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© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
© Copyright Khronos Group, 2002 - Page 1
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  • 1. BOF Meeting SIGGRAPH 2002 www.khronos.org neil.trevett@3dlabs.com Khronos Secretary
  • 2. Today’s Agenda
    • Khronos - Technical and Organizational Overview
      • What is Khronos? What are our goals?
        • Neil Trevett, Senior Vice President, 3Dlabs - Khronos Secretary
      • OpenML™ 1.0 Technical Overview
        • Jean-Luc Dery, Technical Leader, Advanced Systems, Discreet
      • OpenGL ® ES - Embedded API initiative
        • Neil Trevett, Senior Vice President, 3Dlabs - Khronos Secretary
      • Khronos IP Policy – an Innovative Approach
        • Shawn Underwood, Director of Marketing, SGI
      • How do I get involved in driving Khronos Standards?
        • Neil Trevett, Senior Vice President, 3Dlabs - Khronos Secretary
      • Questions and Answers – we want your feedback!
  • 3. Driving OPEN Standards for CREATING and DEPLOYING DYNAMIC Media
  • 4. Khronos’ Evolving Organization Khronos 2.0 New Khronos Participation Agreement 2.0 Recruiting member companies now Enables multiple working groups Khronos 1.0 Original Promoters cooperated under Khronos Participation agreement 1.0 to produce OpenML 1.0 specification Media API for Dynamic Media Authoring. Specification available now Deploying and evolving OpenML Open GL ES Small footprint OpenGL profiles for Embedded Systems
  • 5. Khronos Goal #1: Simplify Dynamic Media AUTHORING Publicly Released at Siggraph 2001 The result…
  • 6. Dynamic Media Programming
    • Synergistic integration of OpenML and OpenGL
      • What OpenGL is to GRAPHICS - 2D, 3D and image processing… …OpenML is to MEDIA - video and audio processing
      • OpenML and OpenGL together create a unified programming environment
        • With seamless integration of graphics and media
      • Tightly integrated graphics, video and audio = DYNAMIC MEDIA
    Workstation 3D graphics Professional video and audio authoring
  • 7. OpenML Digital Media Programming Environment ? Applications Window System MLdc ML 2D Graphics 3D Graphics Displays Video Audio Synchronization OpenGL ® OpenGL Extensions
  • 8. Technical Strategy for OpenML 1.0
    • Move PROVEN technologies into Open Standards
    Problem Solution UST/MSC Synchronization #4: synchronization of diverse media streams (graphics, audio, video) SGI’s dmSDK Digital Media Handling #1: Configure and control the Input/Output and processing of video and digital audio ML OpenGL Extensions Integrating graphics and video #3: Enable OpenGL hardware to add more value to the media authoring workflow SGI’s Xdc extension to X11 Display Control #2: Configure and control display devices MLdc
  • 9. Khronos Goal #2: Embedded Devices and Appliances Create Standards for Dynamic Media on The result… OpenGL ® ES
  • 10. Well Defined OpenGL Profiles
    • Addressing broad application requirements
      • Khronos activities are endorsed and supported by the OpenGL ARB
    2D 3D OpenGL ES ARB Feedback and Ratification Workstation Focus Media and Embedded Focus Small footprint OpenGL profiles
  • 11. OpenML 1.0 Technical Overview Jean-Luc Dery Technical Leader, Advanced Systems Discreet, a division of Autodesk
  • 12. Overview
    • What is OpenML?
