OAPEN-NL - Costs of monographs

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OAPEN-NL builds on the European OAPEN-project which was set up to gain experience with Open Access publishing of academic books. In total 50 academic books were published in Open Access in the …

OAPEN-NL builds on the European OAPEN-project which was set up to gain experience with Open Access publishing of academic books. In total 50 academic books were published in Open Access in the OAPEN-NL pilot. OAPEN-NL gathered data of all 50 books to get an insight in the costs related to publishing academic books. Based on this research, publishing a monograph in the Netherlands costs an average of € 12,000. Roughly half of these costs are for the Open Access edition. Remaining costs regard printing and disseminating the paper version. These results are important for the funding of Open Access monographs in the Netherlands.

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  • 1. OAPEN-NL Costs of monographs OAPEN-NL Final Seminar 22 October 2013 Ronald Snijder
  • 2. Contents • • • • Research setup Results Funding models Conclusion
  • 3. Starting points • OA costs and print costs • OA costs: – Fixed – Flexible • Just costs, no profits • No VAT • Analysis on book level, not by publisher
  • 4. Division of costs OA Costs: Print costs: Peer review (fixed) Printing, binding Platform (fixed) Distribution Marketing Overhead/indirect personnel costs Editing/direct personnel costs Other/direct costs DTP Marketing Overhead/indirect personnel costs Royalties Other/direct costs Royalties Cover
  • 5. Highest and lowest Highest Total costs Total OA costs OA fixed OA variable Print costs Lowest € 20,660 € 6,082 € 9,490 € 3,085 € 825 € 25 € 8,965 € 2,460 € 11,170 € 2,997
  • 6. Book 17 Book 43 Book 42 Book 14 Book 6 Book 50 Book 59 Book 35 Book 19 Book 2 Book 34 Book 24 Book 46 Book 45 Book 47 Book 26 Book 18 Book 44 Book 16 Book 55 Book 9 Book 65 Book 62 Book 32 Book 33 Book 15 Book 3 Book 22 Book 39 Book 51 Book 38 Book 37 Book 63 Book 60 Book 5 Book 11 Book 8 Book 41 Book 57 Book 1 Book 7 Book 13 Book 4 Book 53 Book 58 Book 20 Book 52 Book 10 Book 12 Book 56 Costs: per book – print, OA Total costs € 25,000.00 € 20,000.00 € 15,000.00 € 10,000.00 € 5,000.00 € 0.00 OA costs - fixed OA costs - variable Total print
  • 7. Book 17 Book 15 Book 46 Book 55 Book 62 Book 65 Book 51 Book 42 Book 33 Book 44 Book 63 Book 34 Book 16 Book 50 Book 45 Book 18 Book 37 Book 11 Book 43 Book 38 Book 47 Book 14 Book 58 Book 10 Book 19 Book 39 Book 12 Book 57 Book 56 Book 41 Book 52 Book 53 Book 2 Book 5 Book 20 Book 35 Book 1 Book 22 Book 24 Book 32 Book 3 Book 8 Book 7 Book 6 Book 60 Book 9 Book 26 Book 13 Book 59 Book 4 Costs: per page – print, OA Costs per page € 70.000 € 60.000 € 50.000 € 40.000 € 30.000 € 20.000 € 10.000 € .000 Page: OA - fixed Page: OA - variable Page: print
  • 8. Differences explained • Three categories with large fluctuations: – Editing/direct personnel costs – DTP – Overhead/indirect personnel costs • 40% of costs (on average) • Printing and binding: – 35% of costs (on average) – Constant factor
  • 9. The costs of monographs – a model OA Costs: Print costs: Peer review (fixed) € 205.68 Printing, binding € 2,867.34 Platform (fixed) € 113.04 Distribution € 1,565.22 Marketing € 263.04 Overhead/indirect personnel costs € 591.38 Editing/direct personnel costs € 1,947.76 Other/direct costs € 375.22 DTP € 1,791.41 Marketing € 436.83 Overhead/indirect personnel costs € 1,185.41 Royalties € 359.88 Other/direct costs Royalties € 145.65 € 25.83 Cover € 292.93 Total € 5,970.75 Total € 6,195.87
  • 10. The costs of monographs – percentages (1/3) Other/direct costs; 3% Overhead/indirect personnel costs; 5% Royalties; 3% OA-Peer review OA-Platform (fixed); 2% (fixed); 1% Marketing; 4% OA-Marketing; 2% OA-Editing/direct personnel costs; 16% Distribution; 13% OA-DTP; 15% Printing, binding; 23% OA-Cover; 2% OAOAOverhead/indirect Other/direct personnel costs; OA-Royalties; 0% costs; 1% 10%
  • 11. The costs of monographs – percentages (2/3) Peer review (fixed); 2% Platform (fixed); 1% Marketing; 2% Editing/direct personnel costs; 16% OA costs: • € 5,970.75 • 49.1% DTP; 15% Cover; 2% Royalties; 0% Overhead/indirect personnel costs; 10% Other/direct costs; 1%
  • 12. The costs of monographs – percentages (3/3) Other/direct costs; 3% Marketing; 4% Royalties; 3% Overhead/indirect personnel costs; 5% Distribution; 13% Printing, binding; 23% Print costs: • € 6,195.87 • 50.9%
  • 13. Two funding models Proposed options for funders, based on costs data: • Open Access costs – – – – Books up to 350 pages: € 4,500 Starting from page 351: € 12.50 per page Maximum funding: € 7,500 Publishers are expected to sell paper copies • Non printing costs – – – – Books up to 350 pages: € 6,250 Starting from page 351: € 20 per page Maximum funding: € 10,000 No additional sales: OA version only
  • 14. Funding options and the pilot How would funding options fare in the pilot? Type OA costs – fixed funding Funding costs Costs < funding Published formats € 300,000 € 31,032 OA version Paper version OA costs – adjusted funding € 253,200 € 9,955 OA version Paper version Non-printing costs – fixed funding € 372,576 € 29,686 OA version only Non-printing costs – adjusted funding € 354,172 € 24,429 OA version only Adjusted options: • Cheaper • More flexible
  • 15. Conclusion What did we achieve? • Costs model: – Average monograph costs € 12,000 – 49% is OA costs, 51% is print/distribution costs • Insight in significant factors: – Editing/direct personnel costs; DTP; Overhead/indirect personnel costs – 40 % – Printing and binding – 35% • Funding models: – Hybrid: selling paper copies – OA only What’s next? • To be decided by: Authors; Publishers; Funders; Libraries; …
  • 16. Thank you! More on OAPEN: • www.oapen.org • www.oapen.nl • www.oapen-uk.jiscebooks.org • Twitter:@Oapenbooks Directory of Open Access Books: • www.doabooks.org • Twitter: @Doabooks Contact me: • r.snijder@oapen.org • Twitter: @Ronaldsnijder