Decent work as a measure of social progress:
Discussion about indicators model for performance
analysis of government poli...
Abstract
Second ISA Forum of Sociology
Wednesday, August 1, 2012: 9:15 AM
Faculty of Economics, TBA
Ronaldo BALTAR , Ciênc...
Brazil`s recent changes

PROGRESS OF HUMAN INDICATORS
IN BRAZIL
ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

3
Regions of Brazil

Region
Population
North
15.8 million
Northeast 53.5 million
Central-West 13.6 million
Southeast 80.7 mi...
IFDM by States of Brazil, 2009
Firjan's Municipal
Development Index
(IDFM) is a Human
Development index
similar to HDI

Ro...
Human Development Index: Trends 1980 - present

Source: UNDP – UN < http://hdrstats.undp.org >

Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S....
households below the extreme poverty threshold in Brazil
(families living with less than U$35.00 per capita/mo)
3.000.000
...
Ratio of the richest 20% to the poorest 40% in Brazil
25
20
S

15

N
SE

10

NE
CW

5
0
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Sour...
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION

DECENT WORK

ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

9
Inequality in Emerging Economies
What Role for Labour Market and Social Policies?
“China and India grew at annual rates wh...
What are the ILO Decent Work Agenda goals?
Creating Jobs

Guaranteeing rights at
work
Extending social
protection
Promotin...
Six-step cycle of Decent Work Country
Program (DWCP)

Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar

ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

1...
Example of Decent Work Country Program
(DWCP) implementation in Americas
Argentina

Brazil

•UNDAF approved by the Governm...
Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar
ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

Economic and social
context of decent work

Social dialo...
Principal Component Analysis

HOW TO COMPARE ALL
DIMENSIONS OF DECENT WORK?
ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

15
Microlevel

Source: Kantor, Rani, Unni (2006)
Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar

ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

16
GHAI`s Indicators and variables
Employment
Opportunities
Labour force
participation
rate
Female labour
force
participation...
Patterns of decent work performance

GHAI (2003)

Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar

ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

18
GHAI’s Decent Work Ranking
Country

Gender
Social
disparities Employment Dialogue

Social
Average
Protection ranking

Over...
Dealing with different dimensions

PCA ANALYSIS APPLIED TO DW
INDICATORS
ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

20
ILO-Brazil Indicators and variables
Employment
Opportunities
Labour force
participation
rate
Female
labour force
participa...
Data preparation (correlation matrix)
Acre

Alagoas

Amapá

Amazonas

Bahia

Ceará

Distrito
Federal

North

NorthEast

No...
PCA – ALL DIMENTIONS

ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

23
Variable (loadings) PC1 vs PC2
Youth_unemploy
me

Youth_unemploy
me
Youth_unemploy
me
Youth_unemploy
me
Youth_unemploy
me
...
Sample (scores)
Alagoas

Rio de Janeiro

5,143

Paraíba
Maranhão

Piauí
Bahia

PC2 (16,9%)

Pernambuco

-6,21

7,830

Dist...
Cluster all variables

Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar

ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

26
PCA – CONTEXT VARIABLES

ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

27
PC1 vs PC2 (context variables)
literacy_Rate

7,766E-02

Security_Job_Rat

GDP_PERCAPITA
_VA
Union_Rate

0,394

PC2 (16,7%...
PC1 vs PC2 sample scores
Alagoas

São Paulo

2,735

Rio de Janeiro
Santa Catarina
Paraná

Piauí
Paraíba

PC2 (16,7%)

Mato...
Cluster variables without discrimination factors

Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar

ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012

30
Source and Bibliography
Barbosa, Marcos. Map of South America and Brazil
http://flinkas.deviantart.com/gallery/?q=mapa+bra...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Decent work as a measure of social progress: Discussion about indicators model for performance analysis of government policies

376 views
237 views

Published on

Over the last decade, the International Labour Organization (ILO) has promoted initiatives to stimulate worldwide commitments to the "Decent Work Agenda", based on respect for the statements expressed in the Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. Several governments in South America, especially Brazil, have developed national programs that agree the Decent Work Agenda as a means to economic and social development. Having this context in view, this paper aims to analyze how an index developed to measure decent work can also measure changes in quality of life, social progress and national development. Brazil is taken as a reference point in order to measure the variables, using the RAIS / CAGED data bases, maintained by Brazilian Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE), and the census of IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). The study seeks to define a model that correlates selected dimensions of decent work, like provision of suitable jobs for men and women, the extension of social protection, a fair day's wage for a fair day's work, among others, with the variables that measure social progress and quality of life. This paper discusses the methodological implications of this model in comparison to some different proposals for indicators disseminated by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The central question discusses how the different dimensions of decent work can be integrated into an index for monitoring the development and social progress. Along with a theoretical and methodological discussion, it is intended to advance the creation of indicators that can effectively monitor the performance of policies and government actions for promoting decent work as a way to attain social progress, which may serve as a tool for comparison, analysis and questioning of social development at national and regional levels.

