Analysis of the Long Jump Takeoff & Landing

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Advanced Long Jump technique analysis

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Analysis of the Long Jump Takeoff & Landing

  1. 1. Cameron T. Gary USATF Certified Level II Coach - Jumps - - Sprints, Hurdles & Relays
  2. 2. Basics of Jumping  How do we jump?  Flexion, followed by a fast, coordinated extension of the hips, knees and ankles until foot release  “Triple-Extension”  The most basic of movements  Not particularly athletic, per se  “Summation of Forces”  THE most efficient power delivery and jumping effect  All THREE movements are needed  Otherwise it is not a “jump”  Try jumping without extending any one of the three segments
  3. 3. The Hip Hinge  Is the foundation of jumping movements  Sprinting and Jumping movements originate at the HIPS!  The arms and legs amplify power  Power Delivery  Proximal – Distal
  4. 4. Concentric Jumping  At the most basic level  Pushing only - purely concentric movement  STRENGTH oriented  Concentric movements  Used when moving from a stationary position  Sprint starts  Beginning of an approach run  This is the area we are training with:  Conventional weight lifting  squats, power cleans, snatches, dead lifts, etc.  Jumping up onto a surface  Running up stairs  This is the foundation of basic jumping  But not maximal sprinting and jumping – there IS a difference!
  5. 5. Counter-Movement Jumping  Quick drop of mass increases amount of force applied to the ground  “Increase” the weight without increasing the mass  The beginnings of the SSC  The arms are used to assist in developing force into the ground  Applied downward then upward  Hinged segmental movement  The more force you apply into the ground, the more return you can impart through the body  More athletic – commonly used in various team sports, etc.  Eccentric and isometric  You are strongest eccentrically  Bench Press analogy
  6. 6. Plyometric Effect  SSC - Stretch-Shortening Cycle  RAPID Eccentric, Isometric and Concentric Contractions  Absorption (ballistic) - Eccentric Contraction; the dropping downward  Isometric (stabilizing) – The “base” from where you start the explosion  Explosion (reactive) - Concentric Contraction; the exploding upward  The FASTER the better  Focus on dynamic power  Work/Time  We must maximize impulse  Change in direction (of momentum)  Teach your athlete to LAND (absorb impact)  Then learn to rebound – think of delivering a blow before they strike the ground  Functional Leg Stiffness is key  Imagine a bouncing rubber ball – the harder the ball, the higher the bounce  This applies to both the sprinting and jumping movements  Knee angles are shallow, ground contact is faster  Force applied into the ground is higher  This is the reactionary “speed” part of sprinting  Running jumps are nothing more than a change in direction – as is sprinting!  There really is no “horizontal” jumping – it is a transitional vertical impulse  The hips move in a wave-like (sinusoidal) pattern as the athlete travels horizontally
  7. 7. Leg Stiffness VERY Important  At the beginning of the run  The athlete is overcoming inertia - focus on strength  Vertical hip displacement/heel recovery is low  The focus is on Horizontal displacement (pushing to rear)  As the athlete is moving at top (controlled) speed  There is insufficient ground contact time to use raw “strength”  Focus on ballistic-reactive power (downward strike)  Vertical displacement/heel recovery is higher  After maximal velocity is attained  The support leg grounds near BDC  Faster athletes tend to displace higher while maintaining an optimal (not maximal) stride frequency  Good leg stiffness allows for an eccentric FRONT side foot strike  Poor leg stiffness leads to  Low/Slow vertical displacement  Incomplete swing/plant cycle  and poor/slow REAR side mechanics
  8. 8. You must get DOWN to go up  The last two strides:  Long – Short  Short – Long  The wave pattern  Establishes the flight path  Long strides = long jumps  Short, choppy strides = short, high jumps  Take-off foot is well forward of the COM
  9. 9. Hinged-Moment Analogy  If you could imagine a pogo stick with wheels, you understand the hinged- moment  This is what propels a pole-vaulter over the bar  It is also what allows us to jump vertically while moving horizontally  And the reason for the penultimate/pre-recruitment transition  The foot contact “checks” horizontal velocity - imparting forward rotation  Sprinting – BDC; Jumping – Forward of BDC
  10. 10. Jumping Application  Objective  Project Center of Mass (COM) as far into the pit  However – there is a constant battle vs. forward rotation  Optimal take-off angles – why?  18 – 22 degrees – horizontal velocity is the main contributor to distance (jump out, not up)  COM is not starting from the ground – but above ground
  11. 11. Center of Mass  Mass is NOT weight  Mass is a function of matter  Gravity is a function of the magnetic pull of mass toward the earth’s core  Body Positions re: COM  Standing  Bending  Front  Side  Arms play a role – DON’T forget them!  This is relevant to the flight  Especially the landing positions
  12. 12. In-Air Movements only Preserve Landing Positions The Approach and Take-Off establish potential flight distance Coach what matters most!
  13. 13. Flight Styles  Sail/Stride Jump  Generally used by beginning jumpers  Hang  Where the athlete simply “hangs” as if suspended from a pull-up bar  Lengthens the body, slows rotation  Hitch-Kick  “Running” off the board  The arms and legs continue to move quickly  Arms/Legs counteract rotation
  14. 14. Action-Reaction  Newton’s Laws…  Every action causes an equal and opposite reaction  Strong impulse into ground yields greater return to the body  Weak impulse has the same effect  Arms relative to Torso  Set the pace/tempo  Rear Arm Sweep Example  Horizontal  Vertical  Legs relative to whole body  Same affect as the arms, but bigger  Think of this when you consider your flight mechanics
  15. 15. Landings  Heels out, toes up  Hands must stay outside of the hips  Variations  Slide in  Buttocks in Hole  Pop-Out – kind of…  NEVER reach forward on landing  It does not combat forward rotation  One will NOT be able to hold your feet up – regardless of the number of sit-ups one does!
  16. 16. Wall Test
  17. 17. Sand Clearance  Sitting back is the least of your worries  Remember - 80% of your jump distance is determined while still on the ground  Sweep the arms forward after breaking the sand  Who hasn’t heard the statement?  It was a good jump, but he sat back…  Remember…The sand will move!  A sure sign of over-rotation is a jumper that “pops” forward out of the pit after landing  Especially if  His/her hands are forward  His/her arms are between their knees  This might look cool, but it costs the jumper valuable distance
  18. 18. Video Analysis….
  19. 19. Summary & Questions
  20. 20. www.ctgdevelopment.net 619-895-4699 jumpmaster@ctgdevelopment.net

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