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Prepositions

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  • 1. Preposition is a word or group of words that express a relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in a sentence, and we use them to show places, position, time or movement.
  • 2. There are about 150 prepositions in English. The prepositions of, to and in are among the ten most frequent words in English.
  • 3. •At refers to a place where someone/something is: Tom’s at the door My sister is at school
  • 4. •In refers to the inside of a place, for example a room, town or container: He is in the kitchen.  We live in Oberá.
  • 5. •On is used when something is touching a surface: The bread is on the table. There is a photo on the wall. We also use on in these phrases: on the left/right, on the first/second/top floor, on the other side of the road.
  • 6. •Other prepositions of place include: Above: at a higher level “The plane flew above the clouds.” Below: at a lower level “The divers went 100 feet below the surface of the ocean.” Beside: near, at the side of “There is a small table beside my bed.” Next to: right beside, close to “Sam sat next to his boss at the meeting.” (In) between: in the space that separates two objects “She parked her car (in) between the two trucks.” Behind: at the back of “In baseball, the umpire stands behind the catcher.” In front of: at the front of “There is a beautiful oak tree in front of our office.”
  • 7. •To and towards show movement in the direction of a place:  we drove to London.  He ran towards the door.
  • 8. •Into and out of show movement towards or away from the inside of something:  she jumped into the pool.  He climbed out of the pool.
  • 9. •Onto and off show movement towards or away from a surface: the glass fell onto the floor. I took the photo off the wall.
  • 10. •Other prepositions of movement include across, along, over, through, up and down: she walked across the street (= from one side to the other).  He walked along the pavement (staying on the pavement).  she climbed over the fence (across the top of)  He walked out through the door (from one side to the other).
  • 11. Important to consider • At or in? Let’s meet at the restaurant (inside or outside). Let’s meet in the restaurant (inside). •Arrive at or arrive in? We arrive in a country, city or town; but we arrive at a building or other place: the plane arrived in Madrid. We arrived at the airport. • On or in? We travel on a train, bus or plane; but in a car: I always read when I am on the train. The journey takes an hour in a car.
  • 12. •At is used with clock times, periods of time and to refer to somebody’s age:  at nine,  at lunch time,  at night,  at weekend,  at the age 33.
  • 13. •In is used: •With parts of the day, months, seasons, years and centuries:  in the morning, in May, in the summer, in 2005, in the 19th century. •To talk about things that will happen at the end of a period of time: I will be back in an hour/in a week/in a few minutes. •To refer to the lengths of time something takes: I read the book in four hours. We got back in 20 minutes.
  • 14. •On is used with days and dates:  On Monday,  On 12th October,  On Saturday afternoon,  On New Year’s Day,  On weekdays.
  • 15. Other prepositions of time: • Before: taking place at an earlier time: call me before 10 o’clock. • After: taking place at a later time: I will see you after the match. • By: at or before a point in time: We must leave by six. • Since: starting from a point in time: we have been here since Thursday.
  • 16. •For: lasting a period of time: we waited for an hour. • During: happening in or over a period of time: I shared a flat during my stay in London. I fell asleep during the play. • Until/till up to a certain time: we will work until six o’clock and then we will go home. • Past (a point in time): It’s past midnight. • Through (a period of time): they worked through the night.
  • 17. As, like We use as when we describe someone’s job or the main purpose/function of something: She works as a teacher. • Like means: •‘Similar to’: His car is like mine. She looks like her brother. Rubbish, like glass and paper, can be recycled. We say the same as (not the same like): your car’s the same as mine. •We also use what + be / look / sound / smell / taste + like to ask for a description of someone or something: what’s Tom like? What does curry taste like?
  • 18. A prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, (the "object" of the preposition). •The object of the preposition will often have one or more modifiers to describe it. These are the patterns for a prepositional phrase: Preposition + noun, pronoun, gerund or clause Preposition + modifier (s) + noun, pronoun, gerund or clause.
  • 19. Here there are some examples of the most basic prepositional phrase: • At home At = preposition; home = noun. • In time In = preposition; time = noun. • From Richie From = preposition; Richie = noun. • With me With = preposition; me = pronoun.
  • 20. • By singing By = preposition; singing = gerund. • About what we need About = preposition; what we need = noun clause. Important to remember • We say in cash but by cheque/ credit card: would you like to pay in cash or by cheque. • We say on purpose but by accident/ chance: he was late on purpose. I met Anna by chance. • Compare on time and in time: the train arrived on time (= at the correct time) We got to the station in time to catch our train (= early enough).
  • 21. Thanks for your attention…!!!