FACTORS AFFECTING MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE OF LABORATORYHIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY        ...
LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY                          Siniloan Host Campus                            Siniloan, Lag...
BIOGRAPHICAL DATAJENNILYN F. BALBALOSA167 Gen. Luna St. Siniloan, LagunaCell. No.: 09092684305Email Address: jennilynbalba...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       The author is very grateful to GOD ALMIGHTY for without His graces andblessings, t6his study would n...
Maria Wilness Calalo, her bountiful friend, a genius and also a flexible student,for her guide and opinion.       Her Addi...
Table of ContentsAPPROVAL SHEETSBIOGRAPHICAL DATAACKNOWLEDGEMENTTABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF TABLESLIST OF FIGURESABSTRACTChap...
Instructional MaterialsIII   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY      Research Design      Subject of the Study      Research Instruments...
List of TablesTables  1      Extent of Interest in Mathematics  2      Extent of Study Habits  3      Extent of Teacher’s ...
List of FiguresFIGURE 1       A conceptual paradigm showing the relationship of students’ mathematics         performance ...
Chapter 1                     THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction       We live in a mathematical world. Whenever w...
Despite explaining more about mathematics and the proof that it’s reallyimportant, the students today don’t like this subj...
Wendy Hansen (2008) stated that boys are more likely than girls to be mathgeniuses. The researcher found that neither gend...
Theoretical Framework       Dweck, C. S. (1999) stated that students believe that their ability is fixed,probably at birth...
between new information (knowledge) and experiences they have had, or with otherknowledge they have already mastered. Stud...
INPUT                        PROCESS                            OUTPUT STUDENT-RELATED        FACTORS                     ...
Statement of the Problem       The study attempts to determine the factors affecting mathematics performance ofLaboratory ...
Hypothesis       The following are the null hypothesis of this research:       There is no significant relationship betwee...
Scope and Limitation   This study is limited only to Laboratory High School Students of Laguna StatePolytechnic University...
Chapter 2               REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIESINTEREST        Norma Presmeg (2002) Educational Studies i...
mathematics achievement Moreover, our findings suggest that the students show hardlyany fear of mathematics independent of...
potentials for intellectual growth and self-direction. It is for this reason that the strategiesof proper study habits amo...
Aquino (2003) pointed out that study skills can be taught effectively only afteridentifying students’ areas of weakness an...
Woolfolk (2001) describes intrinsic motivation as involving internal, personalfactors such as needs, interest, curiosity, ...
the web. Differentiation of product refers to the way in which a student shows what he orshe has learned. For example, to ...
Holt and Willard-Holt (2000) emphasize the concept of dynamic assessment,which is a way of assessing the true potential of...
Burgess (2000) stated that changes in society and workplace have exertedpressure on the educational system. For instance, ...
Chapter 3                           RESEARCH METHODOLOGY       This chapter presents the research design, research procedu...
Subject of the Study       The respondents in this study were the one hundred twenty six (126) LaboratoryHigh School Stude...
Part 2 obtained teacher’s personality traits, teaching skills and instructionalmaterials used in teaching as rated by the ...
Data gathered from answered questionnaires were checked, classified , tabulatedand analyzed according to the research desi...
and student-related factors.5. Significant   relationship     between   Pearson R, Spearman Rho, Regression   students’ ma...
Chapter 4       PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA       This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the...
Table 1. Extent of Interest in Mathematics as Perceived by the Students                                                   ...
Table 2. Extent of Study Habits as Perceived by the Students                                                        Weight...
Extent of Teachers’ Personality Traits       . Table 3 shows the data on the extent of personality traits of the teachers ...
Extent of Teaching Skills       Table 4 presents the extent of teaching skills acquired by the teachers inMathematics as p...
Extent of Instructional Materials used by the Mathematics teachers       Table 5 presents the extent of instructional mate...
Level of Performance of Students in Mathematics       Table 6 presents the level of performance of Laboratory high school ...
Significant Relationship of the Mathematics Performance of the Students inStudent-related factors and Teacher-related fact...
Chapter 5             SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION       This chapter presents the summary of findings; the conc...
Through this problems stated, the researcher came up with the following nullhypothesis: Ho There is no significant relatio...
In terms of level of performance of the students in mathematics, the studentsobtained the mean grade of 88.23 with verbal ...
interactive teaching techniques that would boost interest in mathematics; that a morethorough research on study habits be ...
BIBLIOGRAPHYBooksBILBAO, PURITA P. PhD, CORPUZ,BRENDA B. PhD, LLAGAS,AVELLINA T.        PhD. 2006. The teaching profession...
EDLAGAN, MICHELLE LOVERNA AND PEROL JUDYLYN MERLE. 2008.       Mathematics Performance of Third Year High School Students ...
http://endo.endojournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/69/2/305http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/324/7332/274http://www.teachervi...
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  1. 1. FACTORS AFFECTING MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE OF LABORATORYHIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 A Research Presented to the Faculty of the College of Education Laguna State Polytechnic University Siniloan (Host) Campus Siniloan, Laguna In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Mathematics JENNILYN F. BALBALOSA 2010
  2. 2. LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY Siniloan Host Campus Siniloan, Laguna APPROVAL SHEET This Research entitled ―FACTORS AFFECTING MATHEMATICSPERFORMANCE OF LABORATORY HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT LAGUNASTATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY A.Y 2009-2010‖ prepared and submitted byJENNILYN F. BALBALOSA in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ofBACHELOR OF SECONDARY EDUCATION Major in Mathematics recommended fororal examination. DELIA F. MERCADO Adviser PANEL EXAMINEES Approved by the COMMITTEE ON ORAL EXAMINATION with a grade of______ on ___________.
