The combination of seaweed and active sludge biofilter as a water treatment supply facilities on th

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  • 1. THE COMBINATION OF SEAWEED AND ACTIVE SLUDGE BIOFILTER AS A WATER TREATMENTSUPPLY FACILITIES ON THE FISH REARING TANK RESEARCH PAPER Presented at Indonesian Aquaculture 2010 BANDAR LAMPUNG, 4 – 6 OKTOBER 2010 By : ROMI NOVRIADI MUH KADARIMINISTRY OF FISHERIES AND MARINE AFFAIRS DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF AQUACULTUREBATAM MARICULTURE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT 2010
  • 2. VALIDATION SHEET THE COMBINATION OF SEAWEED AND ACTIVE SLUDGE BIOFILTER AS A WATER TREATMENT SUPPLY FACILITIES ON THE FISH REARING TANK Prepared by : The Engineering Leader ( Romi Novriadi ) Approved by :Engineering Manager Head of Batam Mariculture Centre Development( Muh Kadari ) ( Dr. Djumbuh Rukmono, MP)
  • 3. THE COMBINATION OF SEAWEED AND ACTIVE SLUDGE BIOFILTER AS A WATER TREATMENT SUPPLY FACILITIES ON THE FISH REARING TANK By: Romi Novriadi and Muh Kadari Mariculture Centre Development of Batam Jl. Raya Barelang, 3rd Bridges, Setokok-Batam Island PO BOX 60 Sekupang, Batam - 29422 E-mail: Romi_bbl@yahoo.co.id ABSTRACT Biologically, the objectives of Water quality management are to reducethe soluble components, particularly organic compounds until the safety limitsof the environment by utilizing microorganisms and / or plants. In order to setaside the dissolved organic matter, the microorganisms will use the organicmaterials as nutrients for growth into new cells and carbon dioxide.Biotransformation process occurs in a variety of ways according to themicroorganisms involved in it, for example the autotrof or heterotrophicmicrobes type. One of the biofiltration techniques that can be done to produce theoptimal water quality for fish rearing media is by doing a combination of activesludge and Seaweed as a biofilter. The usage of activated sludge because ofthe ability of microbes that live on the sludge substrates can decomposedorganic elements, particularly the toxic as NH3 and NO2. while the usage ofseaweed because of its absorbent properties, and also can change thecarbon dioxide into dissolved oxygen in water, so it is expected other than toproduce clear water also has its own freshness for fish. Results of the experiments conducted by the Year 2009 funds showsthat the Combination of this biofiltration system Seaweed and active sludge isquite effective to produce the optimal water quality for fish rearing media. NH3concentration can be reduced up to 80%, and NO2 can be reduced up to 20-60%. For the parameters of turbidity and TDS, with this combination Biofiltersystems can reduce water turbidity levels up to 75-98% and reduce theamount of total dissolved solids as much as 15-73%. While seaweed has arole to be effective in increasing dissolved oxygen levels up to 24%.Keywords: Biofilter Combination, Sludge, Sea Grass, Water Quality
  • 4. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONI.1 Background The Increasing use of marine coastal areas as aquaculture land InIndonesia allegedly to be the cause of decreased quality of the environmentfor the provision of quality water for the aquaculture fish life habitat.Deforestation of mangrove forests for fish culture in the floating net cages willstimulate the occurrence of water pollution, because the buffer system incoastal waters will be disturbed. This situation is also exacerbated by the fishfeed management and route of administration that is not appropriate. In the provision of quality water, we need to analyse the layout of landthat we use for fish culture. According to Romi.N, (2008) this is related toorganic waste generated has a complementary relationship with the numberof general bacteria in the waters. If waste water is reused for the culturemedia without going through the filtration system, there will be a separateobstacle for the growth of fish. On the basis of observations made during theyear 2009, the presence of bacteria in the culture media are not muchdifferent from the presence of bacteria in the waters surrounding the waterpoints. That is why the screening process for the improvement of water qualityto be more important. According to Anonymous. 2002, the process of aquaculture wastewatertreatment can be done in biologically aerobics, in which the biological wastewater treatment is to utilize the aerobic activity of aerobic microbes, todescribe the organic substances contained in waste water of cultured fish, tobe the inorganic substance that is more stable and has little impact pollutionto the surrounding environment. Aerobic microbes actually already there inthe nature and can be obtained very easily. Fishery waste water treatmentcan also be done using the natural materials, one of which is sea weed,because according to Dedi Sofian, 2006, Seaweed able to neutralize thefishery waste water. and naturally, seaweed have a function as a filter ofcarbon dioxide, which is absorbed and transformed into the oxygen. So, withmore number of oxygen contained in the water, then it will provide freshnessfor fish and other biota Therefore, at this engineering, the writer trying to make a waterfiltration system that is simple, economical, applicable but effective enough toproduce the optimal water quality for fish culture media, through acombination of activated sludge filtration system and seaweed. This simplesystem can be applied by fish farmers.
