CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature This chapter present related literature and studies conducted in the Philippines andabroad, the concept of the ideas of which bear relation to the study under consideration, either incontent, research methodology or treatment of the data. The literature may give the researcherrich information and background related to the study.Foreign Study Mosaica Education, Inc.: Putting Math at the Forefront of Education Reform ATLANTA, GA- A group of teachers, curriculum specialists and Mosaica executivesgathered for the Mosaica Math Summit on May 4 and 5. The summit focused on ways toincrease math achievement at Mosaica schools around the world. Dawn Linden, Mosaica’sDirector of Education explained the purpose of bringing these educators together: “Mathematicsachievement is high on our list of priorities and we’re looking for innovative, effective strategiesto increase conceptual understanding, and to ensure that we’re reaching each student every day.” Referencing the Final Report of the U.S. Department of Education’s NationalMathematics Advisory Panel (2008), summit attendees reviewed various math programs’strengths and weaknesses and explored successful methods used in the United States and bycountries that performed well on TIMMS, with the goal of adopting best practices from around
the globe, raising math interest, and making math an integral part of school culture. Michael J.Connelly, Mosaica’s Chief Executive Officer, announced the rationale at the beginning of thesummit: “Literacy and numeracy are the twin tools for international success on the global stageof the 21st century. Our schools are committed to high levels of student achievement and thedevelopment of life-long learners who are comfortable participating on that stage. Following ourLiteracy Summit, which launched our highly successful Literacy Initiative two years ago, thisMath Summit is the both the culmination of years of research and planning and the beginning ofthe implementation phase.” As a result of the decisions taken at the summit, Mosaica Education will implement asystem-wide Math Initiative beginning in the fall of 2009. This initiative focuses on placingMath Coaches in every school, increasing the number of high-quality math teachers at everygrade, exploring ways to offer alternative certifications to math teachers coming from scienceand industry, and bringing math specialists to upper elementary grades. The initiative will alsoadjust the daily schedule to allow for 90 minutes of uninterrupted math in all grades; provideadditional professional development for teachers to cultivate confident implementation of thenew program; develop math clubs and competitions in all schools; and – perhaps mostimportantly – ensure that learning math will be FUN! Dr. Dawn Eidelman, Mosaica’s Co-Founder and President of its Paragon Divisioncommented, “The beauty of our new initiative is that it will augment project-based learning bylinking mathematics more integrally to the history of great ideas and great people in world
culture through our Paragon curriculum. To innovate purposefully and to design the future, wemust build upon the lessons from our past.”Mathematics The required courses from the Science and Mathematics Department enhance the abilityto thinkquantitatively, critically, and logically and illustrate the manner in which problems of aquantitative nature are solved through the use of algorithms and logical thought. Students studyfundamental mathematical functions in Algebra and Trigonometry and explore the basicconcepts of analysis of these functions in Calculus I or Applied Calculus, depending on theirmajor. Then students select one additional mathematics course with a Calculus I or AppliedCalculus prerequisite. Thus, students learn to use mathematics, including calculus, in problemsolving, to use technology appropriately in this process, and to apply mathematics to problemsarising in other disciplines. In the required science courses students apply the scientific methodin a variety of classroom and laboratory settings so that they develop the ability to carefullycollect, organize, and analyze data for the purpose of synthesizing a model for betterunderstanding or problem solving. The basic concepts of matter are explored in Chemistry I inorder to reach a better understanding of technology, health and environmental issues. The laws ofnature are studied in either College Physics I or Engineering Physics I in order to developa method of reasoning that will enable students to interpret physical events in a rational manner.
To add necessary depth to their study of natural science, students also select a sequentiallaboratory science course in either Chemistry or Physics.