      • Open and cross-platform standard
      • Programming environment used for capturing, processing, synchronizing and playing digitial media content (video and audio)
      • Composed of four components:
        • Graphics video backend control (MLdc)
        • Video/Audio IO (ML)
        • OpenGL extensions
        • Synchronization (UST/MSC)
    Application MLdc Video channels Graphics devices Digital media devices OpenGL + Extensions ML
  • 13. OpenML’s “MLdc” API
    • Display control interface
      • Enables an application to control the video back-end of the graphics devices that produce video output streams
      • Enables to set up channels in the display screen (s)
        • Channels that are driven from sections of physical frame buffers
        • Channels depends on the display device
    Frame Buffers Progressive Scan Computer Monitor Progressive Scan HDTV Monitor Interlaced Video Monitor Channels Screen s
  • 14. OpenML’s “MLdc” API (ctn’d)
    • MLdc provides control for:
      • Screens and channels
      • Quering monitor information
      • Video output channel position
      • Video format query and settings
      • Vertical retrace rate
      • Scan mode (i nterlaced vs. progressive )
      • Gamma ramp control
      • Video sync honization sources
      • Genlock state notification
  • 15. OpenML’s “ML” API
    • Media device control interface
      • Low level API that allows to configure and control video/audio device input, output and processing features
      • Allows to setup processing pipelines between application and I/O devices
        • Asynchronous communication between application and media devices
        • Device control and capability queries
        • Synchronization mechanism
        • Processing capability for digital media streams
        • Optimized buffering mechanism for smooth and efficient delivery of media streams
    OpenInventor QuickTime OpenGL ML Low level (ioctl interface) 3D Media
  • 16. OpenML’s “ML” API (ctn’d)
    • Application and memory centric model
    Application memory Video i nput /output device Graphics 1. send 2. receive 3. drawPixels
  • 17. OpenML’s OpenGL Extensions
    • Video imaging and 3D graphics integration
      • OpenML is built around OpenGL
      • OpenML and OpenGL : A t ight and synergistic integration
      • Extends OGL with video primitives and DCC rendering features
      • Defines a set of OpenGL extensions that OpenML compliant hardware must implement
  • 18. OpenML’s OpenGL Extensions (ctn’d)
    • Current extensions
      • Pbuffers are the fundamental method of integrating graphics and video
        • Enables buffering and off-screen processing of video data
        • The primary data link between OpenML and OpenGL
      • OpenGL imaging extensions are used to process video streams
        • Filtering, color correction, blending, image enhancement, color space conversion
      • Synchronization control
        • Primitives to control UST/MSC synchronization from OpenGL
        • Functions added: WaitForMSC, SwapBuffersMSC, GetSyncValues
      • Interlace support
        • Based on two previous extensions: SGIX_interlace, INGR_interlace_read Enables reading and writing of the frame buffer while skipping every other line
        • Enables processing (e.g., convolution) on interlaced video streams
  • 19. OpenML’s OpenGL Extensions (ctn’d)
    • Current extensions
      • Texture color mask management to enable advanced compositing
        • Enables independent loading of RGB images and Alpha masks in texture memory
        • Recently promoted from an SGI extension to an ARB extension
        • Works for textures like the OpenGL color mask works for the color buffer
      • Chroma resampling to support pixel formats such as YCrCb
        • Upsampling and downsampling when converting between YCrCb and RGB
        • Sampling options are: Replicate, Zero fill, Average
  • 20. OpenML Synchronization
    • M edia device synchronization interface
      • C ritical part of authoring environment
      • Allows to synchronize video, audio and graphics streams making sure that all media streams start at the same time a nd stay in sync
      • Non-trivial problem to solve
        • Devices from various manufacturers
        • Device latenc ies are unpredictable
        • OS scheduling latencies
    Audio Device A Video Device A Audio Device B Gfx Device B Gfx Device A Application Do all the streams come out in sync?
  • 21. OpenML Synchronization (ctn’d)
    • The UST/MSC/SBC Solution
      • UST - Unadjusted System Time – time reference for s/w and devices
        • 64-bit monotonic counter with nanosecond resolution, microsecond system-wide accuracy
      • MSC - Media Stream Counter - incremented for each channel sample
        • Video - per frame, Graphics - per retrace, audio - per audio sample, e.g. 44.1KHz
      • SBC – Swap Buffer Count - incremented on graphics buffer swap
        • Not necessarily in sync with retrace
    UST Graphics devices Digital audio/ video devices OpenGL ML MSC Output graphic f rames/ samples Video/Audio IO samples SBC
  • 22. OpenML Synchronization (ctn’d)
    • Robust synchronization – even on non real-time OS
      • Every media sample is time-stamped
        • Timestamp can be accessed through OpenGL and ML APIs for temporal analysis and control
      • Application can synchronize output events to UST
        • Enabling precise timing and synchronization in non-real-time operating systems
      • Applications can detect dropped samples
        • And take corrective action
  • 23. Real-world Examples
      • Currently shipping Discreet applications on PC, Mac and SGI
        • Special effects and compositing
        • Off-line and on-line editing
        • Broadcast graphics
        • 3D modeling and animation
      • Scenarios examples
        • Video preview
        • Media playback
        • Video capture
        • Real-time video effects
      • Expertise learned from these products was used to define the OpenML standard
  • 24. Benefits of OpenML
    • To Developers…
      • OpenML will allow multimedia application developers to…
        • Spend more time and energy on application development and less time on mundane details such as device control, synchronization and buffering issues
        • Avoid dealing with different APIs for video, graphics and audio for each operating environment
        • Develop and deploy efficient cross-platform applications th at interoperate a wide selectio n of s y stems and peripherals
      • OpenML will allow hardware vendors to…
        • Gain access to new market opportunities by delivering on the promise of interoperability
        • Leverage the efforts of a larger base of application developers
        • Add significantly more value to the rich media creation workflow
  • 25. Future Developments - OpenML 1.1
    • Meeting the ongoing needs of media authoring
      • Tight integration into the evolving OpenGL 1.1 framework
      • Closer integration of ML and OpenGL video streaming
      • Higher quality rendering
      • OpenGL resource management
      • Conformance tests and performance benchmarks
      • POSSIBILITIES include:
        • Extended color range >8 bit per component
        • Improved compositing capabilities – separate alpha and matte channels
        • Improved texture and memory management – including render to texture, interlaced textures
        • Improved efficiency – including asynchronous operations
        • Improved live video handling - streaming of video to/from Pbuffers
    • We need your input now – particularly application developers!