  • 5. I.2 ProblemsBased on the background that has been presented above, some problemsthat will be taken at this engineering are:1. What the percentage of the effectiveness of this Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge in reducing the toxic elements such as NH3 and NO2?2. What the percentage of the effectiveness of this Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge in reducing the turbidity and total dissolved solids?3. How the relevance between activated sludge as a filter of carbon dioxide, which is absorbed and converted into oxygen concentration to the dissolved oxygen in the water?I.3 Hypotesis Suspected that the accumulation of aquaculture activities have caused thedegradation of the water quality so it need a filtration system for improvingand maintaining the optimization of water quality.I.4 GoalThis Engineering aims to:1. Knowing the effect of this Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge as a supply of quality water for the fish culture media.2. Knowing the influence of this Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge in reducing the toxic elements such as Ammonia and Nitrite and reduce the level of turbidity and total dissolved solids in water.3. To produce the Applied technology that is effective and economical for the fish farmers.
  • 6. CHAPTER II EXPERIMENT METHODOLOGYII.1 Time and Place The Engineering with the title of Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge was held in Batam Mariculture Centre Development, starting from November 1st, 2009 untul 29th December, 2009.II.2 Tool and MaterialII.2.1 Engineering toolTwo tank of fish culture Measurement glassActived sludge tank culture Statif and KlemSedimentation tank Beaker glassDO meter Oxyguard model Petri diskHACH DR/890 Colorimeter IncubatorHANNA C203 Ion Spectrometer OvenNephelometer Turbidity Unit Hot plateHANNA TDS Meter Culture of bacterial tool setUV light Sample bottleCOD meter Fish culture tool setII.2.2 Material of engineeringDecomposition bacteria pH Buffer 7.00Mix liquor Suspended Solid pH Buffer 4.00Seaweed pH Buffer 10.00Coral reef Posphat Low RangeMolase Free chlorine reagen for HANNASea bass (Lates calcarifer) NaOH 0,1 NSponge HCl 0,1 NAmmonia salycilate reagen KCl 0,2 NAmmonia cyanurate reagen CH3COOH 0,5 NNitraVer reagen Phenolphtalein indicatorNitriVer reagen Metil Orange indicatorFree chlorine reagen H2SO4 4 NPCA (Plate Count Agar) HNO3 4 N
  • 7. II. 3 Procedurea. The Making Stages of Biofilter Tank  Cutting of material used: at this stage the PVC pipes was cut accordance to the requirements of biofilter system. (a) (b) (c) Figure 1. Cutting the material. (a) the preparation of the oxygen tube that is destined for the activated sludge basin, (b) the prepare of water and aeration systems, and (c) deduction tank for the activated sludge.  Setup: The bacterial culture tank with coral substrate and activated sludge are mounted on the drum and positioned adjacent to the first tank of biofilter system, the First is a sedimentary tank containing sea weed, and the second and the third tank is a culture tank for the test fish (Sea bass Lates calcarifer, Bloch) Sedimentary tank +seaweed Activated sludge drum + Coral reef Tank for test fish Tank for test fish
  • 8. The design of Combination biofiltration system between Seaweed and active sludge was illustrated as below : Sedimentary tank + Tank for test fish Tank for test fish Seaweedb. Bacterial inoculation The Source of decomposition bacterial can be obtained from thenature. The bacteria are available in the sufficient quantities in many places ofwaste elements decomposition. Such as in the floating net cages area. theremnants of feed is broken down by bacteria found in the base of floating netcages. Bacteria taken by lifting 1 kg sludge from the bottom of cage and thendiluted with 1 liter of seawater. Then, This bacteria was added into eachcompartment of biofilter drum. The addition of sludge was carried out whilewater continues to flow, so the bacteria will naturally selected. This process isallowed to continue running until the filters can be declared ready for use (Setup). At every 3 days of inoculation were observed on the growth of thenumber of bacteria producedc. Preparation of activated sludge Drums that cater to the activated sludge, then loaded mud as a substrate and the Inoculate bacteria which has been declared ready for use into the derum. The growth of microorganisms will work well enough if the nutrients available, namely nitrogen and phosphorus that play a role in the synthesis of the cell is proportional to the biodegrable organic material contained in waste water. As the food provided artificial substrate composed of glucose (sugar), in this case is done by giving molasses.This work begins with providing waste water in small amounts, and if themicroorganism has been grown, gradually, the amount of wastewaterenlarged its comparison to an artificial substrate, until at last only a sheerwaste water. To determine whether there is growth of these microorganisms,carried out with the observation of dissolved oxygen. At the time of wastewater given, the Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration will go down. Aftersome time aerated, DO will gradually rise, and someday she will return as theoriginal, and it will give the information to us that the assimilation process hasbeen completed and microorganisms have been grown.