  3. 3. BIOGRAPHICAL DATAJENNILYN F. BALBALOSA167 Gen. Luna St. Siniloan, LagunaCell. No.: 09092684305Email Address: jennilynbalbalosa@yahoo.comPERSONAL INFORMATIONAge : 19Birthday : September 25, 1990Birthplace : Siniloan, LagunaGender : FemaleReligion : Roman CatholicStatus : SingleHeight : 5’4Weight : 95 lbs.Father’s name : Wilson BalbalosaOccupation : FishermanMother’s name : Pilita F. BalbalosaOccupation : Store ownerEDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTElementary : Angela Ong Javier Elementary School Siniloan, Laguna 1997-2003Secondary : Laguna State Polytechnic University Siniloan, Laguna 2003-2007Tertiary : Laguna State Polytechnic University Siniloan, Laguna 2007-presentCourse : Bachelor of Secondary EducationMajor : Mathematics
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author is very grateful to GOD ALMIGHTY for without His graces andblessings, t6his study would not have been possible. Immeasurable appreciation and deepest gratitude for the help and support areextended to the following persons who in one way or another have contributed in makingthis study possible. Prof. Lydia R. Chavez, Dean of Education, for her support and words ofencouragement and also for giving a long period of time to depend this manuscript. Mrs. Delia F. Mercado, adviser and statistician, for her support, advices,guidance, valuable comments, suggestions, and provisions that benefited her much in thecompletion and success of this study.; who gave her love, care, shelter in doing thisresearch. Sharing her knowledge and helped in the analysis of data and its statisticalcomputations. And last by giving an endless helped to finish this manuscript. The authoris very thankful for having such a good adviser like you. Mr. Ricky M. Latosa, Subject specialist and English Critic, for his comments,effort in checking and editing this study. The members of the committee for oral examination who manifested theirdistinguished skills and talents in their own fields as seen in their way of correction andideas shared. Mrs. Evangeline Cruz, librarian, for her letting the author to borrow their books. To her respondents and teachers, for their worthy support and cooperation andtime in terms of providing the author all the needed information.
  5. 5. Maria Wilness Calalo, her bountiful friend, a genius and also a flexible student,for her guide and opinion. Her Addickted Family, friends and classmates, for their moral support,understanding and encouragement. Her best friend, family and cousins, for their love, caring, patients and support infinancial aspects to pursue this manuscript. To all who are not mentioned but in one way or another helped in the completionof this study, thank you very much. The Author
  6. 6. Table of ContentsAPPROVAL SHEETSBIOGRAPHICAL DATAACKNOWLEDGEMENTTABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF TABLESLIST OF FIGURESABSTRACTChaptersI THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Background of the study Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Statement of the Problem Research Hypothesis Scope and Limitation of the study Significance of the study Definition of TermsII REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY Interest in Mathematics Study Habits Teacher’s Personality Traits Teaching Skills
  7. 7. Instructional MaterialsIII RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Subject of the Study Research Instruments Research Procedure Statistical Treatment of DataIV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Extent of Interest in Mathematics Extent of Study Habits Extent of Teacher’s Personality Traits Extent of teaching skills Extent of Instructional Materials used by the Mathematics Teachers Level of Performance of Students in Mathematics Significant Relationship of Student’s Mathematics Performance in student-related factors and teacher-related factorsV SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONBIBLIOGRAPHYAPPENDICES Appendix A Research Instrument Appendix B List of Respondents Appendix C Letters
  8. 8. List of TablesTables 1 Extent of Interest in Mathematics 2 Extent of Study Habits 3 Extent of Teacher’s Personality Traits 4 Extent of teaching skills 5 Extent of Instructional Materials used by the Mathematics Teachers 6 Level of Performance of Students in Mathematics 7 Significant Relationship of Student’s Mathematics Performance in student-related factors and teacher-related factors
  9. 9. List of FiguresFIGURE 1 A conceptual paradigm showing the relationship of students’ mathematics performance in student-related factors and in teacher-related factors.
  10. 10. Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction We live in a mathematical world. Whenever we decide on a purchase, choose aninsurance or health plan, or use a spreadsheet, we rely on mathematical understanding.The World Wide Web, CD-ROMs, and other media disseminate vast quantities ofquantitative information. The level of mathematical thinking and problem solving neededin the workplace has increased dramatically. In such a world, those who understand andcan do mathematics will have opportunities that others do not. Mathematical competenceopens doors to productive futures. A lack of mathematical competence closes thosedoors. Students have different abilities, needs, and interests. Yet everyone needs to beable to use mathematics in his or her personal life, in the workplace, and in further study.All students deserve an opportunity to understand the power and beauty of mathematics.Students need to learn a new set of mathematics basics that enable them to computefluently and to solve problems creatively and resourcefully. It has been long time to discover the importance of Mathematics in our world.And these discoveries lead us to more technological or what so called Industrial era,wherein the different usage of technological devices occur. In this era, application ofMathematics helps to develop and invent such technological devices. Through theseapplications our life became easier. Now a day, Mathematics is the key to all Sciences.
  11. 11. Despite explaining more about mathematics and the proof that it’s reallyimportant, the students today don’t like this subject. They think that the Mathematics is aboring subject, and it’s hard to understand formulas, they always say ―Why should westudy Mathematics, only four major operations are enough and the rest no longer needed.We do use graphs and formulas in our daily living.‖ Only if they understand the logicbehind this subject and the principles applied in different problems, if they get whatMathematics really meant to be, they will find that it is not a boring subject, thatmathematics is an interesting one. Mathematics becomes part of our life, not only in ouracademic subjects, but in all part of our integral life. We don’t see that even in simpleconversation mathematics take place. In our transportation it also occurs, and in our dailyliving it definitely applied.Background of the Study According to Schereiber (2000) those who have positive attitudes towardmathematics have a better performance in this subject. Mathematics achievement has shown that the students from each major level ofEducation in Asia seemed to outperform their counterparts. Many studies have examinedstudents’ thinking about school and their attitude toward Mathematics. Mathematicsperformance involves a complex interaction of factors on school outcome. Although therelationship between mathematics performance and students factor has been studiedwidely, it is important to explore the factors that contribute students’ mathematicsperformance.