  • 26. Any Questions on OpenML?
  • 27. Want to use OpenML 1.0? Application Developers
    • No license needed to use OpenML
    • Specification, free of charge, at www.khronos.org
    OpenML Library Implementers
    • Royalty-free Adopters Agreement
    • Spec and agreement at www.khronos.org
  • 28. Encouraging OpenML Deployment
    • OpenML Implementation Working Group
      • Create sample implementation
        • Starting from SGI’s donated dmSDK source
      • Define DDI level interfaces
        • To enable new devices to be added easily
      • Cooperative, possibly open source, development
        • Source trees managed by Khronos
      • Define and implement conformance tests
        • Maintain specification integrity and ensure portability
  • 29. OpenGL ES Overview Neil Trevett Vice President, 3Dlabs
  • 30. Khronos Goal #2: Embedded Devices and Appliances Create Standards for Dynamic Media on The result…
  • 31. Inverse Screen Size Law
    • The need for advanced graphics
      • Smaller screens need more advanced graphics processing per pixel
        • To make best use of restricted screen real-estate
      • Advanced graphics techniques provided by state-of-the-art APIs
        • Anti-aliasing, multi-level compositing, rich media, 3D
    Interactive 3D Gaming Content Video Processing and synchronization Perspective windows maximize screen real-estate Anti-aliased text to make small text extremely legible Translucent Menus don’t obscure lower layers
  • 32. The Power of a Standard API
    • To enable hardware and software communities
      • But there are no acceptable cross-platform embedded graphics APIs
        • Particularly with advanced graphics capabilities
      • We are missing this fundamental prerequisite for market growth
        • The graphics hardware community should take the imitative in driving the platform forward
        • Just as on the PC
    Standard Graphics API Embedded Hardware Community Embedded Software Community Requirements Capabilities Opportunities to optimize cost, power and performance for standardized functionality Can use advanced graphics capabilities consistently across multiple platforms
  • 33. Cross Platform Solution Essential
    • Many platforms and initiatives need these APIs
    Leading Symbian OS for mobile consumer devices Needs minimal API size and increasing functionality WindML ® – expanding multimedia capabilities of VxWorks ® Looking to further expand 3D and rich media delivery capabilities Embedded Linux – need for low-footprint APIs No standardized 2D API other than X Windows – not low footprint Increasing use of OpenGL for 3D – but not low footprint Java Community – Java2D, Java Media Framework, Java Advanced Imaging Java3D is a high-level API – need low-footprint 3D API for embedded applications ARINC – standards for advanced cockpit displays Need standardized 2D & 3D APIs Severe certification demands drive need for minimum API size Web3D Consortium Extensible standards for 3D delivery over the internet, driving 3D in MPEG-4 BUT needs target small footprint 2D/3D API for higher-level standards
  • 34. OpenGL ES
    • A proposed solution for advanced embedded graphics
      • Create well-defined subset profiles of OpenGL
        • A series of increasingly compact profiles
        • Selecting functionality needed for key target markets
      • Proper subsets ensure synergy with, and migration path to, full OpenGL
        • No new technologies are needed – just agreement on subsets of an existing API
    Select functionality needed for key target markets Eliminate redundancy Duplicated functionality Unnecessary queries Data-type variants Eliminate workstation functionality e.g. 3D textures Difficult/costly to implement with little benefit in embedded space
  • 35. Industry Momentum New Visual Processing APIs Poorly defined standard API requirements. Discussions with BroadcastCL group- to avoid divergence Strong support from ARINC and aerospace companies including Boeing, Airbus, Rockwell, Honeywell, Smiths, Lockheed… At a meeting in April 2002, Symbian and the cell phone industry selected Khronos’ “Embedded OpenGL” as the graphics API for cell phones with accelerated 3D in 2004 Phones Web pads Cameras PDAs Hand-held Appliances Line-powered Appliances STBs Internet Terminals Consoles Safety Critical Avionics Automotive
  • 36. Why OpenGL?
