GENERAL FORMULA I/you/he/she/it/we/they + had + V3/ed
Exceptions in spelling when adding ed after a final e only add d love – loved final consonant after a short, stressed vowel is doubled admit – admitted final r is doubled if it is preceded by a stressed vowel prefer-preferred BUT!!!! final r is not doubled if it is preceded by a diphthong appear-appeared
Exceptions in spelling when adding ed final l is doubled if it is preceded by a short vowel stressed or unstressed travel-travelled final y after a consonant becomes i and remains unchanged if it is preceded by a vowel hurry – hurried play - played
We use the Past Perfect: A) for an action which happened before another past action or before a stated time in the past. She had finished work before she met her friends for coffee.
B) for an action which finished in the past and whose result was visible in the past He was happy. He had signed an important contract.
NOTE! The Past Perfect Tense is the equivalent of the Present Perfect Tense. He can’t find his watch. He has lost it. He couldn’t find his watch. He had lost it.
PRESENT PERFECT Have/has done past nowPAST PERFECT Had done past now
The Past Perfect Tense is used with the following time expressions: Before - До After - після Already - вже Just - тільки For – протягом Since - з Till/until – до тих пір, поки When - коли By - до By the time – до того часу, як never- ніколи
The Past Perfect Tense is also used In the if-clause of the third conditional. If he had come, we would have spent time together. We would have spent time together if he had come.
Affirmative Sentences I You He/ She/ It DONE We had PLAYED You WRITTEN They FIXED
I had done all my home assignment before I visited my friend Marko.When Sarah arrived to the party, Peter had already left.The woman sitting near me was nervous. She had never flown before.
QUESTIONS I you he/ she/ it DONE? PLAYED? HAD we WRITTEN? FIXED? you they
Had Peter left before Mary arrived to the party? Had we cooked dinner before mom came?
Negative Sentences I YouHe/ She/ It DONE HAD NOT PLAYED We WRITTEN You FIXED They
The woman was a complete stranger to me. I had not(=hadn’t) seen her before. The man was hit by a car because the driver hadn’t seen him. The apartment was really dirty. They had not cleaned it for many days.