Published in: Education, Travel, Career
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
376
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Decent work as a measure of social progress: Discussion about indicators model for performance analysis of government policies

  1. 1. Decent work as a measure of social progress: Discussion about indicators model for performance analysis of government policies Ronaldo BALTAR Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina/PR, Brazil Cláudia Siqueira BALTAR NEPO/UNICAMP, Campinas/SP, Brazil Paper presented at The Second ISA Forum of Sociology – “Social justice and democratization”, Buenos Aires, Argentina August 1-4, 2012 - Group “Measuring and Monitoring Social Progress: RC55 Social Indicators”, Wednesday, August 1, 2012: 9:15 AM, Faculty of Economics, TBA; Session Organizer: Heinz-Herbert NOLL, Chair: Heinz-Herbert NOLL Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 1
  2. 2. Abstract Second ISA Forum of Sociology Wednesday, August 1, 2012: 9:15 AM Faculty of Economics, TBA Ronaldo BALTAR , Ciências Sociais, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina/PR, Brazil Cláudia BALTAR , Demografia, NEPO/UNICAMP, Campinas/SP, Brazil Over the last decade, the International Labour Organization (ILO) has promoted initiatives to stimulate worldwide commitments to the "Decent Work Agenda", based on respect for the statements expressed in the Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. Several governments in South America, especially Brazil, have developed national programs that agree the Decent Work Agenda as a means to economic and social development. Having this context in view, this paper aims to analyze how an index developed to measure decent work can also measure changes in quality of life, social progress and national development. Brazil is taken as a reference point in order to measure the variables, using the RAIS / CAGED data bases, maintained by Brazilian Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE), and the census of IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). The study seeks to define a model that correlates selected dimensions of decent work, like provision of suitable jobs for men and women, the extension of social protection, a fair day's wage for a fair day's work, among others, with the variables that measure social progress and quality of life. This paper discusses the methodological implications of this model in comparison to some different proposals for indicators disseminated by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The central question discusses how the different dimensions of decent work can be integrated into an index for monitoring the development and social progress. Along with a theoretical and methodological discussion, it is intended to advance the creation of indicators that can effectively monitor the performance of policies and government actions for promoting decent work as a way to attain social progress, which may serve as a tool for comparison, analysis and questioning of social development at national and regional levels. Section: Measuring and Monitoring Social Progress I Research Comite: RC55 Social Indicators http://isaconf.confex.com/isaconf/forum2012/webprogram/Paper26251.html Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 2
  3. 3. Brazil`s recent changes PROGRESS OF HUMAN INDICATORS IN BRAZIL ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 3
  4. 4. Regions of Brazil Region Population North 15.8 million Northeast 53.5 million Central-West 13.6 million Southeast 80.7 million South 27.3 million Largest City States GDP (US$ bi) Manaus 7 96.2 Salvador 9 237.1 Brasilia 3 + F.D. 174.3 São Paulo 4 803.0 Curitiba 3 313.8 Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 4
  5. 5. IFDM by States of Brazil, 2009 Firjan's Municipal Development Index (IDFM) is a Human Development index similar to HDI Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 5
  6. 6. Human Development Index: Trends 1980 - present Source: UNDP – UN < http://hdrstats.undp.org > Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 6
  7. 7. households below the extreme poverty threshold in Brazil (families living with less than U$35.00 per capita/mo) 3.000.000 2.500.000 2.000.000 CW S 1.500.000 N SE 1.000.000 NE 500.000 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Pnad/IBGE, Brazil Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 7
  8. 8. Ratio of the richest 20% to the poorest 40% in Brazil 25 20 S 15 N SE 10 NE CW 5 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source:Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea) Pnad/IBGE, Brazil Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 8
  9. 9. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION DECENT WORK ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 9