  • 9. d. Preparation of Seaweed Tank The type of seaweed that we used in this engineering is E. Cottoni andinserted into the first tank as well as a sedimentation tank.The Installation ofseaweed done in a long line around the tank with rope 150 cm long.e. Installation of UV lights Installation of UV lights aim to reduce the bacteria that entered to thewater medium after the activated sludge process which involves a lot of activemicroorganisms as its main component. Installation of UV lights is right in linewhere the water enters into the culture media.f. Preparation of Sea bass as fish test To see and evaluate the performance of the Biofilter systemcombination between activated sludge and seaweed, The fish test was culturein two way, first, in the tank with Biofilter combination and second, without thebiofilter as a control of the system. The Commercial feed for fish test given 3times a day, at the morning, afternoon and evening by adlibithum. To removethe excess dirt, feeding remain and other impurities was carried by cleaningthe bottom of tank every evening after completion of feeding. The culture oftest fih was conducted for 30 days.g. Test of the filters effectiveness To determine the ability and the effectiveness of this biofilter systemcombination between activated sludge and seaweed is done by the laboratorytesting. The observation was performed by comparing the quality of water thatpasses through this biofilter combination and to the control water (withoutpass the biofilter system). The parameters observed include: NH3, NO2 NO3,turbidity, BOD and COD. Observations made during one month from 25thNovember 2009 to December 28th, 2009.
  • 10. CHAPTER III RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONIII.1 Result1. Graphic of inoculation bacterial growth (with molase) Grafik Pertumbuhan Bakteri Inokulasi 1200 1000 Jumlah Bakteri (TBU) 800 Grafik Pertumbuhan 600 Bakteri Inokulasi 400 200 0 1 2 3 4 Sampling Ke-Note : The number of general bacterial multiple with102 CFU/ml2. Result of Turbidity and TDS analysis TEST RESULT Date of After through the biofilter Without Biofilter (control) Analysis Turbidity TDS Turbidity TDS (NTU) (mg/l) (NTU) (mg/l) 08 November 0,49 31.2 0.49 31,5 15 November 0,15 27,9 0,42 32,3 22 November 0,02 8,4 0.38 31,4 29 November 0,01 8.4 0,51 30,2 05 December 0,02 9,1 0,56 30,3 11 December 0,02 8,7 0,59 30,6 16 December 0,01 8,3 0,54 32,8 22 December 0,02 8,4 0,43 32,1 Graphic of Turbidity Graphic of TDS 0.7 35 0.6 Turbidity after 30 Turbidity (NTU) TDS (mg/l)) 0.5 pass the 25 TDS after pass 0.4 biofilter 20 the biofilter" 0.3 control 15 control 0.2 10 0.1 5 0 0 8. nov 15.Nov 22.Nov 29.Nov 8. nov 15.Nov 22.Nov 29.Nov 5.des 11.des 16.des 22.des 5.des 11.des 16.des 22.des Date of analysis Date of analysis
