• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Chapter 4, Sight and sounds of the Internet
 

Chapter 4, Sight and sounds of the Internet

on

  • 1,447 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,447
Views on SlideShare
1,447
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
21
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Chapter 4, Sight and sounds of the Internet Chapter 4, Sight and sounds of the Internet Presentation Transcript

    • Sights and Sounds of the Internet Chapter 4
    • You Will Learn…
      • How to enhance a web site with multimedia
      • How MIME facilitates the use of non-text files
      • How to download and use helper applications and plug-ins
      • How to add sound files to a web site
      continued…
    • You Will Learn…
      • About different graphics file types and how to use them on web sites
      • How streaming multimedia technology works, and how to add movies, videos, and streaming sound to web pages
      • How video conferencing works on the Internet
    • Enhancing Web Sites with Multimedia
      • Non-streaming data
        • Multimedia data that is first downloaded from a web set and then played
      • Streaming data
        • Plays as it is being downloaded
        • Examples: videoconferencing and listening to the radio from a web site
    • Streaming Data
    • MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
      • A protocol used to transport non-text files attached to e-mail messages and web pages across the Internet
      • Identifies a file as belonging to a category and a subcategory such as Image/gif
    • Early Attempts to Work with Non-text Files
      • When the web and e-mail first were developed, no provision was made to send any data that was not pure ASCII text (binary files)
      • Early solutions
        • Uuencode and uudecode
        • BinHex
      • Current MIME method of transmitting non-ASCII files over the Internet
        • RFC 1521
    • How MIME Works
      • Declare MIME type in header information
      • Encode the file
      • Send the files over the Internet
      • Client receives the data
      • Interpret the MIME file
    •  
    • Viewing the Source Data
    • MIME File Types
      • Text
      • Multipart
      • Application
      • Message
      • Image
      • Audio
      • Video
      • Model
    •  
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
      • Helper application (external viewer)
        • Used by e-mail applications to display files
        • Opens the file in a separate window and does not involve the e-mail software
        • Can work independently of a browser
      • Plug-in (browser extension)
        • Enhances the browser, enabling the browser to perform the task
        • Requires the browser in order to work
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
    • Helper Applications and Plug-ins
    • Downloading and Installing Plug-ins
    • Downloading and Installing Plug-ins
    • Non-streaming Sound Files
      • Browsers generally don’t know how to play sound files without the help of a plug-in or browser extension
        • Internet Explorer uses Windows Media Player
        • Netscape Navigator uses RealPlayer and Beatnik Player
    • Storing Sound in Files
      • MIDI (musical instrument digital interface)
      • WAV (wave)
      • WMA (Windows Media Audio
      • AU (UNIX Audio)
      • AIFF
      • MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
    • Storing Sound in Files
      • MPEG technology uses lossy compression (compresses data by dropping unnecessary or redundant data)
      • Sounds are converted to digital data using a microphone and a sound card
      • A sound card receives analog flow of sound from the microphone and digitizes it (converts it to bits: 1s and 0s)
    • A Sound Card
    • Storing Sound in Files
      • Sampling
        • Process of approximating an infinite flow of sound
      • CODEC (compressor/decompressor)
        • Compressing and later decompressing sound, animation, and video files
        • Also stands for coder/decoder when referring to digital-to-analog conversion
    • Recording Sound
    • Adding Sound to a Web Site
      • Use any of these tags:
        • <BGSOUND>
        • <EMBED>
        • <OBJECT>
        • <HREF>
    • The <BGSOUND> Tag
    • The <EMBED> Tag
    • Sound Used by Different Browsers
      • Use <OBJECT> tag to embed sound in a web page to be interpreted by both Netscape and Internet Explorer
      • Example: <OBJECT DATA = “chimes.wav”> </OBJECT>
    • Sound Files as Hyperlinks
      • Refer to the sound file name when using <A HREF> tag
    • Sound Files as Hyperlinks
    • Sound Files as Hyperlinks
    • Graphics on Web Pages
      • Image map
        • A graphic on a web page that contains multiple hyperlinks
        • Also called clickable map
    • Graphics on Web Pages
    • Graphic File Types
      • Bit-mapped image (raster image)
        • Composed of many small colored or gray dots that look like an image when viewed as a whole
        • Easy to import; easy to display
        • Doesn’t enlarge as well as a vector image
      • Vector image (object image)
        • Created by mathematical equations that communicate how to draw lines and shapes to create the image to the software
    • Bitmapped Image
    • Bitmapped Image
    • Graphic File Types
      • GIF (Graphical Interchange Format)
      • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
      • PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
      • BMP (bit-mapped)
      • TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
      • PDF (Portable Document Format)
      • RTF (Rich Text Format)
      • PostScript and EPS (Encapsulated PostScript)
    • GIF Files
      • Most popular graphics files on the web
      • Bit-mapped files; easily read
      • Support animation, transparent background, and interlacing
      • Use 256 colors and dithering
    • Transparent Background
    • JPEG Files
      • Most often used to store photographs
      • More compressed than GIF files; use lossy compression method
      • Do not support transparent backgrounds or animation, but support interlacing (progressive JPEG)
    • PNG Files
      • Use lossless compression, interlacing, and transparent background color
      • Do not support animation
    • BMP Files
      • Store images as many dots of varying color
      • Do not support high resolution, animation, interlacing, or compression
      • Not used much on the Web
        • Not compressed
        • Not supported by most browsers
      • Popular on PCs
        • Easy to create
        • Most computers have software to support them