    • The obvious starting point
      • OpenGL is already the most widely available cross-platform graphics API
        • Workstations to embedded appliances, PCs to Macs, Windows to Linux
      • Open Standard – not controlled by any one company
        • Specification controlled by the OpenGL Architecture Review Board (ARB)
      • Low-level API
        • Enables lightest weight interface between software and hardware
      • Well-proven specification of advanced graphics techniques
        • No need to re-invent the wheel
      • Successfully implemented by many graphics companies
        • Low-cost chips and cores, software-only, floating point, fixed point
      • Leveraged development
        • An ecology of development tools already based around OpenGL
      • Strong future roadmap with OpenGL 2.0
        • Enabling access to the new generation of programmable hardware
      • Through Khronos – will be royalty free to the embedded industry
        • Khronos has built in a royalty free framework into its participation agreement
        • Agreed by SGI – MAJOR ACHIEVENT, MAJOR OPPORTUNITY
  • 37. OpenGL ES Philosophy
    • To enable rapid consensus
      • Be strongly requirements-based
        • Handheld 3D gaming and vehicle displays are currently most urgent needs
      • Small number of profiles
        • A large number will be come unwieldy
      • Take large-scale profiling decisions – eliminate large functionality blocks
        • Don’t endlessly tweak individual function calls and parameters
          • It often makes little difference to size
          • Increases ISV confusion to have many detailed differences
      • Enable software, fixed point implementations
        • As well as hardware accelerated implementations
      • Define utility libraries to add additional functionality – e.g. display lists
        • Avoid burdening core profiles with functionality that can be implemented well in software
  • 38. Some Profile Possibilities
    • Addressing broad application requirements
      • Based on 3Dlabs strawman
        • And early OpenGL ES ad hoc working group meetings
      • Games 3D
        • Minimum footprint 3D - including texture-mapping
        • Good gaming platform
      • Safety Critical 3D
        • Absolute minimum 3D for easy certification
      • Core 2D
        • High-quality 2D geometry, Lines, polygons and text
      • Core Image
        • High quality affine transforms
    Core 3D Safety Critical 3D Core 2D Core Image
  • 39. Application Example
    • Proposed profiles - solution for Avionics Displays
      • Cockpit Display - typical requirements
        • Anti-aliased 2D geometric graphics
        • No windowing system
        • Minimum possible code size to minimize DO-178 certification costs
        • SOLUTION – Core 2D
      • Enhanced raster requirements
        • Display of raster maps
        • Rotation required for “direction of flight up” mode
        • SOLUTION – Core 2D and Core Image
      • Enhanced 3D required
        • For display of “out of window” 3D terrain
        • SOLUTION – Safety Critical 3D
  • 40. Aggressive Timelines for OpenGL ES
    • Embedded industry won’t wait
      • Need ratifiable specs by the end of the year
      • First ad hoc working group meetings at Siggraph
    July Khronos Participation agreement available here at Siggraph August Ad hoc Working Group Meetings 4Q02 First draft specification 1Q03 “ OpenGL ES 1.0” ratified by Khronos
  • 41. How OpenGL Standards Fit Together OpenGL 2.0 “Pure” OpenGL 2.0 OpenGL ES 2.0 OpenGL 1.3 OpenGL 1.x OpenGL 2.x “Pure” OpenGL 2.x OpenGL 2.x includes full 2.0 functionality – so all applications run unmodified OpenGL 1.3 GL2 extensions OpenGL 1.x GL2 extensions Applications can incrementally make use of new GL2 extensions OpenGL ES 1.0 Non-legacy applications can use recommended “Pure OpenGL” features and benefit from a simple, compact, efficient and flexible API
  • 42. “ embedded OpenGL” Scalable, small footprint 2D & 3D graphics “ embedded OpenML” Small footprint video & audio processing SYNERGY Between Graphics and Media Processing Between Authoring & Deployment
  • 43. Participation Framework Neil Trevett Vice President, 3Dlabs
  • 44. New Participation Framework
    • Khronos membership is open or interested companies
      • There are four levels at which a company can participate
        • In OpenML and OpenGL® ES development
      • Application developers
        • May use drivers implementing Khronos standards with no license or royalties
      • Adopters
        • May sign a royalty free license to implement Khronos-based specifications
      • Contributors
        • May apply for open membership in the Khronos Group at a nominal annual fee, with full working group participation and voting rights
      • Promoters
        • Must be voted in by other Promoting Members and act as the “Board of Directors” to drive the direction of the Khronos Group and standardization activities, with final specification ratification voting rights.