  12. 12. Wendy Hansen (2008) stated that boys are more likely than girls to be mathgeniuses. The researcher found that neither gender consistently outpaced the other in anystate or at any grade level. Even on test questions from the National Assessment ofEducation Progress that were designed to measure complex reasoning skills, the genderdifferences were minuscule, according to the study. Student engagement in mathematics refers to students’ motivation to learnmathematics, their confidence in their ability to succeed in mathematics and theiremotional feelings about mathematics. Student engagement in mathematics plays a keyrole in the acquisition of math skills and knowledge – students who are engaged in thelearning process will tend to learn more and be more receptive to further learning.Student engagement also has an impact upon course selection, educational pathways andlater career choices. Mathematics performance has improved, again, through expecting students toachieve, providing instruction based on individual student needs and using a variety ofmethods to reach all learners. One factor has been aligning the math curriculum to ensurethat the delivery of instruction is consistent with the assessment frequency. This particular study attempts to determine the factors affecting mathematicsperformance of Laboratory High School Students at Laguna State Polytechnic UniversityAcademic Year 2009-2010.
  13. 13. Theoretical Framework Dweck, C. S. (1999) stated that students believe that their ability is fixed,probably at birth, and there is very little if anything they can do to improve it is calledfixed IQ theorists. They believe ability comes from talent rather than from the slowdevelopment of skills through learning. ―Its all in the genes‖. Either you can do it withlittle effort, or you will never be able to do it, so you might as well give up in the face ofdifficulty. E.g. ― I cant do math‖. And Untapped Potential theorists, students believe thatability and success are due to learning, and learning requires time and effort. In the caseof difficulty one must try harder, try another approach, or seek help etc. Inzlicht (2003) stated that entity and incremental theories of ability were assessedseparately so that their separate influences could be examined; mathematics performancewas examined by controlling for prior math performance. Entity theory was expected tobe a negative predictor of performance, whereas incremental theory was expected to be apositive predictor. Guohua Peng (2002) stated that simple traditional methods gradually make thestudents feel that mathematics is pointless and has little value to them in real life. Itbecomes a subject they are forced to study, but one that is useless to them in real life. Dan Hull (1999) stated that growing numbers of teachers today—especially thosefrustrated by repeated lack of student success in demonstrating basic proficiency onstandard tests are discovering that most students’ interest and achievement in math,science, and language improve dramatically when they are helped to make connections
  14. 14. between new information (knowledge) and experiences they have had, or with otherknowledge they have already mastered. Students’ involvement in their schoolworkincreases significantly when they are taught why they are learning the concepts and howthose concepts can be used outside the classroom. And most students learn much moreefficiently when they are allowed to work cooperatively with other students in groups orteams.Conceptual Framework The major concept of this study is focused on factors affecting MathematicsPerformance of Laboratory High School Students at Laguna State Polytechnic UniversityAcademic Year 2009-2010. Figure 1; shows the relationship of input variables which contain the extent of thestudent-related factors and the extent of the teacher-related factors. While in the processcontains the survey, data gathering, data analysis, and data interpretation. And outputvariables contain the analysis of student-related factors and teacher-related factors.
  15. 15. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT STUDENT-RELATED FACTORS An Analysis of Interest Survey Mathematics Study Habits Performance as Data Gathering Data Analysis affected by student- TEACHER-RELATED related factors and Data Interpretation FACTORS teacher-related factors Personality Traits Teaching Skills Instructional MaterialsFIGURE 1. A conceptual paradigm showing the relationship of students’ mathematicsperformance in student-related factors and in teacher-related factors.
  16. 16. Statement of the Problem The study attempts to determine the factors affecting mathematics performance ofLaboratory High School Students at Laguna State Polytechnic University Academic Year2009-2010. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the extent of the student-related factors in terms of: 1.1 Interest 1.2 Study Habits 2. What is the extent of teacher-related factors as evaluated by the students in terms of: 2.1 Personality Traits 2.2 Teaching Skills 2.3 Instructional Materials 3. What is the level of students’ mathematics performance? 4. Is there significant relationship between students’ mathematics performance and students-related factors? 5. Is there significant relationship between students’ mathematics performance and teacher-related factors?
  17. 17. Hypothesis The following are the null hypothesis of this research: There is no significant relationship between students’ mathematics performanceand students-related factors. There is no significant relationship between students’ mathematics performanceand teacher-related factors.Significance of the Study The result of the study will merit the following: School Administrator. The result of this study could serve as a baseline data toimprove programs for school advancement. Curriculum Planner. The result of this study will help them appraise the existingprograms in terms of the student’s needs and abilities and make changes as required. Guidance Councilor. This study will help develop the guidance program in linewith individual needs and abilities of the students. Facilitators. The results of this study may serve as an eye opener to create andinnovates instructional materials, and to use varied and appropriate teaching strategies. Students. This study will help the students to develop their interest towardMathematics and appreciate the importance of Mathematics in their daily lives. Parents. Who are directly concerned with the education of their childrenconsidering school performance in different discipline. Future Researcher. The result of this study can serve as basis for further studyon teaching learning activities and student mathematical performance.
