order of the two components. Swing is an extension for the AWT, not a replacement. The root of the majority of the Swing hierarchy is the JComponent class. This class is an extension of the AWT Container class. Thus the necessity of the AWT classes, even when
  22. 22. using Swing components. For example, the AWT button or label classes are not extended. When there are equivalent classes in each toolkit for a particular UI component, the Swing version should be used bcause awt is a depreciared API. The JFC contains many complex components, such as a tree and table, that simply are not available in the AWT. Packages The Swing component toolkit consists of over 250 pure Java classes and 75 interfaces contained in more than 10 packages. They are used to build lightweight user interfaces. Swing consists of non-user-interface (non-UI) classes as well as the more familiar user-interface (UI) classes. The UI classes, such as buttons and labels, create visible components that applications can display on screen, and they can be combined to create a complete graphical user interface. The Swing UI components descend from the JComponent class, and all begin with the capital letter J. Swing packages that are typically used by developers when building GUIs are listed, and briefly explained.Swing are not added in the awt package.They are added in a package javax.swing. The Swing Package: javax.swing This is the largest of the Swing packages consisting of approximately 100 classes and 25 interfaces. The majority of the UI classes (the "J" classes) are contained in this package. The exceptions are JTableHeader, implemented in the javax.swing.table package, and JTextComponent, implemented in the javax.swing.text package. Both of these packages are described shortly. The Basic Package: javax.swing.plaf.basic The Basic package contains classes that define the default look-and-feel of Swing components. By extending these classes, components with a customized PL&F can be developed. The Border Package: javax.swing.border
  23. 23. The Border package contains the Border interface and nine classes that implement this interface. Typically classes in this package are not instantiated directly; instead, instances are obtained via methods in the BorderFactory class contained in the javax.swing package.Classes in this package can be extended to create a specialized border. The Event Package: javax.swing.event The Event package defines events specific to Swing components. There are approximately 25 Swing-specific events. The events themselves and their associated Listener interfaces are defined in this package. Swing events are used by the various data models contained in the JFC. The Multipackage: javax.swing.plaf.multi The Multipackage consists of multiplexing UI classes. These allow Swing components to have UIs provided by multiple user-interface factories. Accessibility The Java Accessibility API provides the framework for JFC applications to interact with assistive technologies. A properly written JFC application can be executed by assistive technologies such as Braille terminals and screen readers just as easily as it is run on conventional computers. The Accessibility Package: javax.accessibility The Accessibility package consists of eight interfaces and five classes. It contains the Accessible interface that is the main interface for the JFC Accessibility package. Any accessible component must implement this interface.
  24. 24. 4.1.4 MICROSOFT ACCESS: Microsoft Access has changed the image of desktop databases from specialist applications used by dedicated professionals to standard business productivity applications used by a wide range of users. More and more developers are building easy-to-use business solutions on, or have integrated them with, desktop applications on users' desktops. Microsoft Access has built a tradition of innovation by making historically difficult database technology accessible to general business users. Whether users are connected by a LAN, the Internet, or not at all, Microsoft Access ensures that the benefits of using a database can be quickly realized. With its integrated technologies, Microsoft Access is designed to make it easy for all users to find answers, share timely information, and build faster solutions. At the same time, Microsoft Access has a powerful database engine and a robust programming language, making it suitable for many types of complex database applications.
  25. 25. 4.1.5 THE JMF JMF is JAVA MEDIA FRAMEWORK . It is Fundamentally an API for handling audio and video. Java Media Framework (JMF) provides a unified architecture and messaging protocol for managing the acquisition, processing, and delivery of time-based media data. JMF is designed to support most standard media content types, such as AIFF, AU, AVI, GSM, MIDI, MPEG, QuickTime, RMF, and WAV. By exploiting the advantages of the Java platform, JMF delivers the promise of "Write Once, Run AnywhereTM" to developers who want to use media such as audio and video in their Java programs. JMF provides a common cross-platform Java API for accessing underlying media frameworks. JMF implementations can leverage the capabilities of the underlying operating system, while developers can easily create portable Java programs that feature time-based media by writing to the JMF API.
