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Chapter 4, Sight and sounds of the Internet

Chapter 4, Sight and sounds of the Internet






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    Chapter 4, Sight and sounds of the Internet Chapter 4, Sight and sounds of the Internet Presentation Transcript

    • Sights and Sounds of the Internet Chapter 4
    • You Will Learn…
      • How to enhance a web site with multimedia
      • How MIME facilitates the use of non-text files
      • How to download and use helper applications and plug-ins
      • How to add sound files to a web site
    • You Will Learn…
      • About different graphics file types and how to use them on web sites
      • How streaming multimedia technology works, and how to add movies, videos, and streaming sound to web pages
      • How video conferencing works on the Internet
    • Enhancing Web Sites with Multimedia
      • Non-streaming data
        • Multimedia data that is first downloaded from a web set and then played
      • Streaming data
        • Plays as it is being downloaded
        • Examples: videoconferencing and listening to the radio from a web site
    • Streaming Data
    • MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
      • A protocol used to transport non-text files attached to e-mail messages and web pages across the Internet
      • Identifies a file as belonging to a category and a subcategory such as Image/gif
    • Early Attempts to Work with Non-text Files
      • When the web and e-mail first were developed, no provision was made to send any data that was not pure ASCII text (binary files)
      • Early solutions
        • Uuencode and uudecode
        • BinHex
      • Current MIME method of transmitting non-ASCII files over the Internet
        • RFC 1521
    • How MIME Works
      • Declare MIME type in header information
      • Encode the file
      • Send the files over the Internet
      • Client receives the data
      • Interpret the MIME file
    • Viewing the Source Data
    • MIME File Types
      • Text
      • Multipart
      • Application
      • Message
      • Image
      • Audio
      • Video
      • Model
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
      • Helper application (external viewer)
        • Used by e-mail applications to display files
        • Opens the file in a separate window and does not involve the e-mail software
        • Can work independently of a browser
      • Plug-in (browser extension)
        • Enhances the browser, enabling the browser to perform the task
        • Requires the browser in order to work
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
    • Downloading and Installing Plug-ins
    • Downloading and Installing Plug-ins
    • Non-streaming Sound Files
      • Browsers generally don’t know how to play sound files without the help of a plug-in or browser extension
        • Internet Explorer uses Windows Media Player
        • Netscape Navigator uses RealPlayer and Beatnik Player
    • Storing Sound in Files
      • MIDI (musical instrument digital interface)
      • WAV (wave)
      • WMA (Windows Media Audio
      • AU (UNIX Audio)
      • AIFF
      • MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
    • Storing Sound in Files
      • MPEG technology uses lossy compression (compresses data by dropping unnecessary or redundant data)
      • Sounds are converted to digital data using a microphone and a sound card
      • A sound card receives analog flow of sound from the microphone and digitizes it (converts it to bits: 1s and 0s)
    • A Sound Card
    • Storing Sound in Files
      • Sampling
        • Process of approximating an infinite flow of sound
      • CODEC (compressor/decompressor)
        • Compressing and later decompressing sound, animation, and video files
        • Also stands for coder/decoder when referring to digital-to-analog conversion
    • Recording Sound
    • Adding Sound to a Web Site
      • Use any of these tags:
        • <BGSOUND>
        • <EMBED>
        • <OBJECT>
        • <HREF>
    • The <BGSOUND> Tag
    • The <EMBED> Tag
    • Sound Used by Different Browsers
      • Use <OBJECT> tag to embed sound in a web page to be interpreted by both Netscape and Internet Explorer
      • Example: <OBJECT DATA = “chimes.wav”> </OBJECT>
    • Sound Files as Hyperlinks
      • Refer to the sound file name when using <A HREF> tag
    • Sound Files as Hyperlinks
    • Sound Files as Hyperlinks
    • Graphics on Web Pages
      • Image map
        • A graphic on a web page that contains multiple hyperlinks
        • Also called clickable map
    • Graphics on Web Pages
    • Graphic File Types
      • Bit-mapped image (raster image)
        • Composed of many small colored or gray dots that look like an image when viewed as a whole
        • Easy to import; easy to display
        • Doesn’t enlarge as well as a vector image
      • Vector image (object image)
        • Created by mathematical equations that communicate how to draw lines and shapes to create the image to the software
    • Bitmapped Image
    • Bitmapped Image
    • Graphic File Types
      • GIF (Graphical Interchange Format)
      • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
      • PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
      • BMP (bit-mapped)
      • TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
      • PDF (Portable Document Format)
      • RTF (Rich Text Format)
      • PostScript and EPS (Encapsulated PostScript)
    • GIF Files
      • Most popular graphics files on the web
      • Bit-mapped files; easily read
      • Support animation, transparent background, and interlacing
      • Use 256 colors and dithering
    • Transparent Background
    • JPEG Files
      • Most often used to store photographs
      • More compressed than GIF files; use lossy compression method
      • Do not support transparent backgrounds or animation, but support interlacing (progressive JPEG)
    • PNG Files
      • Use lossless compression, interlacing, and transparent background color
      • Do not support animation
    • BMP Files
      • Store images as many dots of varying color
      • Do not support high resolution, animation, interlacing, or compression
      • Not used much on the Web
        • Not compressed
        • Not supported by most browsers
      • Popular on PCs
        • Easy to create
        • Most computers have software to support them
    • TIFF Files
      • Bit-mapped images that can use either lossless or lossy compression and offer strong support for color