  10. 10. Inequality in Emerging Economies What Role for Labour Market and Social Policies? “China and India grew at annual rates which reached two-digit levels in the years prior to the crisis. Economic growth in Brazil and South Africa was more volatile during the past decade but still four countries have experienced substantial increases in GDP per capita, impressive. As a result, all reducing the gap with OECD countries. However, despite the impressive growth spurts, convergence in GDP per capita with OECD countries is still a distant target. In India, GDP per capita is still only 8% of the OECD average, in China it is 16%, while in Brazil and South Africa it is about 25%. But economic growth is only part of the story. Globalisation has also generated imbalances, both between and within countries. Strong economic growth has helped to reduce extreme poverty significantly in China, India and Brazil, and to a lesser extent in South Africa. But inequalities in income and consumption have increased since the early 1990s, even though Brazil has been very successful in reducing income inequality over the past 10 years and, more recently, China has also seen a decrease of inequality. ” OECD Conference Centre, Paris, 19 May 2010 OCDE (2010). Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 10
  11. 11. What are the ILO Decent Work Agenda goals? Creating Jobs Guaranteeing rights at work Extending social protection Promoting social dialogue • an economy that generates opportunities for investment, entrepreneurship, skills development, job creation and sustainable livelihoods. • to obtain recognition and respect for the rights of workers. All workers, and in particular disadvantaged or poor workers, need representation, participation, and laws that work for their interests. • to promote both inclusion and productivity by ensuring that women and men enjoy working conditions that are safe, allow adequate free time and rest, take into account family and social values, provide for adequate compensation in case of lost or reduced income and permit access to adequate healthcare. • Involving strong and independent workers’ and employers' organizations is central to increasing productivity, avoiding disputes at work, and building cohesive societies. Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 11
  12. 12. Six-step cycle of Decent Work Country Program (DWCP) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 12
  13. 13. Example of Decent Work Country Program (DWCP) implementation in Americas Argentina Brazil •UNDAF approved by the Government in Nov. 2009. Decent Work is specifically included as one of the UNDAF (and MDG) objectives. •CEB Toolkit for Mainstreaming Employment and Decent Work is specifically included as one of the identified UN tools for monitoring UNDAF execution. •DW Provincial Programs •Tripartite consultations for the preparation of the third DWCP (20122015) started in Feb. 2012. • Has a National Agenda for Decent Work, and will also sign a National Plan for Decent Work in August 2012, during the National Conference on Decent Work. •Both documents were designed, and will be implemented, by tripartite constituents, with the ILO support. •Decent Work is specifically included as one of the UNDAF objectives for the country. •DW States Programs Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 13
  14. 14. Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 Economic and social context of decent work Social dialogue and workers representation Social Security Safe work environment Equal opportunity and treatment in employment Combining work and family Stability and security of work Decent Hours Adequate Earnings and productive Employment Opportunities How to measure Decent Work? Decent Work Dimensions 14
  15. 15. Principal Component Analysis HOW TO COMPARE ALL DIMENSIONS OF DECENT WORK? ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 15
  16. 16. Microlevel Source: Kantor, Rani, Unni (2006) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 16
  17. 17. GHAI`s Indicators and variables Employment Opportunities Labour force participation rate Female labour force participation Employmentto-population ratio unemployme nt rate Adequate Earnings and productive Decent Hours Poverty - % of pop. <US$14.40 PPP/day per person Human development indicators Social Security Equal opportunity and treatment in employment Public social security expenditure as % of GDP % Woman Administrators & managers % Woman Professional & technical Social dialogue Civil liberties index (1997) Union membership as proportion of employees, 1 995 Woman Earned income Gini coefficient GHAI (2003) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 17
  18. 18. Patterns of decent work performance GHAI (2003) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 18
  19. 19. GHAI’s Decent Work Ranking Country Gender Social disparities Employment Dialogue Social Average Protection ranking Overall ranking 1 8 2 2 12 11 5 16 1 2 3 10 5 9 8 16 1 2 4 3 9 13 10 5 1 2 6 3 9 5 19 7 1.0 3.5 3.8 4.5 8.8 9.5 10.5 11.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 15 12 13 11.3 9 Luxembourg 22 7 8 11 12.0 10 Switzerland 15 5 19 10 12.3 11 Netherlands Portugal Australia Italy Japan 16 10 8 19 13 13 12 14 18 3 14 14 11 7 18 8 17 21 12 22 12.8 13.3 13.5 14.0 14.0 12 13 14 15 15 New Zeland 7 17 16 16 14.0 15 4 14 18 21 20 11 22 19 20 21 21 6 22 16 20 20 18 4 14 15 14.0 15.0 15.8 17.8 19.0 15 19 20 21 22 Sweden Denmark Norway Finland Austria Germany Canada Belgium United Kindgdom United States Ireland France Greece Spain GHAI (2003) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 19