  26. 26. The Java™ Media Framework API (JMF) enables audio, video and other time-based media to be added to Java applications and applets. This optional package, which can capture, playback, stream and transcode multiple media formats, extends the multimedia capabilities on the J2SETM platform, and gives multimedia developers a powerful toolkit to develop scalable, cross-platform technology. FUNCTIONS OF JMF Media handling: o Play o Capture o Transmission o Processing Decode Encode Transcode (De)Multiplex Multiple content types and formats Local or streaming media Applets and Applications Applications such as: o AV conferencing
  27. 27. o True platform independent multi-media apps. • Mobile and embedded devices (e.g., mobile phones) Structure of the API The version of JMF(2.1.1) that is used for this project consists of 209 classes (85 Interfaces).It is Split into 11 packages among which the following packages are used in this project: javax.media: The main, top-level, package comprising most of the classes and also most of the important ones such as Time, Manager, Processor, and Player. javax.media.control: A package comprised of 18 Interfaces defining the different types of controls. Examples include FrameRateControl and FormatControl. javax.media.format: An important package of 10 classes (one of which is an exception) defining the different Formats that JMF is capable of processing. Examples of the classes include AudioFormat and H263Format. javax.media.protocol: An important package of 25 classes (15 being interfaces) providing support for communication with datasources and capture devices. Amongst the important classes included in this package are DataSource and CaptureDevice. javax.media.renderer: A package of two interfaces defining a renderer (for video content). javax.media.rtp: The top-level of the 3 packages dealing with RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) it comprises 26 classes (most interfaces) dealing with streaming content with RTP. javax.media.rtp.event: A package of 23 events that may result when using RTP. javax.media.rtp.rtcp: A package of 5 classes (4 being interfaces) defining usage of RTCP (RTP Control Protocol) within the JMF.
  28. 28. javax.media.util: A package of two highly useful classes: BufferToImage and ImageToBuffer for converting between JMF buffers and AWT Images. Key Classes The classes that play major roles in this project used for creating players,processing media and many more are: Manager Centralised creation of Players, Processors, DataSources and DataSinks Player * Playback (rendering) of time-based media Processor * Processing (transcoding etc.) of time-based media DataSource * Representation of time-based media arriving from a particular source with a particular protocol * Needed to create Players, Processors, etc. DataSink * Means of “sinking” (e.g., saving to a file) time-based media MediaLocator. * Specification of the “location” of media. • AudioFormat: Information about an audio format including sampling rate and quantisation level. • CaptureDevice: Interface defining behaviour that all capture devices (e.g., cameras) must possess.
  29. 29. • CaptureDeviceInfo: Information about a particular capture device, including the formats supported. • CaptureDeviceManager: Manager aware of all the capture devices on the system and capable of providing information about them or, for example, a list that support a particular format. • Clock: Interface defining JMF’s fundamental time model. Key classes such as Players and Processors implement this Interface. • Codec: Interface supporting the processing of media data in one format into (typically) another. • Controller: Interface built on Clock and which defines the 5 states of stopped time (see following section on time). • ControllerListener: Interface defining a listener for Controller generated events. As Controllers include Players and Processors this is a vital Interface which is implemented somewhere in just about every JMF program. • Controls: An interface specifying a means of obtaining a Control for an object. • DataSink: Interface for accepting data and “rendering” it to some source such as a file. • DataSource: Class providing a simple protocol for managing media arriving from a particular source (e.g., a file). Further Key Classes • FileTypeDescriptor: Defines the different content type (architectures) supported.
  30. 30. • Format: An abstraction of the format of a media object without all the encoding specific details. • Manager: Central manager or access point for obtaining resources such as Players, Processors, DataSources and DataSinks. • MediaEvent: Parent event class for all media events (e.g., ControllerEvent). • MediaLocator: Means of specifying the location of media content. Used in the creation of Players and data sources and sinks. • Multiplexer: A processing unit that accepts multiple input tracks and interleaves them to produce a single output container format. • Participant: A participant in an RTP session: a sender or receiver. • PlugIn: An Interface defining a generic plug-in that processes media data in some manner. • Processor: An extension to the Player Interface, the Processor defines an object capable of processing and controlling a media object. • PullDataSource: A media source from which the data must be pulled (e.g., a file). • PushDataSource: A media source from which the data is streaming (e.g., an RTP session). • Time: An object that defines time to nanosecond precision. • TimeBase: A constantly ticking source of time. VideoFormat: Format information about video data including
  31. 31. High-Level Architecture Real time environment which is similar to the working of a JMF Player.