  • 45. How Khronos Membership Works Board of Promoters Promoters establish and participate in working groups for spec generation, marketing, reference implementations, conformance tests, etc. Contributor Membership Specification work undertaken in Working Group. Generates specs are passed back to the Promoters for final ratification Working Group Working Group Working Group Contributors participate in working groups and have full voting rights within those groups Ratified Khronos Group Specifications Application Developers Adopters Adopters may sign a royalty free license to implement Khronos-based specifications Application developers may use drivers implementing Khronos standards with no license or royalties
  • 46. Promoting Member Companies
    • Dues of $15,000 per year
      • Standards-Definition Benefits
        • Vote among Promoters to define objectives, priorities and operations of Khronos
        • Vote among Promoters on final ratification of specifications
        • Vote in the working groups
      • Marketing Benefits
        • Company logo on trade show signage, and other marketing material
        • Quoted in Khronos Group press releases, whenever relevant
        • Speaking opportunities at major industry events on behalf of the Khronos Group
        • Opportunity to send staff to Khronos trade show booths and events
        • Logo and corporate description on the Khronos.org “Promoters” page
        • Listing the Khronos.org “Products” page
  • 47. Contributing Member Companies
    • Dues of $2,900 per year
      • Standards-Definition Benefits
        • Vote in the working groups
      • Marketing Benefits
        • Quoted in Khronos Group press releases, whenever relevant
        • Opportunity to send staff to Khronos trade show booths and events
        • Logo and corporate description on the Khronos.org “Contributors” page
  • 48. Khronos IP Framework Shawn Underwood Marketing Director, SGI
  • 49. Structure of Working Groups
    • A working group per task
      • OpenML 1.1
      • OpenGL ES 1.0
      • Implementation working groups
      • Marketing working group
    Working Group Working Group Working Group Working Group Board of Promoters
  • 50. The brave, new world of IP….
    • Khronos is taking a new approach to standards & IP
      • Goal of Khronos is royalty-free specification
      • Contributions to Khronos are royalty-free
      • Members must actively participate
      • Avoid hostage situations
        • Formal contributions
        • IP disclosure requirements
      • Allow withdrawal to keep IP in-house
  • 51. Highlights of Agreement
    • With regards to IP
      • Contributors only responsible for tracking activity in their working group
      • Intellectual property is contributed formally
      • Working group members must disclose IP that is impacted by recommendations to the board of Promoters
      • Withdrawal from working group protects disclosed IP unless formally contributed
      • Members may be compelled to contribute IP if it is not disclosed as such
  • 52. Next Steps Neil Trevett Vice President, 3Dlabs
  • 53. Participation Timeline Contributor Participation Agreements Available on web-site. 1-1 Discussions with Potential Promoters Board of promoters formed. First Promoters Meeting. Working Groups formed Working groups meetings start – signed up Promoters and Contributors can participate Siggraph 2002 September 6th
  • 54. Next Steps
    • Go to www.khronos.org
      • To become a Contributor
        • Download and review Contributor Agreement from www.khronos.org
        • Execute and send, with dues, to Khronos to become a member
      • If you want to be considered as a potential Promoter
        • Talk to Neil, Shawn or Elizabeth
      • Working Groups activities on schedules on the web and mailing lists
        • We will inform you of first working group meetings
      • Any questions – email the Khronos Manager
        • [email_address]
    www.khronos.org
  • 55. Summary
    • Khronos, OpenML and OpenGL ES
      • Khronos has delivered its first specification - OpenML 1.0
        • On schedule from one year ago at NAB 2000
      • OpenML is to dynamic media as OpenGL is to 3D graphics
        • Will reduce costs and increase productivity for anyone creating rich media
      • Khronos is now commencing work on OpenML 1.1
        • Further refinements, performance benchmarks and conformance tests
      • Khronos is initiating OpenGL ES initiative
        • Produce profiled versions of OpenGL for embedded appliances and devices
      • Strong synergy between authoring and playback environments
        • Call for involvement by any interested companies
    The Khronos Group encourages your participation to help grow the dynamic media market!
  • 56. Any Questions? IRIX and OpenGL are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc., and OpenML is a trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc., used with permission by the Khronos Special Interest Group. Sun, and Solaris are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems Inc. in the United States and other countries. Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corp. Discreet is a trademark of Autodesk, Inc. / Discreet Logic. All other product names, trademarks, and/or company names are used solely for identification and belong to their respective owners.

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