  • 11. Hasil Analisa Kadar Ammonia dan Nitrit pada air input media pemeliharaan HASIL UJI Date of TEST RESULT Analysis After through the biofilter Without Biofilter (control) NH3 NO2 NH3 NO2 (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) 08 November 0.13 0,07 0,13 0,07 15 November 0.08 0,06 0,11 0,06 22 November 0,01 0,06 0,11 0,06 29 November -- 0,05 0,09 0,06 05 December 0,01 0,04 0,11 0,05 11 December -- 0,01 0,14 0,06 16 December -- 0,01 0,09 0,07 22 December -- 0,01 0,12 0,07 Graphic of NH3 (ammonia) Graphic of NO2 (Nitrit) 0.16 0.08 0.14 0.07 0.12 0.06 NH3 (mg/l)) NO2 (mg/l)) NH3 after pass the NO2 after pass the 0.1 biofilter""" 0.05 biofilter""""""" 0.08 0.04 0.06 control 0.03 control 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.01 0 0 1 v 1 s 2 v 2 v 5dv 1 v 1 s 2 s s 1 s 2 v 2 v 5dv o 1 s 2 s s .e .o .o .o o .e .e .e .e .o .o .o .n .e .e .e 5N 2N 9N .n 5N 2N 9N 1d 6d 2d 1d 6d 2d 8 8 Date of analysis Date of analysisDissolved oxygen at culture tank analysis Hasil Analisa Date of Oksigen Terlarut Graphic of Dissolved oxygen (DO) Analysis (mg/l) 8 After Without 7 through the Biofilter 6 DO after pass the DO(mg/l)) 5 biofilter"""""""""""""" biofilter (control) 4 " 08 November 5,0 5,1 3 control 15 November 5,7 4,9 2 22 November 6,4 5,4 1 29 November 6,9 5,0 0 05 December 6,5 5,2 1 v 2 v 2 v v s 1 s 2 s es o .e o o o e e .n 5.N 2.N 9.N 11 December 5d 6,7 5,3 1.d 6.d 2.d 8 1 16 December 6,9 4,7 Date of analysis 22 December 6,8 4,9
  • 12. The comparation of Total Number of General bacterial (TBU) between afterand before through the UV light Perbandingan TBU sebelum dan sesudah UV 300 Jumlah TBU (x100) 250 200 TBU Sebelum UV 150 TBU setelah UV 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sampling Ke-IV.2 Discussion From the results of experiments it was found that the inoculatedbacteria in activated sludge substrates had been developed. On the fourthday of sampling, the total number of bacteria produced was 9.7x106 CFU/ml.This number may be used temporarily as an indicator that the filter is ready foruse. This situation is also correlated with a reduction of NH3 and NO2concentration. The concentration of NH3 in the water filtration system resultsin the range: 0.01 to 0.13 mg / l, while the water control, the NH3 are between:0.09 to 0.14 mg / l. This means this biofilter combination system can reducethe NH3 concentration until 80%. The fall of this ammonia levels, probablycaused by the oxidation of ammonia to the nitrate elements which is done byNitrosomonas bacteria that grow on the sludge media in the filtration system. Meanwhile for NO2, the concentration resulting in water with thisfiltration system was also down, although only slightly, which is in range: 0.01to 0.07 mg / l, compared with control water, which have concentrations of NO2from 0.05 to 0, 07 mg / l. Nitrite in biological filtration system will betransformed by Nitrobacter bacteria into nitrates element, and then ininaerobic conditions it will converted into the nitrogen (Coklin and Chang,1983).