      • Popular for desktop publishing applications
      • Often used for photographs, graphics, and screen captures
      • Not commonly used on web sites
        • Can be large
        • Not supported by most browsers without a plug-in
    • PDF Files
      • Proprietary file format by Adobe Systems
      • Provide images of the formatted document that allow anyone to view and print, but not edit the file
    • RTF Files
      • Convert a word processing document to ASCII code so that another word processor can read and edit the file
      • Lose original formatting but retain ability to be edited
    • PostScript and EPS Files
      • PostScript
        • A page description language developed by Adobe Systems
        • Used to communicate printing directions to a PostScript printer
      • EPS
        • A file format developed by Adobe
        • Includes directions for printing a document to a PostScript printer
        • Includes a print preview of the document
    • Web Page Backgrounds
      • Use the BACKGROUND attribute of the <BODY> tag
      • Example: <body background=“TEXTURE.GIF”>
      • Can be GIF or JPEG files
    • Animated Graphics
      • Add the LOOP attribute to the <IMG SRC> tag
      • Example: <IMG SRC=“animated.gif” LOOP=INFINITE>
    • Animated Graphics
    • Animated Graphics
      • Creating images
        • Modify a graphic so that you have images for each frame of the animation
      • Creating animation
        • Join the images together to create an animation sequence
    • Creating Images
    • Creating Images
    • Creating Images
    • Creating Animation
    • Optimizing Page Download Time
      • Keep total size of all files to be downloaded for a single page to 50K
      • Break large PDF files into several shorter files
      • Use 8-bit graphics instead of 24-bit
      • Use compressed audio or graphics files
      • Use GIF files for graphics and JPEG files for photographs
    • Optimizing Page Download Time
      • Use solid background colors
      • Use fewer colors
      • Set dimensions of image as small as practical
      • Use graphics-crunching utilities
      • Do not save an image in one format and then another
    • Streaming Multimedia
      • Can originate from a stored file or from live data arriving at the server
      • Uses the client/server architecture
      • Is often buffered by the client plug-in
    • Streaming Multimedia Architecture
      • A media client and a media server handle the actual streaming data request and transmission
    • Streaming Multimedia Architecture
    • Protocols
      • Streaming data uses the HTTP or RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol) protocol to format data
      • These protocols use either UDP (User Datagram Protocol) or RTP (Real Time Transport Protocol) to transmit data
    • Metafiles
      • Files that contain information about other files (eg, location and filename of the audio or video data)
      • List the protocol first, the server name next, and the filename last
      • Example: pnm://server.name.ext/filename2.rm
    • How Metafiles Transmit Streaming Data
      • Web page requests metafile, which is downloaded to the client
      • HTML informs browser of the type of plug-in required
      • Plug-in is loaded and creates a link to the data on the server as identified by the metafile
    • Streaming Multimedia Plug-ins
      • QuickTime
      • RealPlayer by Real Networks
      • Microsoft Windows Media Player
      • Flash and Shockwave by Macromedia
    • Streaming Multimedia Plug-ins
    • QuickTime
      • Provides framework for synchronizing video, sound, and text in a web-based presentation
      • Supports several video compression techniques
      • Supports non-streaming data, stored streaming data, and live streaming data
      • Supports many standard video, audio, and graphics formats (WAV, MIDI, Flash, and AVI)
      • 3D version: QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR)
    • RealPlayer
      • Uses its own proprietary audio, video, graphics, and text files
      • Supports several multimedia video and audio file types
    • Windows Media Player
      • Free plug-in that comes with Windows
      • Supports several popular file types
    • Flash and Shockwave
      • Flash
        • Uses vector graphics to produce animated graphics with sound
      • Shockwave
        • Used mostly in audio and video production
    • Flash
    • Movies and Videos on the Web
      • Advantage: easy access instead of high quality
      • Video file types
        • AVI (Audio Video Interleaved)
        • MPEG
        • QuickTime
        • ASF (Advanced Streaming Format)
        • Windows Media File with Audio and/or Video (WMV)
    • HTML Tags Used to Add Movies and Videos to Web Pages
      • <EMBED>
      • <OBJECT>
      • <APPLET>
    • Creating Video for a Web Site
      • Create video using a camcorder
      • Download video to the PC
      • Edit the video
      • Compress video data
      • Place video file on web site and build web pages to view it using browser plug-ins
      • View the video by the browser
    • Types of Video Camcorders
      • Analog
      • Digital
    • Live Web Broadcasts
    • Video Conferencing over the Internet
      • Live data is filmed by:
        • Digital camcorder and continuously downloaded to a computer using a port on the computer, or
        • Analog camcorder that downloads data to a video capture card that can support inputting live data
      • Data is input into software and converted to a format that can be made available to the live web broadcast
      • A browser receives a live broadcast using a plug-in
    • Sample Screen from a Video Conference
    • Sample Screen from a Video Conference
    • Sample Screen from a Video Conference
    • NetMeeting
      • Allows you to have your own video conference calls if you have a microphone, PC camera, and speakers installed on a Windows 9x, Windows NT, or Windows 2000 system
      • Client software that uses a directory server
    • Using NetMeeting
    • Installing NetMeeting
    • Installing NetMeeting
    • Installing NetMeeting
    • Starting NetMeeting
    • A NetMeeting Session
    • Chapter Summary
      • How to add audio, video, and enhanced graphics to web sites
      • How audio and video files are created, compressed, transported, and interpreted
      • Software available to work with multimedia files
      • Technology needed to support a client that accesses multimedia web sites