    • TIFF Files
      • Bit-mapped images that can use either lossless or lossy compression and offer strong support for color
      • Popular for desktop publishing applications
      • Often used for photographs, graphics, and screen captures
      • Not commonly used on web sites
        • Can be large
        • Not supported by most browsers without a plug-in
    • PDF Files
      • Proprietary file format by Adobe Systems
      • Provide images of the formatted document that allow anyone to view and print, but not edit the file
    • RTF Files
      • Convert a word processing document to ASCII code so that another word processor can read and edit the file
      • Lose original formatting but retain ability to be edited
    • PostScript and EPS Files
      • PostScript
        • A page description language developed by Adobe Systems
        • Used to communicate printing directions to a PostScript printer
      • EPS
        • A file format developed by Adobe
        • Includes directions for printing a document to a PostScript printer
        • Includes a print preview of the document
    • Web Page Backgrounds
      • Use the BACKGROUND attribute of the <BODY> tag
      • Example: <body background=“TEXTURE.GIF”>
      • Can be GIF or JPEG files
    • Animated Graphics
      • Add the LOOP attribute to the <IMG SRC> tag
      • Example: <IMG SRC=“animated.gif” LOOP=INFINITE>
    • Animated Graphics
    • Animated Graphics
      • Creating images
        • Modify a graphic so that you have images for each frame of the animation
      • Creating animation
        • Join the images together to create an animation sequence
    • Creating Images
    • Creating Images
    • Creating Images
    • Creating Animation
    • Optimizing Page Download Time
      • Keep total size of all files to be downloaded for a single page to 50K
      • Break large PDF files into several shorter files
      • Use 8-bit graphics instead of 24-bit
      • Use compressed audio or graphics files
      • Use GIF files for graphics and JPEG files for photographs
      continued…
    • Optimizing Page Download Time
      • Use solid background colors
      • Use fewer colors
      • Set dimensions of image as small as practical
      • Use graphics-crunching utilities
      • Do not save an image in one format and then another
    • Streaming Multimedia
      • Can originate from a stored file or from live data arriving at the server
      • Uses the client/server architecture
      • Is often buffered by the client plug-in
    • Streaming Multimedia Architecture
      • A media client and a media server handle the actual streaming data request and transmission
    • Streaming Multimedia Architecture
    • Protocols
      • Streaming data uses the HTTP or RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol) protocol to format data
      • These protocols use either UDP (User Datagram Protocol) or RTP (Real Time Transport Protocol) to transmit data
    • Metafiles
      • Files that contain information about other files (eg, location and filename of the audio or video data)
      • List the protocol first, the server name next, and the filename last
      • Example: pnm://server.name.ext/filename2.rm
    • How Metafiles Transmit Streaming Data
      • Web page requests metafile, which is downloaded to the client
      • HTML informs browser of the type of plug-in required
      • Plug-in is loaded and creates a link to the data on the server as identified by the metafile
    •  
    • Streaming Multimedia Plug-ins
      • QuickTime
      • RealPlayer by Real Networks
      • Microsoft Windows Media Player
      • Flash and Shockwave by Macromedia
    • Streaming Multimedia Plug-ins
    • QuickTime
      • Provides framework for synchronizing video, sound, and text in a web-based presentation
      • Supports several video compression techniques
      • Supports non-streaming data, stored streaming data, and live streaming data
      • Supports many standard video, audio, and graphics formats (WAV, MIDI, Flash, and AVI)
      • 3D version: QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR)
    • RealPlayer
      • Uses its own proprietary audio, video, graphics, and text files
      • Supports several multimedia video and audio file types
    • Windows Media Player
      • Free plug-in that comes with Windows
      • Supports several popular file types
    • Flash and Shockwave
      • Flash
        • Uses vector graphics to produce animated graphics with sound
      • Shockwave
        • Used mostly in audio and video production
    • Flash
    • Movies and Videos on the Web
      • Advantage: easy access instead of high quality
      • Video file types
        • AVI (Audio Video Interleaved)
        • MPEG
        • QuickTime
        • ASF (Advanced Streaming Format)
        • Windows Media File with Audio and/or Video (WMV)
    • HTML Tags Used to Add Movies and Videos to Web Pages
      • <EMBED>
      • <OBJECT>
      • <APPLET>
    • Creating Video for a Web Site
      • Create video using a camcorder
      • Download video to the PC
      • Edit the video
      • Compress video data
      • Place video file on web site and build web pages to view it using browser plug-ins
      • View the video by the browser
    •  
    • Types of Video Camcorders
      • Analog
      • Digital
    • Live Web Broadcasts
    • Video Conferencing over the Internet
      • Live data is filmed by:
        • Digital camcorder and continuously downloaded to a computer using a port on the computer, or
        • Analog camcorder that downloads data to a video capture card that can support inputting live data
      • Data is input into software and converted to a format that can be made available to the live web broadcast
      • A browser receives a live broadcast using a plug-in
    • Sample Screen from a Video Conference
    • Sample Screen from a Video Conference
    • Sample Screen from a Video Conference
    • NetMeeting
      • Allows you to have your own video conference calls if you have a microphone, PC camera, and speakers installed on a Windows 9x, Windows NT, or Windows 2000 system
      • Client software that uses a directory server
    • Using NetMeeting
    • Installing NetMeeting
    • Installing NetMeeting
    • Installing NetMeeting
    • Starting NetMeeting
    • A NetMeeting Session
    • Chapter Summary
      • How to add audio, video, and enhanced graphics to web sites
      • How audio and video files are created, compressed, transported, and interpreted
      • Software available to work with multimedia files
      • Technology needed to support a client that accesses multimedia web sites