  20. 20. Dealing with different dimensions PCA ANALYSIS APPLIED TO DW INDICATORS ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 20
  21. 21. ILO-Brazil Indicators and variables Employment Opportunities Labour force participation rate Female labour force participation by gender Adequate Earnings and productive Economic and social Context GDP variation 2004 to 2009 Poverty rate School rate 15 to 17yo Ratio Poorest_to_Richies Labour force participation by race Equal opportunity and treatment in employment Stability and security of work Average Wage_by gender Formal Job Rate Total Average Wage by race Ileteracy functional rate Union membership as proportion of employees Formal Job Rate by gender literacy_Rate GDP PERCAPITA variaton 2004 to 2009 Social dialogue Youth unemployment Formal Job Rate by race % of Poor Workers AVG years of study ILO BRAIZIL (2012) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 21
  22. 22. Data preparation (correlation matrix) Acre Alagoas Amapá Amazonas Bahia Ceará Distrito Federal North NorthEast North North NorthEast NorthEast CentralWest Security_Job_Rate_Man X -0,3207281 -0,7094021 -0,3751424 -0,3595955 -0,9348331 -1,0203414 1,55268086 Security_Job_Rate_Woman X -0,0065652 -0,4497155 0,56953025 -0,3433594 -1,016948 -1,078989 1,97874834 Security_Job_Rate_Whites X 0,14428146 -0,4671797 0,57822166 0,13441919 -1,4238206 -1,2561619 1,94907819 Security_Job_Rate_Blacks X -0,2331883 -0,6336159 -0,0713133 -0,3609844 -0,8295698 -1,0340435 1,76894959 Wage_Man X 0,34094351 -0,9505004 0,01545766 -0,3074033 -0,9216266 -1,0817446 3,46980751 Wage_Woman X 0,95998942 -0,5530903 0,27891003 -0,0268017 -0,777537 -0,9594161 3,99001871 Wage_Whites X 0,8451368 -0,5996598 0,00907442 0,04948831 -0,5617718 -1,0391609 4,17170526 Wage_Blacks X 0,95715436 -0,9103216 0,67365801 0,11116524 -0,8653222 -1,0858194 3,79661786 Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 22
  23. 23. PCA – ALL DIMENTIONS ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 23
  24. 24. Variable (loadings) PC1 vs PC2 Youth_unemploy me Youth_unemploy me Youth_unemploy me Youth_unemploy me Youth_unemploy me PC2 (24,9%) 0,334 -0,24 0,244 Part_Rate_Man Part_Rate_Whites Part_Rate_Total Part_Rate_Blacks -0,31 Part_Rate_Woma n PC1 (49,6%) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 24
  25. 25. Sample (scores) Alagoas Rio de Janeiro 5,143 Paraíba Maranhão Piauí Bahia PC2 (16,9%) Pernambuco -6,21 7,830 Distrito Federal Santa Catarina São Paulo -3,52 PC1 (42,6%) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 25
  26. 26. Cluster all variables Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 26
  27. 27. PCA – CONTEXT VARIABLES ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 27
  28. 28. PC1 vs PC2 (context variables) literacy_Rate 7,766E-02 Security_Job_Rat GDP_PERCAPITA _VA Union_Rate 0,394 PC2 (16,7%) -0,36 GDP_VAR_2004_2 00 Wage Ileteracy_func_r AVG_years_of_stu PCT_Workers_Po or SCHOOL_RATE_1 5_1 -0,56 PC1 (50,5%) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 28
  29. 29. PC1 vs PC2 sample scores Alagoas São Paulo 2,735 Rio de Janeiro Santa Catarina Paraná Piauí Paraíba PC2 (16,7%) Mato Grosso -4,89 5,468 Distrito Federal Maranhão -2,52 PC1 (50,5%) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 29
  30. 30. Cluster variables without discrimination factors Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 30
  31. 31. Source and Bibliography Barbosa, Marcos. Map of South America and Brazil http://flinkas.deviantart.com/gallery/?q=mapa+brasil#/d4oleya ILO (2008): “Measurement of Decent Work”: tripartite meeting of experts on measurement of decent work, 8-10 Sept. ILO-Geneva, 2008. ILO Decent Work Country Programmes: A Guidebook, version 3. ILO-Geneva, 2011. < http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/dwcpguidebookv3.pdf > GUIMARÃES, José Ribeiro Soares. Perfil do Trabalho Decente no Brasil: um olhar sobre as Unidades da Federação. Brasília: OIT, 2012. OCDE. Tackling Inequalities in Brazil, China, India and South Africa: The Role of Labour Market and Social Policies. OECD Publishing, 2010. Paula Kantor, Uma Rani, Jeemol Unni. Decent Work Deficits in Informal Economy: Case of Surat. Economic and Political Weekly. May 27, 2006. Standing, G (2002): ‘From People’s Security Surveys to a Decent Work Index’, International Labour Review, 141(4) Anker, R (2002): ‘People’s Security Surveys: An Outline of Methodology and Concepts’, International Labour Review, 141(4) GHAI, Dharam (2003): Decent work: Concept and indicators. International Labour Review , 142 (2) Ronaldo Baltar, Cláudia S. Baltar ISA Forum - Buenos Aires, 2012 31

×