  • 13. For the turbidity and Total Dissolved Solid parameter in the water, theyhave significant reduction. This is probably due to the function of material thatwe used in this biofilter combination, they are activated sludge and seaweed.This biofilter system result the Turbidity concentration between 0.01 to 0.15mg/l, while the turbidity concentration of control water are : 0,38 to 0,59 mg / l.This means there is 75 – 98% reduction of turbidity in the water with thisbiofilter system. For the TDS (Total Dissolved Solid) concentration. Thenumber of TDS in water that pass this biofilter system combination are from8.3 to 27.9 mg / l while on the control water control are 30.2 to 32.8 mg/l. Itmeans that the reduction of TDS concentration is as much as 15-73%. Associated with the presence of seaweed as an natural filters in thesedimentation tank, where the seaweed, naturally have a function as a filter ofcarbon dioxide, which are absorbed and converted into the oxygen element.So the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentrations was done at the fishculture tank with the combination biofilter system and control. The resultshowed that DO levels that exist in the fish culture tanks with filtration systemare 5.0 to 6.9 mg/l, while the DO concentration at control tank were 4.7 to 5.3mg/l.Filter with the combination of activated sludge and seaweed can beoperationalized for 6 (six) months. And after that the materials that we used atthis biofilters system should be cleaned. Some benefits of this combinationBiofilter systems include:1. Guarantee obtaining a good water quality for fish culture tank2. Economical, Efficient and Effective in producing high water quality3. Easily applied by fish farmers
  • 14. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONV.1 Conclusions1. This combination Biofilter system between activated sludge and seaweed is quite effective in reducing of toxic elements such as NH3 and NO2, in which the ammonia concentration was reduced until 80%, while for the levels of NO2 was reduced up to 20-60%.2. This combination Biofilter system between activated sludge and seaweed is quite effective in improving the clarity of water, because it can reduce the turbidity levels up to 75-98%., and reduce the amount of total dissolved solids between 15 to 73%.3. Seaweed as a filter which is placed in the sedimentation tank through its function can play an active role in improving of dissolved oxygen concentration up to 24%.4. This combination Biofilter system between activated sludge and seaweed is quite economical, efficient, effective and can be applied directly by the fish farmersV.2 Suggestion1. Need to do further study on the effectiveness of seaweed in absorption of heavy metals that dissolved in the water.2. Observations on the effectiveness of combination Biofilter between activated sludge and seaweed can also be undertaken in a long time periode. In order to know the exact impact and benefits from this system.
  • 15. LITERATUREAnonim. Limbah. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limbah.Anonim.Pencemaran.http://www.dephut.go.id/INFORMASI/SETJEN/PUSSTA N/info_5_1_0604/isi_5.htmAnonim, 2008, Laporan Bulanan Kesehatan Ikan dan Lingkungan, Balai Budidaya Laut Batam, Kepulauan Riau.Anonim. 2008. Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL).http://www.lenn- biz.com/?q=ipalAnonim. 2002. Membangun Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah. http://www.korantempo.com/news/Bapedal 1995. Teknologi Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan Industri Penyamakan Kulit.. Jakarta.Bishalf, W. 1993. Abwasser Technik. B. G. Teuber, Stuttgart. Koesoebiono. 1984. Industri Tapioka Penanganan Limbah Cair dan Padat. Makalah pada Lokakarya Pemanfaatan Limbah Industri Tapioka, Bogor, 19-20 Juli 1984.Gaudy, A.Fand Gaudy, E. T, Microbiology for Environmental Scientist and Engineers, Mc. Graw Hill,1980.Hutagalung, Michael. 2007. Teknologi Pengolahan Sampah. http://www.majarikanayakan.com/2007/12/teknologi-pengolahan- sampahLoehr, R.C. 1974. Agricultural Waste Management. Academic Press, New YorkMetcalf and Eddy. 1991. Waste Water Engineering. P ed. McGraw-Mll, Inc. New YorkNovriadi, R, 2009, Optimalisasi Kualitas Air Melalui Sistem Filterisasi Cartridge Anion Kation dan Lampu UV Terintegrasi, Balai Budidaya Laut Batam, Kepulauan Riau.Nathanson, J. A. 1997. Basic Environmental Technology 2nd ed. Prentica Hall, Ohio.Rydin,S. 1996. Research Needs for the European Lether Industry. European Workshop on Environmental Technology. Copenhagen, 13-15 November 1996.Subagyo, Ir, MSc. 2008. Biological Unit Process. Materi Kuliah Pengolahan Air Limbah Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Diponegoro Semarang.Sugiharto. 1987. Dasar-dasar Pengolahan Air Limbah. UI Press, Jakarta.Sudrajat Y, dan Gunawan B, 2002, Sistem Bakteriofiltrasi Sebagai Sarana Pasokan Air Pada Penampungan Ikan Hidup, Buletin Teknik Pertanian, Volume VII, JakartaWebster, T.S, ad Devinny, J.S. 1996. Biofiltrasi of Odors, Toxic and Volatile Organic Compounds from Publicity Owned Treatment Works, Env. Progress, Vol. 15, No. 3, P. 141-147.Wenas, R.I.F, Sunaryo, dan Styasmi, S. 2002. Comperative Study on Characteristics of Tannery, "Kerupuk Kulit", "Tahu-Tempe" and Tapioca Waste Water and the Altemative of Treatment. Environmental Technology. Ad. Manag. Seminar, Bandung, January 9-10, 2003 p. Pos 5-1 - pos 5-8.