Clean Slate Design
for Internet Video Delivery


            Bernd Girod
            Xiaoqing Zhu

       Information Syst...
How 1B Users Share the Internet
                                                      Rate R
      TCP Throughput
        ...
Evolving IP Traffic Mix
                                                  3000
                                           ...
Outline of this Talk
 •   Resource allocation for video streaming
 •   Distribution of video over wireless home networks
 ...
How 2 Videos Share a Link
                      44

Good    42
picture                                                    ...
Distribution of TV over WLAN

 HDTV
                                                                   6 Mbps
            ...
Distribution of TV over WLAN
                        Transcoder
                            0                             ...
Dynamic Estimation of R-D Curve
                                               Scene cuts            R-D Model
           ...
802.11b Transmission of 2 Video Streams
        channel capacity
                           4000
          Link
         r...
Wireless Video Networking




                        Distributed protocol needed
B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design fo...
UDP Throughput
  Stream 1


      )))))
    54Mbps


   6 ~ 54 Mbps

      )))))


   Stream 2




B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean...
TCP Throughput
  Stream 1


      )))))
    54Mbps


   6 ~ 54 Mbps

      )))))


   Stream 2




B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean...
Distributed Resource Allocation in
            Wireless Mesh Networks
                                                    ...
Distributed Resource Allocation in
            Wireless Mesh Networks
                                                    ...
Distributed Resource Allocation in
            Wireless Mesh Networks
                                                    ...
Distributed vs. Centralized Rate Control


             A
             54Mbps

             B
            54Mbps

        ...
Wireless Streaming of HDTV and SDTV
                                                             Harbor (HDTV 1280x720p, 6...
Cross-Layer Allocation: 41.3 dB                                     TFRC: 43.8 dB
 B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design fo...
TFRC: 32.0 dB
B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery               19
Cross-Layer Allocation: 37.3 dB
B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery                   20
TFRC                                          Cross-Layer Allocation


B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet V...
Lessons for Clean Slate Design
    • TCP/TFRC resource allocation can be improved
          – by incorporating application...
The End
http://www.stanford.edu/~bgirod/publications.html
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Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery

  1. 1. Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery Bernd Girod Xiaoqing Zhu Information Systems Laboratory Stanford University
  2. 2. How 1B Users Share the Internet Rate R TCP Throughput maximum transfer data rate unit Growing congestion 1.22 MTU R RTT p packet loss rate p round 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 trip time [Mahdavi, Floyd, 1997] [Floyd, Handley, Padhye, Widmer, 2000] B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 2
  3. 3. Evolving IP Traffic Mix 3000 1% 1% 9% 7% Revenues [Mio USD] 21% 19% Revenues: 2500 11% figures for Germany only 35% 33% Real-time traffic 2000 16% 20% 1500 97% 71% 89% 80% 43% 1000 63% 45% 500 23% Revenues: 11% 4% 0 Elastic traffic 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Low-latency real-time traffic: VoIP, Video-Conferencing, Gaming Real-time traffic: Audio-Streaming, Web-Cam-Usage, PVR, Video, TVoDSL Elastic traffic : File Sharing, P2P Traffic, www Source: IP 2010, IDC, ScreenDigest, Ovum, DETE B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 3
  4. 4. Outline of this Talk • Resource allocation for video streaming • Distribution of video over wireless home networks • Centralized resource allocation • Fairness anomalies in CSMA/CA WLANs • Cross-layer distributed resource allocation B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 4
  5. 5. How 2 Videos Share a Link 44 Good 42 picture C = 4 Mbps quality 40 38 Y-PSNR in dB 36 Same quality: 34 Same rate: Total Utility: Maximum resource allocation • Media-aware • Media-aware resource allocation • Better utilization • TCP-friendly “fair” sharing of bandwidth 32 • Must know • Media-obliviousutility function • Pareto quality • Unbalancedequal-slope condition mobile 30 Foreman foreman Mobile Bad 28 picture 26 quality 24 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 encoding rate in kbps B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 5
  6. 6. Distribution of TV over WLAN HDTV 6 Mbps tablet SDTV 12 Mbps 54 Mbps Home Media Gateway B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 6
  7. 7. Distribution of TV over WLAN Transcoder 0 Decoder Network c0 0 Transcoder Interface Receiver … 1 Decoder c1 … 1 … … (Multi-Channel) Transcoder M cM Decoder M Controller Wireless terminals [Kalman, van Beek, Girod 2005] B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 7
  8. 8. Dynamic Estimation of R-D Curve Scene cuts R-D Model 45 40 D D0 R R0 35 [Stuhlmüller et al. 2000] Y-PSNR in dB 30 25 Parameters track weighted average of 20 last I-Frame, P-Frame and B-Frame 15 10 5 1 2 3 4 5 time in seconds B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 8
  9. 9. 802.11b Transmission of 2 Video Streams channel capacity 4000 Link rates in kbs 2000 [kbps] 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 channel-time allocation Channel time 0.5 allocation 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2000 rate in kbps transcoded Transcoder bit-rate 1000 [kbps] 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 15 backlog in frames 10 Backlog in frames 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 50 Mean PSNR: 31 dB Y-PSNR 40 PSNR in dB in dB 30 20 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 time in seconds B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 9
  10. 10. Wireless Video Networking  Distributed protocol needed B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 10
  11. 11. UDP Throughput Stream 1 ))))) 54Mbps 6 ~ 54 Mbps ))))) Stream 2 B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 11
  12. 12. TCP Throughput Stream 1 ))))) 54Mbps 6 ~ 54 Mbps ))))) Stream 2 B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 12
  13. 13. Distributed Resource Allocation in Wireless Mesh Networks DST1 SRC2 Link state monitor Flows, link speeds, and advertized rates in interference set DST2 SRC1 B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 13
  14. 14. Distributed Resource Allocation in Wireless Mesh Networks DST1 SRC2 Link state monitor Flows, link speeds, and advertized rates in interference set Interference set: All links that can overheard DST2 by Tx or Rx node of a link SRC1 B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 14
  15. 15. Distributed Resource Allocation in Wireless Mesh Networks DST1 SRC2 ACK packets: • report received packets • report congestion Rate control agent Adjust trade-off DST2 between utility and congestion SRC1 Packet header: • Advertize rate • Collect link states B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 15
  16. 16. Distributed vs. Centralized Rate Control A 54Mbps B 54Mbps C 6…54 Mbps B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 16
  17. 17. Wireless Streaming of HDTV and SDTV Harbor (HDTV 1280x720p, 60fps) Stream 1 ))))) 54Mbps Ice (SDTV/4CIF 704x576p, 30fps) Stream 2 ))))) 6 Mbps B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 17
  18. 18. Cross-Layer Allocation: 41.3 dB TFRC: 43.8 dB B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 18
  19. 19. TFRC: 32.0 dB B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 19
  20. 20. Cross-Layer Allocation: 37.3 dB B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 20
  21. 21. TFRC Cross-Layer Allocation B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 21
  22. 22. Lessons for Clean Slate Design • TCP/TFRC resource allocation can be improved – by incorporating application’s utility functions – by network-awareness • Distributed rate allocation: – Monitor and report link states to the sender – For wireless, not enough to monitor links along route – Rate advertising greatly improves convergence – Utility function only needed at the source B. Girod, X. Zhu: Clean Slate Design for Internet Video Delivery 22
  23. 23. The End http://www.stanford.edu/~bgirod/publications.html
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