  18. 18. Scope and Limitation This study is limited only to Laboratory High School Students of Laguna StatePolytechnic University during the Academic Year 2009-2010. Determining the factors affecting Mathematics Performance of Laboratory HighSchool Students was the focus of this research. The information needed will be gatheredusing the checklist style research-made questionnaire. All information and conclusionsdrawn from this study were obtained only to this particular group of students.Definition of Terms For better clarification and understanding of the terms related to this study, thefollowing terms are defined conceptually and operationally. Mathematics Performance. This refers to the degree or capacity of students’knowledge in Mathematics. Instructional Materials. This refers to motivating techniques that teaching materialsor equipment used. It can high technology or simple materials that can use in learningpreference. Interest. This refers to the amount of the students’ dislike or like of particular things. Study Habits. This refers to usual form or action of a person in studying. Teaching Skills. This refers to the skills of teachers in mathematics in terms ofteaching her/his lesson. Personality Traits. This refers to the good relationship of the mathematics teacherswith the students.
  19. 19. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIESINTEREST Norma Presmeg (2002) Educational Studies in Mathematics presents new ideasand developments of major importance to practitioners working in the field ofmathematical education. It reflects both the variety of research concerns within the fieldand the range of methods used to study them. Articles deal with didactical,methodological and pedagogical subjects, rather than with specific programs for teachingmathematics. The journal emphasizes high-level articles that go beyond local or nationalinterest. Fulk (2002) stated that students with sequencing difficulties need help tomaximize their engagement and improve their retention of learning use humor,unexpected introduction and various other attention grabbers to stimulate student’sinterest in the lesson. http://www.springerlink.com/content/08272762649018lx/ In this article, presentresults of an empirical study with 500 German students of grades 7 and 8. The studyfocused on students mathematics achievement and their interest in mathematics as wellas on the relation between these two constructs. In particular, the results show that thedevelopment of an individual students achievement between grade 7 and grade 8depends on the achievement level of the specific classroom and therefore on the specificmathematics instruction Interest in mathematics could be regarded a predictor for
  20. 20. mathematics achievement Moreover, our findings suggest that the students show hardlyany fear of mathematics independent of their achievement level. Hanson, Katherine (2008) stated that an exploration of girls’ learning styles,attitudes, and behaviors in math classes that also shows the importance of analyzing thecurriculum and attitudes of teachers when attempting to understand girls’ relation tomath. It attempts to discover ways to increase girls’ interest and achievement in math. Itconcludes with 15 practical recommendations for the improvement of math education forgirls. Davis-Kean (2000) analyzed how parents values and attitudes affect childrensmath performance and later interest, and how these attitudes vary by the childs gender.They used data from a longitudinal study of more than 800 children and a large group oftheir parents that began in 1987 and continued through.STUDY HABITS Steinberger & Wagner (2005) distinguishes more simply among threeintelligences; the academic-problem solving; the practical intelligence; and creativeintelligence; all these three have peculiar influence to performance. Success in study doesnot depend on ability and hard work but also on effective methods of study.Individualized method of studying is adopted by every individual student, thus, a goodstudy habit will mean the ability to learn and make use of what one is reading orstudying. Study skills when properly embedded will help students understand their own
  21. 21. potentials for intellectual growth and self-direction. It is for this reason that the strategiesof proper study habits among students should be given emphasis. Simmons (2002) note that "good writing spawns from a close understanding oftext and great writing result from an interactive analysis and fluency with our reading."He adds that inadequate writing is a direct result of inadequate reading and studying.Postgraduate students are scholars in training and have the responsibility of becomingprolific and critical writers in their disciplines and careers. The spirit of responsibility andintegrity are vital to the study habits of postgraduate students. Richardson et al (2000) compared college students who are deaf and hard ofhearing in mainstreamed classes with hearing peers. In both studies, the students who aredeaf had comparable study behaviors to those of their hearing peers. Similarly, bothstudies employed a survey design that precluded the researchers from obtaining in-depthknowledge of participants skills, and in particular, their use of notes as a study text.These studies are similar to several others that attempt to survey the study habits ofnormal hearing students.
  22. 22. Aquino (2003) pointed out that study skills can be taught effectively only afteridentifying students’ areas of weakness and levels of achievement is appropriate to theirgrade level can be provided with development (or enrichment) exercises, which willenable them to become more proficient in the skills they have already acquired or whichwill help them learn new ideas. Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical reflectionin skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and synthesizing.PERSONALITY TRAITS Rohwes W. Jr. et al. as cited by Sainz (2000) further discussed the teachers needto find ways of determining whether or not her instruction have been successful. Theprocedure and method of determining such success can take the form of test of variouskinds to determine whether the students have reached the objectives they have set forthem. Myers and Briggs (2003) developed a personality test based on Jungstemperaments called the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, or MBTI. It has gone on thebecome the most famous personality test of all time. The traits are seen as opposites, andthe first set is introversion and extraversion. Introversion refers to a tendency to preferthe world inside oneself. The more obvious aspects of introversion are shyness, distastefor social functions, and a love of privacy. Extraversion is the tendency to look to theoutside world, especially people, for ones pleasures.