  32. 32. Recording, processing, and presenting time-based media. JMF uses this same basic model. A data source encapsulates the media stream much like a video tape and a player provides processing and control mechanisms similar to a VCR. Playing and capturing audio and video with JMF requires the appropriate input and output devices such as microphones, cameras, speakers, and monitors. MANAGERS IN JMF: Manager Handles the construction of Players, Processors, DataSources, and DataSinks. This level of indirection allows new implementations to be integrated seamlessly with JMF. From the client perspective, these objects are always created the same way whether the requested object is constructed from a default implementation or a custom one. CaptureDeviceManager
  33. 33. Maintains a registry of available capture devices and generates capture device info object. PackageManager Maintains a registry of packages that contain JMF classes, such as custom Players, Processors, DataSources, and DataSinks. PlugInManager Maintains a registry of available JMF plug-in processing components, such as Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, Codecs, Effects, and Renderers. To write programs based on JMF, you'll need to use the Manager create methods to construct the Players, Processors, DataSources, and DataSinks for your application. If you're capturing media data from an input device, you'll use the CaptureDeviceManager to find out what devices are available and access information about them. If you're interested in controlling what processing is performed on the data, you might also query the PlugInManager to determine what plug-ins have been registered. Player An object for rendering (playing) and controlling (e.g., stopping, changing rate of play) a media object. A Player processes an input stream of media data and renders it at a precise time. A DataSource is used to deliver the input media-stream to the Player.The rendering destination depends on the type of media being presented.
  34. 34. JMF player model. A Player does not provide any control over the processing that it performs or how it renders the media data. Player supports standardized user control and relaxes some of the operational restrictions imposed by Clock and Controller. Player States A Player can be in one of six states. The Clock interface defines the two primary states: Stopped and Started. To facilitate resource management, Controller breaks the Stopped state down into five standby states: Unrealized, Realizing, Realized, Prefetching, and Prefetched.
  35. 35. Player states. In normal operation, a Player steps through each state until it reaches the Started state: A Player in the Unrealized state has been instantiated, but does not yet know anything about its media. When a media Player is first created, it is Unrealized. When realize is called, a Player moves from the Unrealized state into the Realizing state. A Realizing Player is in the process of determining its resource requirements. During realization, a Player acquires the resources that it only needs to acquire once. These might include rendering resources other than exclusive-use resources. (Exclusive-use resources are limited resources such as particular hardware devices that can only be used by one Player at a time; such resources are acquired during Prefetching.) A Realizing Player often downloads assets over the network. • When a Player finishes Realizing, it moves into the Realized state. A Realized Player knows what resources it needs and information about the type of media it is to present. Because a Realized Player knows how to render its data, it can provide
  36. 36. visual components and controls. Its connections to other objects in the system are in place, but it does not own any resources that would prevent another Player from starting. • When prefetch is called, a Player moves from the Realized state into the Prefetching state. A Prefetching Player is preparing to present its media. During this phase, the Player preloads its media data, obtains exclusive-use resources, and does whatever else it needs to do to prepare itself to play. Prefetching might have to recur if a Player object's media presentation is repositioned, or if a change in the Player object's rate requires that additional buffers be acquired or alternate processing take place. • When a Player finishes Prefetching, it moves into the Prefetched state. A Prefetched Player is ready to be started. • Calling start puts a Player into the Started state. A Started Player object's time-base time and media time are mapped and its clock is running, though the Player might be waiting for a particular time to begin presenting its media data. 4.1.6 REAL TIME TRANSPORT PROTOCOL
  37. 37. RTP Architecture To send or receive a live media broadcast or conduct a video conference over the Internet or Intranet, you need to be able to receive and transmit media streams in real-time. RTP provides end-to-end network delivery services for the transmission of real- time data. RTP is network and transport-protocol independent, though it is often used over UDP. RTP architecture. RTP can be used over both unicast and multicast network services. Over a unicast network service, separate copies of the data are sent from the source to each destination. Over a multicast network service, the data is sent from the source only once and the network is responsible for transmitting the data to multiple locations. Multicasting is more efficient for many multimedia applications, such as video conferences. The standard Internet Protocol (IP) supports multicasting. RTP Services RTP enables you to identify the type of data being transmitted, determine what order the packets of data should be presented in, and synchronize media streams from different sources.
