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  • 1. CHAPTER 5: COGNITIVE CHANGES WITH AGING Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Intelligence and Aging  Intelligence – the theoretical limit of an individual’s performance  Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – an individual’s relative abilities in making judgments, in comprehension, and in reasoning Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Age-Related Intelligence Changes       Peak performance varies by test Performance on timed tests declines Performance on non-timed test remains stable until the 80s Rarely decline in all five primary mental abilities (PMA) High scorers continue to do well even among oldest-old Declines in tests of fluid intelligence begin earlier than in crystallized intelligence Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Problems in the Measurement of Cognitive Function Many studies are of cross-sectional design not longitudinal approaches  Historical factors may have greater effect on intelligence scores than age per se  Attrition- Subject and Selective  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. FIGURE 5.1 Proportion of Individuals Who Maintain Scores on Multiple Abilities SOURCE: K. W. Schaie, The hazards of cognitive aging, The Gerontologist 29 (1989): 484–493. Reprinted with permission. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Factors that May Influence Intelligence in Adulthood Biological/Structural changes in the brain  Educational attainment  Involvement in complex work  Cardiovascular disease  Hypertension  Sensory deficits  Occupational level  Nutritional deficiencies  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Process of Learning and Memory  Learning – Process by which new information is encoded  Memory – Secondary (long-term) memory  permanent memory store  Iconic and echoic memory – Primary (working) memory  Temporary stage of holding information Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. The Information Processing Model Conceptual model of how learning and memory take place  Aging appears to reduce efficiency of processing information  Aging does not influence storage capacity of memory  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Schematic Representation of Information Processing Model Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Types of Memory Episodic Memory Explicit Memory Flashbulb Memory Implicit Memory Procedural Memory Semantic Memory Source Memory Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Factors Affecting Learning in Old Age  The Importance of Attention – Selective attention  being able to focus on relevant information while ignoring irrelevant information – Sustained attention  keeping alert to focus on a specific stimulus over time – Attentional control  ability to allocate attention among multiple stimuli simultaneously Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Age-Related Changes in Memory  Types of retrieval – Recall and Recognition  Explanations of older adults’ difficulties with retrieving information – Disuse theory  the view that memory fades or is lost because one fails to use the information – Interference theory  the view that memory fades or is lost because of distractions experienced during learning Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Age-Related Changes in Memory  Tip-of-the-Tongue States (TOTs) – difficulty retrieving names from secondary memory but often spontaneously recalled later  Explanations of the increase of TOTs – Decrement model – Incremental knowledge gain Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Improving Cognitive Abilities in Old Age  Cognitive Retraining – teaching research participants how to use techniques to keep minds active and maintain good memory skills  Memory Mediators – visual and verbal links between information to be memorized and information that is already in secondary memory Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Computers and Internet Computers and Internet can improve older persons’ cognitive functions/ability to maintain active aging.  Gives information about health and health care providers in the community, enhancing autonomy and selfefficacy.  Variety of electronic games are targeted to elders, including those on Nintendo such as Wii.  May also facilitate social interactions and communication.  Although access to computers and the Internet enhances elders’ sense of mastery and control over their environment, it does not necessarily improve their quality of life.  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Improving Webpages for Elders            Avoid a patterned background behind text material. Use dark type or graphics against a light background. Avoid excess graphics and animation. Avoid pop-up menus that can confuse the main text. Use a consistent layout in different sections of the website. Limit how much information is presented on each page. Distinctly identify all links with a specific convention, such as underlining or a unique graphic. Clearly identify the content that is included under each heading. If animation or video is used, select short segments to reduce download time. Provide a telephone number and e-mail address for users who want direct contact. SOURCES: Adapted from Mead, Lamson, and Rogers, 2002, and National Library of Medicine, 2002. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Wisdom and Creativity  Wisdom – Criteria of wise behavior:      Factual knowledge Procedural knowledge Lifespan contextualism Value relativism Managing uncertainty  Creativity – Ability to apply unique & feasible solutions to new situations – Measure of creativity  Divergent thinking Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.