  23. 23. Woolfolk (2001) describes intrinsic motivation as involving internal, personalfactors such as needs, interest, curiosity, and enjoyment. A student who is intrinsicallymotivated undertakes an activity ―for its own sake‖, because the activity itself isrewarding. In contrast is intrinsic motivation, in which the student engages in an activityin order to obtain a reward , or to avoid a punishment. Gordon Allport (1998) extensively investigated the ways in which traits combineto form normal personalities, cataloguing over 18,000 separate traits over a period of 30years. He proposed that each person has about seven central traits that dominate his or herbehavior. Hans Eysenck (1998) claimed that personality could be described based on threefundamental factors: psychoticism (such antisocial traits as cruelty and rejection of socialcustoms), introversion-extroversion, and emotionality-stability (also called neuroticism).TEACHING SKILLS Tomlinson (1999) stated that teachers can differentiate content, process, and/orproduct for students. Differentiation of content refers to a change in the material beinglearned by a student. For example, if the classroom objective is for all students to subtractusing renaming, some of the students may learn to subtract two-digit numbers, whileothers may learn to subtract larger numbers in the context of word problems.Differentiation of process refers to the way in which a student accesses material. Onestudent may explore a learning center, while another student collects information from
  24. 24. the web. Differentiation of product refers to the way in which a student shows what he orshe has learned. For example, to demonstrate understanding of a geometric concept, onestudent may solve a problem set, while another builds a model. http://www.teachervision.fen.com Authentic assessment, cooperative learning,inclusion – discover a vast range of current articles about teaching methodologies, idealfor all grades. Diversify your teaching strategies by implementing service-learningprojects and integrating technology in your classroom. These resources will help you gainthe experience and expertise you need to become a successful teacher, whether youre anew teacher or have been teaching for many years. According to Bloom’s Taxonomy, teachers frequently spend a great deal ofclassroom time testing students through questions. In fact, observations of teachers at alllevels of education reveal that most spend more than 90 percent of their instructional timetesting students (through questioning). And most of the questions teachers ask aretypically factual questions that rely on short-term memory. Rhodes and Bellamy (1999) stated that a teacher tells, a facilitator asks; a teacherlectures from the front, a facilitator supports from the back; a teacher gives answersaccording to a set curriculum, a facilitator provides guidelines and creates theenvironment for the learner to arrive at his or her own conclusions; a teacher mostly givesa monologue, a facilitator is in continuous dialogue with the learners
  25. 25. Holt and Willard-Holt (2000) emphasize the concept of dynamic assessment,which is a way of assessing the true potential of learners that differs significantly fromconventional tests. Here the essentially interactive nature of learning is extended to theprocess of assessment. Rather than viewing assessment as a process carried out by oneperson, such as an instructor, it is seen as a two-way process involving interactionbetween both instructor and learner. The role of the assessor becomes one of entering intodialogue with the persons being assessed to find out their current level of performance onany task and sharing with them possible ways in which that performance might beimproved on a subsequent occasion.INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Siemens (2002) stated that instructional design can be defined as ―the systematicprocess of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructionalmaterials and activities‖. However, there are many different definitions for instructionaldesign and all of them are an expression of underlying philosophies and viewpoints ofwhat is involved in the learning process Heinze, Aiso (2008) stated that the development of an individual studentsachievement depends on the achievement level of the specific classroom and therefore onthe specific mathematics instruction. Interest in mathematics could be regarded apredictor for mathematics achievement. Moreover, he suggests that the students showhardly any fear of mathematics independent of their achievement level.
  26. 26. Burgess (2000) stated that changes in society and workplace have exertedpressure on the educational system. For instance, with increased internationalization,growing knowledge-intensive work, and increasing use of information technology,schools are required to produce graduates who do not only possess relevant knowledgebut also interpersonal relations and communication skills, ability to work in variouscontexts, and information literacy skills. Wang & Woo (2007) to facilitate student-centered learning, many authors suggestthe use of media and technology. Jonassen, Peck, & Wilson (1999) stated that learning technologies should shifttheir role from being conveyors of information to a means for engaging students inthinking. More specifically, technologies should be used to pose problems to students,provide related cases and information resources, a social medium to support learningthrough collaboration and interaction, and intellectual partners to support learning byreflecting.
  27. 27. Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research design, research procedure, the subject of thestudy, determination of sample, research instrument and statistical treatment of data.Research Design This study determined the factors affecting mathematics performance ofLaboratory High School Students at Laguna State Polytechnic University. Thedescriptive – correlation method was used in this study. In descriptive method, Calmorin (1994) as cited by Bagayana (2006), wrote thestudy focuses on the present condition. The purpose is to find new truth, which may comein different forms such as increased quantity of knowledge, a new generalization, orincreased insights into factors, which are operating, the discovery of a new causalrelationship, a more accurate formulation of the problem to be solved and many others. Since this study measured data that already exists and the number of respondentsis not large, the descriptive – correlation method of studies is best suited. As mentioned,the student-related factors in terms of interest and study habits, and the teacher-relatedfactors in terms of personality traits, teaching skills and instructional materials weregenerated using researcher – made questionnaire.
  28. 28. Subject of the Study The respondents in this study were the one hundred twenty six (126) LaboratoryHigh School Students at Laguna State Polytechnic University Academic Year 2009-2010.Research Instrument The main tool used in this study was a researcher – made questionnaire –checklist. Set of questionnaire-checklist was constructed for the student respondents. Thequestionnaire – checklist consisted of the students’ level of interest in Mathematics, theirstudy habits and their teachers’ personality traits, teaching skills and instructionalmaterials use in teaching as perceived by the students. Part 1 on the questionnaire – checklist obtained the students’ level of interest inMathematics presented five(5) statements and the students’ study habits presented ten(10)situations. These were given one set of five checkboxes each. The five checkboxes wereranked as: 5 – Always 4 – Often 3 – Sometimes 2 – Rarely 1 – Never
  29. 29. Part 2 obtained teacher’s personality traits, teaching skills and instructionalmaterials used in teaching as rated by the students. Each statement was given one set offive checkboxes. Again the five checkboxes were ranked as: 5 – Always 4 – Often 3 – Sometimes 2 – Rarely 1 – Never The questionnaire – checklist was presented to the adviser and expert onMathematics for comments, corrections, and suggestions on the content.Research Procedure The original title proposed by the researcher was checked, revised and recheckedby the researcher’s adviser to maintain conformity on the subject of research. Thequestionnaire-checklist that aims to draw out proper responses on the objectives of thisstudy was constructed. This questionnaire – checklist made by the researcher and waspresented to, analyzed and checked by the research adviser to ensure the validity ofresponses it would elicit. Permit to conduct research and study was secured of letter requesting permissionto the principal of Laboratory High School at Laguna State Polytechnic University.