  38. 38. While RTP does not provide any mechanism to ensure timely delivery or provide other quality of service guarantees, it is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) that enables you to monitor the quality of the data distribution. RTCP also provides control and identification mechanisms for RTP transmissions. If quality of service is essential for a particular application, RTP can be used over a resource reservation protocol that provides connection-oriented services. RTP Data Handling Data is transferred between the session manager and a Player or Processor using the Buffer object. Therefore, all DataSources created by the Processor with an RTP-specific format are buffer DataSources. Similarly, all DataSources created by the session manager and handed over to the Manager for Player creation are buffer DataSources. All RTP-specific data uses an RTP-specific format encoding as defined in the AudioFormat and VideoFormat classes. For example, gsm RTP encapsulated packets have the encoding set to AudioFormat.GSM_RTP, while jpeg-encoded video formats have the encoding set to VideoFormat.JPEG_RTP. AudioFormat defines four standard RTP-specific encoding strings: public static final String ULAW_RTP = "JAUDIO_G711_ULAW/rtp"; public static final String DVI_RTP = "dvi/rtp"; public static final String G723_RTP = "g723/rtp"; public static final String GSM_RTP = "gsm/rtp"; VideoFormat defines three standard RTP-specific encoding strings: public static final String JPEG_RTP = "jpeg/rtp"; public static final String H261_RTP = "h261/rtp"; public static final String H263_RTP = "h263/rtp";
  39. 39. Buffers that have an RTP-specific encoding might have a non-null header defined in javax.media.rtp.RTPHeader. Payload-specific headers are not part of the RTPHeader. Instead, payload headers are part of the data object in the Buffers transferred between the Player or Processor and the session manager. The packet's actual RTP header is also included as part of the Buffer object's data. The Buffer object's offset points to the end of this header. For packets received from the network by the SessionManager, all available fields from the RTP Header (as defined in RFC 1890) are translated to appropriate fields in the Buffer object: timestamp and sequence number. The marker bit from the RTP header is sent over as flags on the Buffer object, which you can access by calling the Buffer getFlags method. The flag used to indicate the marker bit is Buffer.FLAG_RTP_MARKER. If there is an extension header, it is sent over in the header of be Buffer, which is a RTPHeader object. The format of the Buffer is set to AudioFormat.GSM_RTP. All source streams streamed out on RTP DataSources have their content descriptor set to an empty content descriptor of "" and their format set to the appropriate RTP-specific format and encoding. To be able to intercept or depacketize this data, plug-in codecs must advertise this format as one of their input formats. For packets being sent over the network, the Processor's format must be set to one of the RTP-specific formats (encodings). The plug-in codec must advertise this format as one of its supported output formats. All Buffer objects passed to the SessionManager through the DataSource sent to createSendStream must have an RTP-specific format.
