Digital Video Creation Paul Browne
Contents <ul><li>Introduction  </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Video Formats </li></ul><ul><li>Capturing </li></ul><ul><li>Digit...
Introduction <ul><li>Video contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frames </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aud...
Introduction <ul><li>Video and Audio Compression/ decompression methods are called CODECS </li></ul><ul><li>The Audio and ...
File Sizes <ul><li>File Sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 bit = 0 or 1 (Binary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 byte = 8 bits (00...
Bandwidth <ul><li>Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be sent/received per second  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is impo...
<ul><li>Digital Video Formats </li></ul>
MPEG Digital Video Formats <ul><li>MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed to create an interoper...
Popular Digital Video Formats <ul><li>Microsoft  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.AVI  (interoperable standard),  WMV </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Capturing & Recording  </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Video </li></ul>
Capturing <ul><li>Digital Video Digitization Procedures  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Select Connection method  </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Connecting  To The Computer </li></ul>
Capturing: Connection Types <ul><li>Firewire: For Apple machines and Laptops this is standard but  most  PC’s desktops nee...
Capturing: Connection Approaches <ul><li>Connecting a camcorder to computer using analog connection for digitization </li>...
Capturing: Connection Approaches <ul><li>Connecting camcorder to computer using Digital Firewire connection. </li></ul>1: ...
Capturing: Connection Approaches <ul><li>Connecting Camcorder to TV / Video </li></ul>1: Connect to  camcorder 2: connect ...
Capturing: Digitisation  Firewire/ Mini DV Capture program Digital Source Video Capture Analog/ TV Capture Board <ul><li>E...
Capturing: Digitisation  <ul><li>Select b itrate quality  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 minute MPEG-1 at 1 Mbps = 7 MB  </li></u...
<ul><li>Now that the digital video </li></ul><ul><li>has been recorded we can  </li></ul><ul><li>edit it </li></ul>
Digital Video Editing <ul><li>Digital Video Editing can involve simple operations like removing and/or joining sections of...
Digital Video Editing <ul><li>Semi-Professional (complex editing): Avid Express,Adobe Premiere </li></ul>Current Project: ...
Digital Video Editing <ul><li>Microsoft Movie Maker 2: Designed for home users: Allows Simple and Semi-complex Editing </l...
Digital Video Editing <ul><li>TMPGenc: Create MPEG-1 & 2 and allows simple Editing and Re-compression at modified bitrates...
<ul><li>Now That the video is  ready  it can be </li></ul><ul><li>viewed on computer or over the internet </li></ul>
Streaming Digital Video <ul><li>Streaming Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the video to be played over the internet with...
Streaming Digital Video <ul><li>Streaming video can be expensive requiring a fast computer and expensive streaming softwar...
<ul><li>Creation of DVD-Video disks from the </li></ul><ul><li>source video is also possible </li></ul>
DVD-Video Creation <ul><li>DVD-Video Creation Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain your Digital Video source  </li></ul...
DVD-Video Creation <ul><li>Screenshot from TMPGENC DVD Author </li></ul>DVD Chapter Layout Background Layout Design Video ...
DVD-Video Creation <ul><li>Screenshot from Nero 6 Burning Software  </li></ul>DVD-Video Project DVD Video  Source Files on...