  30. 30. Data gathered from answered questionnaires were checked, classified , tabulatedand analyzed according to the research design described in this chapter using MicrosoftExcel and prepared for final presentation to the experts of different fields ofspecialization.Statistical Treatment of Data Analysis Statistical Tools 1. The extent of student-related factors Weighted Mean in terms of: 1.1 Interest 1.2 Study habits 2. The extent of teacher-related factors Weighted Mean in terms of: 2.1 Personality Traits 2.2 Teaching Skills 2.3 Instructional Materials 3. The level of students’ mathematics Mean, median, mode, skewness and performance. kurtosis. 4. Significant relationship between Pearson R, Spearman Rho, Regression students’ mathematics performance
  31. 31. and student-related factors.5. Significant relationship between Pearson R, Spearman Rho, Regression students’ mathematics performance and teacher-related factors.
  32. 32. Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the data gathered from the studentsof Laboratory High School at Laguna State Polytechnic University in determining factorsaffecting Performance in Mathematics.Extent of Interest of the students in Mathematics Table 1 shows the weighted mean of students’ interest in Mathematics. Students’level of interest in Mathematics was rated based on the students’ self-perceived level ofpreparation for the Mathematics subject, attention given to teacher’s lectures, activeparticipation in class, their desire to get good grades and their desire to listen todiscussions or attention class. The students gave a unifying perception on their level of interest in Mathematics.The item ―I want to get good grades on tests, quizzes, assignments and projects.” rankedfirst with an average weighted mean of 4.77. The item “I get frustrated when thediscussion is interrupted or the teacher is absent.” got the lowest rating with an averageweighted mean of 2.88.
  33. 33. Table 1. Extent of Interest in Mathematics as Perceived by the Students Verbal Weighted Interest Rank Interpretatio Mean n 1. I make myself prepared for the math 3.79 4 Often subject 2. I listen attentively to the lecture of my 4.10 2 Often math teacher. 3. I actively participate in the discussion, answering exercises and/or clarifying 3.93 3 Often things I did not understand. 4. I want to get good grades on tests, 4.77 1 Always quizzes, assignments and projects. 5. I get frustrated when the discussion is 2.88 5 Sometimes interrupted or the teacher is absent. Average Weighted Mean 3.90 Often The overall weighted mean of interest in Mathematics is 3.90. This meansstudents are ―often‖ interested in this subject. Among questionnaire items, the desire toget good grades is the most interesting to students but the desire to attend discussionreceived the lowest extent of interest.Extent of Study Habits Table 2 shows the lists of ten (10) items about situational/action statements usedin the data gathering and the corresponding weighted means of the students’ responsesranked from the highest to lowest weighted mean together with the verbal interpretation.The criteria in obtaining students’ level of study habits were based on their personaltendency or pattern of action in studying when they are in school days.
  34. 34. Table 2. Extent of Study Habits as Perceived by the Students Weighted Verbal Study Habits Rank Mean Interpretation 1. I do my assignments regularly. 4.09 2 Often 2. I exert more effort when I do difficult 3.88 4 Often assignments. 3. I spend my vacant time in doing 3.08 9 Sometimes assignments or studying my lessons. 4. I study the lessons I missed if I was absent 3.65 5 Often from the class 5. I study and prepared for quizzes and tests. 4.07 3 Often 6. I study harder to improve my performance 4.34 1 Often when I get low grades. 7. I spend less time with my friends during school days to concentrate more on my 2.97 10 Sometimes studies. 8. I prefer finishing my studying and my assignments first before watching any 3.10 8 Sometimes television program. 9. I see to it that extracurricular activities do 3.37 7 Sometimes not hamper my studies. 10. I have a specific place of study at home 3.45 6 Often which I keep clean and orderly. Average Weighted Mean 3.60 Often Overall, the extent of study habits as perceived by the students themselves gainedan ―often‖ result with an overall weighted mean of 3.60. Among each situational/actionstatements or items given, the item “I study harder to improved my performance when Iget low grades.” ranked first with an average weighted mean of 4.34 but the item “I spendless time with my friends during school days to concentrate more on my studies.” got thelowest extent of study habits in Mathematics.
  35. 35. Extent of Teachers’ Personality Traits . Table 3 shows the data on the extent of personality traits of the teachers with thecomputed weighted mean, rank and interpretation. Extent of teachers’ personality traitswere ranked based on their relationship with the students, their smartness, confidence andfirmness in making decisions, their imposing proper discipline and not lenient infollowing the prescribed rules, their personality with good sense of humor and theirappreciation to suggestions and opinions and their worthy of praiseTable 3. Extent Teachers’ Personality Traits as Perceived by the Students Weighted Verbal Personality Traits Rank Mean Interpretation 1. Has a good relationship with the students 4.60 1 always and teachers. 2. Shows smartness, confidence and 4.58 2 always firmness in making decisions. 3. Imposes proper discipline and is not 4.43 4 often lenient in following the prescribed rules. 4. Has an appealing personality with good 4.41 5 often sense of humor. 5. Is open to suggestions and opinions and is 4.48 3 often worthy of praise.Average Weighted Mean 4.50 always The table reveals that item number 1 ranked first with an average weighted meanof 4.60 and interpreted as ―always‖ which means that the teacher always has a goodrelationship with the students. The item number 2 ranked second with an averageweighted mean of 4.58 also interpreted as ―always‖ which means that the teacher alwaysshows their smartness, confidence and firmness in making decisions. Items 3, 4, and 5interpreted as ―often‖ with the weighted means of 4.48, 4.43, and 4.41 for ranks 3, 4, and5 respectively.