  40. 40. RTP Applications RTP applications are often divided into those that need to be able to receive data from the network (RTP Clients) and those that need to be able to transmit data across the network (RTP Servers). Some applications do both--for example, conferencing applications capture and transmit data at the same time that they're receiving data from the network. Receiving Media Streams From the Network Being able to receive RTP streams is necessary for several types of applications. For example: • Conferencing applications need to be able to receive a media stream from an RTP session and render it on the console. • A telephone answering machine application needs to be able to receive a media stream from an RTP session and store it in a file. • An application that records a conversation or conference must be able to receive a media stream from an RTP session and both render it on the console and store it in a file. Transmitting Media Streams Across the Network RTP server applications transmit captured or stored media streams across the network. For example, in a conferencing application, a media stream might be captured from a video camera and sent out on one or more RTP sessions. The media streams might be encoded in multiple media formats and sent out on several RTP sessions for conferencing with heterogeneous receivers. Multiparty conferencing could be implemented without IP multicast by using multiple unicast RTP sessions
  41. 41. THE JMF RTP API JMF enables the playback and transmission of RTP streams through the APIs defined in the javax.media.rtp, javax.media.rtp.event, and javax.media.rtp.rtcp packages. JMF can be extended to support additional RTP-specific formats and dynamic payloads through the standard JMF plug-in mechanism. Similarly, you can use the RTP APIs to transmit captured or stored media streams across the network. Outgoing RTP streams can originate from a file or a capture device. The outgoing streams can also be played locally, saved to a file, or both. RTP transmission. We can implement a video conferencing application that captures live audio and video and transmits it across the network using a separate RTP session for each media type. The JMF RTP APIs are designed to work seamlessly with the capture, presentation, and processing capabilities of JMF. Players and processors are used to present and manipulate RTP media streams just like any other media content. You can transmit media streams that have been captured from a local capture device using a capture DataSource or that have been stored to a file using a DataSink. Similarly, JMF can be extended to support additional RTP formats and payloads through the standard plug-in mechanism.
  42. 42. High-level JMF RTP architecture. Session Manager In JMF, a SessionManager is used to coordinate an RTP session. The session manager keeps track of the session participants and the streams that are being transmitted. The session manager maintains the state of the session as viewed from the local participant. In effect, a session manager is a local representation of a distributed entity, the RTP session. The session manager also handles the RTCP control channel, and supports RTCP for both senders and receivers. The SessionManager interface defines methods that enable an application to initialize and start participating in a session, remove individual streams created by the application, and close the entire session. 4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
  45. 45. 5.1MODULES: This Project Video Conferencing over Intranet has four modules.The four modules are listed below: 1. USER INTERFACE 2. CAPTURING THE MEDIA 3. PROCESSING THE MEDIA 4. TRANSMISSION OF THE MEDIA
  46. 46. MODULE 1 USER INTERFACE: The user interface is designed using Java Swing. The main screen is a frame .It has a menubar.The menuitem login and close will only be enabled in the beginning.When the application starts the connection is established with the database. LOGIN: The login screen has two labels named username and password and a text field and password field for getting the respective values from the user and two buttons OK and CANCEL.The user interface is very user-friendly.The entered values are validated before storing to the database.After entering the details if the user clicks “ok” then the checkuser function(Boolean) is called.The checkuser function compares the values got from the user with the details in the userdata table.If the values match with any of the record,then it returns value true else false.If checkuser function returns value true, then access will be granted. ADMIN USER: If the user is an administrator then he can add new users to the database,change details about existing user and also delete a user from the database. The userdata table has four fields 1.userid 2.username 3.password 4.role
  47. 47. ADD/EDIT USER: The admin user can add new user to the data base.When the details about the new user are entered first the data is validated .Then the value is checked with the database if the userid already exists then a message is displayed saying that the userid already exists.If not then the values are added to the database. CONFERENCE USERS: Whenever user starts the conference ,that user has to enter his details in a dialogbox that appears before the conference screen.This will be stored in the database and can be used for future reference.
  48. 48. MODULE 2 CAPTURING THE MEDIA In this project JMF is used to capture media data from the capture device which is the web-camera in this case. Captured media data is used to create a datasource which can be played using a player . First we have to locate the capture device that we want to use by querying the CaptureDeviceManager. Then get the CaptureDeviceInfo object for the device. Get a MediaLocator from the CaptureDeviceInfo object and use it to create a DataSource.But since we know what capture device we are going to use we need not follow the above mentioned steps . Then a Processor is created using the DataSource. The processor is then stared to begin the capture process. Accessing Capture Devices The web-camera that we want to use is accessed through the CaptureDeviceManager. The CaptureDeviceManager is the central registry for all of the capture devices available to JMF. We can get a list of the available capture devices by calling the CaptureDeviceManager.getDeviceList method. Each device is represented by a CaptureDeviceInfo object. To get the CaptureDeviceInfo object for a particular device, you call CaptureDeviceManager.getDevice: CaptureDeviceInfo deviceInfo = CaptureDeviceManager.getDevice("deviceName");
  49. 49. CONFERENCE WORKING: The conference screen has two list boxes,one for displaying the list of users who are currently logged in.The other list box for the users whom we add to our conference.A button add is provided to add a user to our conference.Once we have added a user to our conference , the conference initiator will get the audio and video of that user.If the user wants to attend the conference he/she has to add the one who has called for the conference.