The End
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Digital Video Creation

  1. 1. Digital Video Creation Paul Browne
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Video Formats </li></ul><ul><li>Capturing </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Video Editing </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming </li></ul><ul><li>DVD-Video Creation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Video contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frames </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Video can be stored in Analog or Digital formats </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VHS Video is stored in Analog format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD Video is stored in Digital format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frame rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of frames/ images shown per second (fps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low frame rate will have unnatural motion like early cinema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural motion needs to be 20 fps or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cinema Film = 24 fps, TV PAL = 25fps, TV NTSC = 30fps (USA, Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video can have large space requirements so compression is essential </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Video and Audio Compression/ decompression methods are called CODECS </li></ul><ul><li>The Audio and Visual information is handled by a separate audio and video codec </li></ul><ul><li>These codecs need to be installed any computer that will view the video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are installed by default or with media player but some might need be installed separately. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many video formats are actually wrappers that handle the synching of audio and video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They offer the facility to use numerous codecs for audio and visual for compression/ decompression . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.AVI and .MOV files are good examples of this. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. File Sizes <ul><li>File Sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 bit = 0 or 1 (Binary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 byte = 8 bits (00100110) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Kilobyte = 1024 bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Megabyte = 1024 kilobytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Gigabyte = 1024 Megabytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Terabyte = 1024 Gigabytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical Bitrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD Audio : 1.3 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mp3 audio (CD quality) : 96-320 Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed Video : 150 Kbps - 6 Mbps Uncompressed Video : 31 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Photo (4 Megapixel quality) : 1 Megabyte </li></ul></ul>Kbps : kilobits per second Mbps : Megabits per second Capacities Floppy Disk : 1.4 Megabytes CD-ROM : 650 Megabytes DVD : 4.5 Gigabytes Typical Hard Drive : 80-250 Gigabytes
  6. 6. Bandwidth <ul><li>Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be sent/received per second </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is important for streaming digital audio/video as they will be encoded at a specific bitrate per second. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher quality Digital Video (high bitrate) needs higher bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed Video at 250 Kbps needs a bandwidth of at least 250 Kbps. In practice it will need to be more to cover network traffic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Common bandwidth restrictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Phone (GPRS Date) 26.8 kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Phone (Voice) 9.6 kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Modem 56 kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADSL (Broadband) 256+ kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet Network 100+ Mbps </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Digital Video Formats </li></ul>
  8. 8. MPEG Digital Video Formats <ul><li>MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed to create an interoperable standard for digital video. Lots of different companies and research groups participate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results from MPEG work can be found in DVD’s and Digital Satellite television. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG-1: Allows VHS quality digital video (VCD) </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG-2: Digital TV and DVD </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG-4: Digital Video over the Internet and Networks </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG-7: Video Content descriptor layer only </li></ul>
  9. 9. Popular Digital Video Formats <ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.AVI (interoperable standard), WMV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.MOV (interoperable standard), .QT (QuickTime) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RealNetworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.ra , . rm , . ram </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DivX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on advanced MPEG-4 compression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio requires a separate codec (typically mp3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has .avi compatible format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MiniDV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression used in MiniDV camcorders (bitrate 31.2 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 minute = 219 Meg </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Capturing & Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Video </li></ul>
  11. 11. Capturing <ul><li>Digital Video Digitization Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Select Connection method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Choose input method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Select bitrate quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Record content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common methods of video connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DV capture (digital) Firewire/ USB-2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV/ Video capture (low quality Analog) Composite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV/ Video capture (higher quality Analog) S-Video </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Connecting To The Computer </li></ul>