  36. 36. Extent of Teaching Skills Table 4 presents the extent of teaching skills acquired by the teachers inMathematics as perceived by the students. The overall weighted mean of the teachers interms of teaching skills is 4.41 which is interpreted as ―often‖.Table 4. Extent of Teaching Skills as Perceived by the Students Weighted Verbal Teaching Skills Mean Rank Interpretation 1. Explains the objectives of the lesson clearly at 4.51 2 always the start of each period. 2. Has mastery of the subject matter. 4.70 1 always 3. Is organized in presenting subject matters by 4.40 4 often systematically following course outline. 4. Is updated with present trends, relevant to the 4.46 3 often subject matter. 5. Uses various strategies, teaching aids/devices 3.96 5 often and techniques in presenting the lessons.Average Weighted Mean 4.41 often Looking closely at the table item per item, it was observed that the “The teacherhas mastery of the subject matter” has the highest average weighted mean among the fiveitems and interpreted as ―always‖ followed by the item “The teacher explains theobjectives of the lesson clearly at the start of each period” also interpreted as ―always‖.Items ―The teacher is updated with present trends, relevant to the subject matter” , “Theteacher is organized in presenting subject matter by systematically following courseoutline”, and “The teacher uses various strategies, teaching aids/devices and techniquesin presenting the lessons” interpreted as ―often‖ with the average weighted means of4.46, 4.40 and 3.96 for ranks 3, 4. and 5 respectively.
  37. 37. Extent of Instructional Materials used by the Mathematics teachers Table 5 presents the extent of instructional materials used by the teachers inMathematics. It shows that the teachers ―always‖ used chalk and blackboard inexplaining the lessons with an average weighted mean of 4.93. The teachers usedworkbooks/textbooks and materials for project development interpreted as ―sometimes‖with the average weighted means of 3.45 and 2.55 for ranks 2 and 3. The teachers usedarticles interpreted as ―rarely‖ with an average weighted mean of 2.48. Lastly, used ofpower point presentation got the lowest extent of instructional materials with an averageweighted mean of 1.49 interpreted as ―sometimes‖.Table 5. Extent of Instructional Materials used by the Mathematics Teachers Weighted Instructional Materials Verbal Interpretation Mean Rank 1. Chalk and blackboard in 4.93 1 always explaining the lessons. 2. workbooks/textbooks 3.45 2 sometimes 3. PowerPoint presentations (visual 1.49 5 never aids) 4. articles 2.48 4 rarely 5. materials for project development 2.55 3 sometimes Average Weighted Mean 2.98 sometimes The overall extent of instructional materials used by the Math teachers asperceived by the students gained ―sometimes‖ result with an overall average weightedmean of 2.98. This means that the teacher in Mathematics sometimes uses instructionalmaterials.
  38. 38. Level of Performance of Students in Mathematics Table 6 presents the level of performance of Laboratory high school students inMathematics in terms of some measure as mean, median, mode, standard deviation,skewness and kurtosis. The grades presented are the means of the grades of students-respondents in third grading period obtained through documentary analysis of Form 138provided by the adviser.Table 6. Level of Performance of Students in MathematicsStatistics Value Verbal InterpretationMean 88.23 SatisfactoryMedian 89.00 SatisfactoryMode 91.00 Very SatisfactoryStandard Deviation 4.84Kurtosis 2.10 Relatively Steep/leptokurticSkewness -1.13 Skewed to the left/negatively skewed Table reveals that the mean performance of students in Mathematics was―satisfactory‖ with an average of 88.23 median of 89 mode of 91 and standard deviationof 4.84. The skewness of the level of students is -1.13 which, which skewed to theleft/negatively skewed while kurtosis is 2.10, which is leptokurtic or has a relativelypeaked distribution. It reveals that several of the students really wanted the subject of Mathematics.Only few of the students got low and the rest got the high grades.
  39. 39. Significant Relationship of the Mathematics Performance of the Students inStudent-related factors and Teacher-related factors Table 7 presents the significant relationship of the factors affecting MathematicsPerformance of Laboratory High School. As seen on the table, the Pearson r of the five(5) factors such as Interest, Study Habits, Personality Traits, Teaching Skills andInstructional Materials have high degree of correlation but the t revealed the lesser valueof 2.01. It means that there is no significant relationship to Mathematics performance ofthe students.Table 7. Significant Relationship of the Mathematics Performance of the Students inStudent-related factors and Teacher-related factors Variables df T-Computed T- value InterpretationInterest 0.544326 2.10 not significantStudy Habits -0.465262108 -2.10 not significantPersonality Traits -0.095499 -2.10 not significant 113Teaching Skills 0.984864987 2.10 not significantInstructional -2.10Materials -1.043867038 not significant The table reveals that the interest, study habits, personality traits, teaching skillsand instructional materials do not affect the Mathematics performance of the Students ofLaguna State Polytechnic University.
  40. 40. Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter presents the summary of findings; the conclusions made and therecommendations offered.Summary This study was conducted in Laguna State Polytechnic University, Siniloan,Laguna, with a total of one hundred fifteen respondents of laboratory high school.Descriptive method was used in this study. The researcher used a checklist-questionnairemethod in order to reveal the relationship of the variables. The special problem was conducted to determine the factors affectingMathematics Performance of Laboratory High School Students at Laguna StatePolytechnic University Academic Year 2009-2010. It aims to find out the appropriateanswers to the following questions: What is the extent of the student-related factors interms of interest and study habits? What is the extent of teacher-related factors asevaluated by the students in terms of personality traits, teaching skills and instructionalmaterials? What is the level of students’ mathematics performance? Is there significantrelationship between students’ mathematics performance and student-related factors? Isthere significant relationship between students’ mathematics performance and teacher-related factors?
