International tourism to reach one billion in 2012• PR No.:• PR12002• Madrid• 16 Jan 12International tourist arrivals grew by over 4% in 2011 to 980 millionEurope surpasses the half billion mark in 2011Despite persistent economic uncertainty, tourist arrivals to Europe reached 503 million in 2011, accounting for 28 million of the 41 million additional international arrivals recorded worldwide. Central and Eastern Europe and Southern Mediterranean destinations (+8% each) experienced the best results.By region, Europe (+6%) was the best performer.Tourism is a sector directly responsible for 5% of the world’s GDP, 6% of total exports and employing one out of every 12 people in advanced and emerging economies.
International tourism to reach one•• PR No.: PR12002 billion in 2012• Madrid• 16 Jan 12Receipts confirm positive trend in arrivalsAmong the top ten tourist destinations, receipts were up significantly in Spain (+9%).The top spenders were led by emerging source markets –China (+38%),Russia (+21%),Brazil (+32%)India (+32%)followed by traditional markets -Germany (+4%)USA (+5%)
Governments urged to facilitate travelUNWTO is urging governments to consider advancing travel facilitation, and make the most of information and communication technologies in improving visa application and processing formalities, as well as the timings of visa issuance, and to analyze the possible impact of travel facilitation in increasing their tourism economies.“Travel facilitation is closely interlinked with tourism development and can be key in boosting demand. This area is of particular relevance in a moment in which governments are looking to stimulate economic growth but cannot make major use of fiscal incentives or public investment,”
Definition : Tourism Policy• Tourism policy represents a means by which local, regional, national and supranational institutions and organisations accomplish the adopted goals of tourism development. (Vucetic A., 2009)
History of Policy development
History of Policy development• Trend in (developed) countries (1950-1980): organizations/institution in governments were established for the purpose of tourism development. Example: Singapore Tourist Promotion Board (STPB) was established in 1964.• In the mid ’70 ‘s Montenegro formulated a tourism policy which was part of the overall state economic policy. The policy was in general terms and not clearly defined. It represented a small part Economic overall National of the National Economic Policy economic policy. Policy Tourism• Since 1992 there is The Ministry of Tourism of Tourism Montenegro
Stiff competition now in the global tourism/leisure market• Public tourism/leisure policy – growing importance• Countries have to differentiate• Public tourism/leisure policy cannot be created nor implemented without a team from various fields of expertise
Balance of Payments of a country• All monetary transactions of a year between the country and the rest of the world• Balance of payments points to a surplus or deficit (Foreign) Money out Money in Spain
Balance of payments Current Account (-,+) = - Capital Account (+) money in money out money in money out payments for the countrys exports and imports of the purchase or construction of goods, services, financial machinery, buildings or even whole capital, and financial manufacturing plants transfers- Merchandise- Travel- Insurance- Investment income- Govt. Transactions- Donations and giftsDeficit or Surplus Deficit or Surplus
Tourism as a long run economic growth factor: theSpanish case of this tourism led growth hypothesis
Current Account (Spain)• Most important items:• Merchandise (costly inputs)• Travel (endowed with natural resources: sandy beaches, pictoresque sites, forests and mountains, sunny climate, cultures and civilisations)
Economic development : SpainThe development of the tourism sector (service) in Spain has 5 comparative advantages over other sectors (agriculture, manufacturing):• Abundance of resources : Naturals/cultural attractions (supply is endless)• Lower import content : services• Higher growth rate• Exports in tourism are stable• Labour intensive nature of the sectorGiven all this it can be said that tourism is the preferred sector for economic development of a country or as a tool for economic development.
Balance of Payments Spain
Current accounts Spain
Policy and planning in Spain (tourspain.es)• The Instituto de Turismo de España (TURESPAÑA) has among its functions that of planning, developing and taking the steps necessary for the promotion of Spanish tourism on the international markets, supporting the marketing of the Spanish tourism products abroad and collaborating with the Regional and local authorities and the private sector in programmes related to the promotion and marketing of their products abroad.• Turespaña is a major tool for Spains tourism policy » Promotion of Tourism Supply » Improve negative effects of competition and sustainability » Development of new tourism products
Tourism and Regional policies in Spain: an evolution synthesis Community Support Framework Regional Development Plans Regional Restructuring Plans
Playa de Lloret de Mar
The policy process Agenda Setting - Public attention focusses on a 1. Agenda public problem or issue. Setting Policy Formulation - words and actions Evaluation - Officials’ Policy Policy makers in the help focus attention. legislature Policy analysts inside and outside 2. Policy take up the and bureaucracy government determine whether the Formulationlegislative issue. They create policy is addressing the issue and whether 5. Policy , regulatory or programmaticimplementation is proceeding well. They Evaluation strategies to address the may recommend revisions in the problem. agenda, in the formulation of policy, or in Policy Adoption - its implementation. 3. Policy Policy makers formally Adoption Policy Implementation - adopt a policy 4. Policy Government agents begin the job solution, usually in the of Implementation work by making the policyform of legislation or rules. establishing procedures, writing guidance documents.
Evolution of a tourist area 1. The place gets so 1. More people find 1. New money starts to popular that some1. 1.Everyone nowgets very The place knows1. The place starts to about the resort. comeabout the out into the resort. people stop going few tourists.2. 2.getSomeone to the run down. People move discovers place.They will say 2. Some of the older hotels there.2. Shops shut down, resort in search a few it, and tells of work. 2. arestartsbusy” or “it’s “it’s too to get It regenerated and3. During the touristhow and charity shops other friends attract new shopsto be not what it used to the mentioned in season, the is. good it place is full area. like…” move in. to go toare 3.of people, and hotels They start articles, brochures 3. Cafes reopen on the 2. Local people will3. Out ofplace as well. full.the season, and tourist4. 4.Local people are now High Streetthat they are complain many hotels start Services: guides. to and that 4. People ignored return to being start mostly employedhotels shops, cafes, in to be usedtothan the tourism start to house etc. rather open 3. the resort out of season. This means that tourists get priority. homeless people jobsup becauseto have. they used people 3. even more people 5. There is start going to People a new ‘buzz’5. Some people there in and local people will are staying on about the place. other places. visit. begin to feelnumbers enough that the benefits as a way of 6. Jobs start thebeand and 4. Some of to shops 4. More shops created. touristslocalstarting to for are people to making a bit of 7. A whole new down. of hotels close crowd be in ‘control’. earn money. hotels open.6. 5.Traffic problems start to 5. visitorspeopleto come Some starts stay away money. local people Some 5. regularly to isto the The roadsthe resort. occur on what days, with stop busy they because it so busy,4. The place begins to car parks filling up early were doing before. 8. Newspapers busier. resort get start to and look for get a ‘reputation’…. in the day. write articles ‘quieter’ or somewhere about the5. People stay away place again. ‘more like ‘prettier’ or the real….’
Example of tourism gone wrong• Benidorm:• 4 million visit Benidorm per year (1 million of these are British)• Over the past 50 years Benidorm has undergone major changes