  13. 13. Capturing: Connection Types <ul><li>Firewire: For Apple machines and Laptops this is standard but most PC’s desktops need a card installed. Bandwidth 400 Mbps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for uncompressed digital video capture off a mini-dv camcorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USB 1.2: This is available on most computers at this stage. Bandwidth is poor at 1.2 Mbps (so not suitable for quality digital video) </li></ul><ul><li>USB 2.0: Available as default on Pentium 4 machines. Connections look the same as USB 1.2 but with higher bandwidth capability: 440 Mbps. Future DV Capture will use this also but currently firewire is king </li></ul>
  14. 14. Capturing: Connection Approaches <ul><li>Connecting a camcorder to computer using analog connection for digitization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical computer will not have analog input. Requires an ATI All in one wonder or WinTV PDR cards </li></ul></ul>1: Connect to camcorder 2: Connect white and red (audio) cables to phono connection 3: Connect yellow (video) cable to composite-in, phono connection placed into line-in. composite-in line-in
  15. 15. Capturing: Connection Approaches <ul><li>Connecting camcorder to computer using Digital Firewire connection. </li></ul>1: Connect to camcorder 2: Connect to firewire port on PC
  16. 16. Capturing: Connection Approaches <ul><li>Connecting Camcorder to TV / Video </li></ul>1: Connect to camcorder 2: connect the three wires to scart adapter 3: Connect scart to TV /Video S-Video Composite Stereo Audio
  17. 17. Capturing: Digitisation Firewire/ Mini DV Capture program Digital Source Video Capture Analog/ TV Capture Board <ul><li>Example Digitisation Programs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Capturing: Digitisation <ul><li>Select b itrate quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 minute MPEG-1 at 1 Mbps = 7 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 minute MPEG-2 at 6 Mbps = 48 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 minute DV capture at 31.2 mbps = 219 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Captured Digital Video can be further compressed at a later stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QuickTime Pro, Helix Producer, TMPGenc or FlaskMPEG can reduce the bitrate further </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital video editing is generally done on higher quality video before being further compressed for e-mail or the internet </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Now that the digital video </li></ul><ul><li>has been recorded we can </li></ul><ul><li>edit it </li></ul>
  20. 20. Digital Video Editing <ul><li>Digital Video Editing can involve simple operations like removing and/or joining sections of video content. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be quick for the computer to complete as it does not require any re-encoding of the video. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More complex Digital Video Editing is the addition of titles, visual transition effects like swirls and the mixing of different audio and video sources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is usually slower for the computer to complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generally a number of times the duration of the content. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Digital Video Editing <ul><li>Semi-Professional (complex editing): Avid Express,Adobe Premiere </li></ul>Current Project: Videos, audio and images for edit Output Timeline showing duration and audio+video transitions and effects Visual Output Transitions and effects
  22. 22. Digital Video Editing <ul><li>Microsoft Movie Maker 2: Designed for home users: Allows Simple and Semi-complex Editing </li></ul>Output Timeline
  23. 23. Digital Video Editing <ul><li>TMPGenc: Create MPEG-1 & 2 and allows simple Editing and Re-compression at modified bitrates </li></ul>Simple Edit Remove section of video
  24. 24. <ul><li>Now That the video is ready it can be </li></ul><ul><li>viewed on computer or over the internet </li></ul>
  25. 25. Streaming Digital Video <ul><li>Streaming Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the video to be played over the internet without having to be downloaded to the computer beforehand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The video is sent in a number of segments to peoples computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The video can be streamed at different bandwidths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The bandwidth of the persons connection to the internet needs to be higher than the video’s bitrate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The streamed video is not saved onto the client machine and therefore cannot be copied </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Streaming Digital Video <ul><li>Streaming video can be expensive requiring a fast computer and expensive streaming software </li></ul><ul><li>Edited digital video needs to re-compressed (re-encoded at a lower bitrate as people’s internet bandwidth might be low. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>48 Kbps for a 56K modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 Kbps for broadband </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Free streaming packages are available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple’s Darwin Streaming Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://developer.apple.com/darwin/projects/streaming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RealNetworks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.realnetworks.com/products/server/ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Creation of DVD-Video disks from the </li></ul><ul><li>source video is also possible </li></ul>
  28. 28. DVD-Video Creation <ul><li>DVD-Video Creation Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain your Digital Video source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-1, MPEG-2 or AVI (Mini DV format) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a DVD Menu Structure with your source video as input (See Slide 29 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output your created DVD to computer hard disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place a blank DVD-R (recordable) into the DVD recorder drive on your computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use DVD burning software like Nero 6 Ultra-edition to write the DVD-Video files on the harddisk to your DVD-R (See Slide 30 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Not All burning software will write a DVD compliant DVD-Video </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. DVD-Video Creation <ul><li>Screenshot from TMPGENC DVD Author </li></ul>DVD Chapter Layout Background Layout Design Video Source Files DVD Recordable Capacity
  30. 30. DVD-Video Creation <ul><li>Screenshot from Nero 6 Burning Software </li></ul>DVD-Video Project DVD Video Source Files on Computer DVD Video to Create
  31. 31. The End
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