  50. 50. MODULE 3 PROCESSING THE MEDIA: The next step in the project is processing the captured media.The captured media may be of any format. JMF-RTP API supports all major audio and video formats.The format used in this project is .rtp format which is supported by ths RTP. To receive notification of format changes from a Controller, the ControllerListener interface is implemented and it listens for FormatChangeEvents. The exact media format of an object is represented by a Format object. The format itself carries no encoding-specific parameters or global timing information, it describes the format's encoding name and the type of data the format requires. An AudioFormat describes the attributes specific to an audio format, such as sample rate, bits per sample, and number of channels. A VideoFormat encapsulates information relevant to video data. Format is set by using the setFormat method : setFormat( new Format(Format,Hz,bits(8 or 16),mono or stereo(1or 0)) The captured stream is converted into packetized .rtp format .The audio and video streams are captured separately and processed separately.
  51. 51. MODULE 4: TRANSMISSION OF THE MEDIA: Media is transmitted over the network using JMF and JMF-RTP. We may want to transmit media from one computer to another. Or we may want to broadcast a live feed to an intranet. The source of the media can be a file, live capture using a capture device or any other source supported by JMF.In this project the source is the live streaming media from the web-cam. The wrapper classes, VideoTransmit and AVTransmit, are programmed such that it takes media input from a source(ie) the web-cam and the speakers connected to our system and transmit the media to a destination multicast ip address in the .rtp format . The RTP API implementation included in JMF will transmit the media using the RTP protocol. The VideoTransmit program transmits only video regardless of the input source. It always transcodes the media to JPEG/RTP for transmission. It uses the RTP DataSink API to transmit the media. AVTransmit will transmit all available media tracks from the input. It will use the specified RTP format for each track. It then uses the RTP SessionManager API for the transmission.
  53. 53. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS: The project now works in an Intranet .In future it has to be implemented in the internet.Recording facility must be added to the project.A player capable of playing the recorded conference must also be added as a tool .More controls have to be added to the system so that it’s performance is improved. More security features have to be added to the system when it is to be implemented in the Internet. In future white board facility must be added to the system to make it more attractive and useful.Screen grabing feature must also be added to the system.
  54. 54. 7.APPLICATION
  55. 55. Applications of Video Conferencing: Interaction with Experts: Students are able to get answers to questions from experts who, because of time and distance, would otherwise be inaccessible. Learn about differences: Students are able to interact with other students and adults who may be very different from themselves. Addresses different Learning Styles: It can include media such as video clips, animations, audio and graphics. This first hand learning is especially good for visual learners. Increases Motivation: You will find that students are much more willing to do the research when they know that they will be presenting it to other classes. Most students enjoy using the new technology. Better Retention: Students are learning from a primary source rather than a textbook. Improve Skills: • Presentation and Speaking Skills • Communication and Management Skills • Questioning Skills
  56. 56. 8.CONCLUSION
  57. 57. CONCLUSION This project has been successfully developed using the standard software development strategies that is followed in the Industry. I hope that this system would help the VIDEO CONFERENCING APPLICATION users fulfill their requirements and vendors able to satisfy their customers. This project has been developed by our sincere effort.This project has so many useful features, unlike the existing system which is very much restricted in its operation. Of course even some limitations also exist. According to the specified functionality, it will work in a proper manner. Application point of view,Besides various Video Conference applications,the project software shall be recommended to implement as communication software in the corporate offices.In that case ,the user will have lot of advantages such as easy and economical communication and maximum utilization of employees timings ,Also be noted that by this setup,the telephone connection,given to each employees through exchange shall be free for getting external calls. • Home • Forum-Help • Mail Box & Other Services • Bookmark (Ctrl + D) • Contact Us • Sitemap • ©2005 -07 ITAcumens A Free Resource Sharing Place For Engineers.