  41. 41. Through this problems stated, the researcher came up with the following nullhypothesis: Ho There is no significant relationship between the students’ mathematicsperformance and student-related factors in terms of interest and study habits. Ho There isno significant relationship between students’ mathematics performance and teacher-related factors in terms of personality traits, teaching skills and instructional materials. After administering the questionnaire, the researcher used weighted mean andrank to determine the extent of student-related factors in terms of interest and studyhabits; and extent of teacher-related factors in terms of personality traits, teaching skillsand instructional materials. Mean, median, mode, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosiswere used to determine the level of performance of students in Mathematics. And to testthe significance of input and output variables, pearson-r were used.Conclusions Based on the data gathered, the overall weighted mean of level of interest inmathematics was 3.90 and interpreted as ―often‖. Study habits had an average weightedmean of 3.60 and also interpreted as ―often‖. Personality traits had an average weightedmean of 4.50 and interpreted as ―always‖. Teaching skills had an average weighted meanof 4.41 and interpreted as ―often‖. Instructional materials had an average weighted meanof 2.98 and interpreted as ―sometimes‖.
  42. 42. In terms of level of performance of the students in mathematics, the studentsobtained the mean grade of 88.23 with verbal interpretation of ―Satisfactory‖ andstandard deviation of 4.84. Through the test of significance, the researcher came up with the followingconclusion; there is no significant correlation between student interest in mathematicsand their performance in mathematics. Their computed z-value is 0.54 which is less thanthe tabular z-value of 2.10 at α = .05. There is no significant correlation between studyhabits and their performance in mathematics. The computed z-value is -0.47 which is lessthan the tabular z-value of -2.10 at α =0.05. This means that the performance of thestudents in mathematics was not affected by the student-related factors in terms ofinterest and study habits. There is no significant relationship between teacher-related factors such aspersonality traits, teaching skills and instructional materials and the performance of thestudents in mathematics. Their computed z-values are -0.10, 0.98 and -1.04 which areless than the tabular z-value of -2.10, 2.10 and -2.10 respectively. Thus, teacher-relatedactors do not affect the performance of the students in mathematics.Recommendations Based on the conclusions made, the following recommendations are given: that amore concentrated research on relationship to Mathematics be made by the futureresearchers to determine a more focused result on the relationship; that teachers use more
  43. 43. interactive teaching techniques that would boost interest in mathematics; that a morethorough research on study habits be made by future researchers to determine its effect onstudent performance.
  44. 44. BIBLIOGRAPHYBooksBILBAO, PURITA P. PhD, CORPUZ,BRENDA B. PhD, LLAGAS,AVELLINA T. PhD. 2006. The teaching profession. Lorimar publishing Co. Inc.CALDERON, JOSE F. 1998. Foundation of Education. 1998CORPUZ,BRENDA B. PhD AND SALANDANAN GLORIA G. PhD. 2003. Principles and Strategies of Teaching. Lorimar Publishing Co., Inc.OCHOVE, JESUS A. PhD., SEVILLA,CONSUELO G. PhD., PANSALAN,TWILA G. PhD., REGALA,BELLA P. M.A 1992. Research Methods. Rex Printing Company Inc.SALANDANAN , GLORIA G. PhD AND CORPUZ,BRENDA B. PhD. 2007. Principles of Teaching. Lorimar Publishing Co. Inc.EYSENCK, HANS. The Structure of Human Personality. London Methuen, 1970.Related StudiesBAGAYANA , ERLINDA B.2006. Performance in the Different Learning Areas and in Mathematics of the Fourth Year Students in Cluster III of Diocesan Catholic School System. Unpublished M.A ThesisCHECA, MARY ROSE ANN A.2007. Determinants of Academic Performance in English, Mathematics, Science and Selected Elementary School in District of Lumban , Laguna. Unpublished M.A Thesis
  45. 45. EDLAGAN, MICHELLE LOVERNA AND PEROL JUDYLYN MERLE. 2008. Mathematics Performance of Third Year High School Students from Private and Public Schools in Paete, Laguna S.Y. 2006-2007. Unpublished ThesisSAINZ, ANGLELINA A. May 2000. Mathematical Performance of Third Year High School Students: Basis for Policy Formulation. Unpublished ThesisSAMAÑEGO, ROBERT C. May 2002. Factors Influencing Interest of Students in Physical Education Subjects at the Laguna State Polytechnic College. Unpublished M. A. ThesisTUALA, RICHARD IGNACIO AND JIMENEZ ARIANE BUENO.2008. Mathematics Ability as Affected by English Proficiency of Fourth Year Secondary Students at Laguna State Polytechnic University School Year 2007-2008. Unpublished ThesisVILLAMOR, ROWENA E. 2008. Predictors of Students’ Performance in Mathematics at the Laguna State Polytechnic University. Unpublished M.A. ThesisElectronicshttp://www.myersbriggs.org/http://www.intime.uni.edu/model/center_of_learning_files/principles.htmlhttp://www.wilderdom.com/personality/traits/PersonalityTraitsGordonAllport.htmlhttp://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/eysenck.htmlhttp://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/204/286https://medschool.mc.vanderbilt.edu/facultydata/php_files/part_dept/show_part.php?id3=2968http://www.chgd.umich.edu/faculty/daviskean.html
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