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The infinitive
 

The infinitive

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    The infinitive The infinitive Presentation Transcript

    • The Infinitive
    • Contents What is the infinitive? The functions of the infinitive in a sentence Forms of the infinitive The to-infinitive and bare infinitive The cases when we use the infinitive
    • The infinitive – is the base form of a verb.There can be the to-infinitive and the bare infinitive (the infinitive without the particle to).We usually use the infinitives (to + verb) and thenegative infinitives (not to + verb) after verbs,adjectives or nouns.We can also use them after the indefinite pronouns and wh-words (question words).We can use the infinitives in clauses with objects, prepositional phrases and adverbs.
    • We don’t usually put adverbs between toand the verb (‘a split infinitive’) unless it isfor emphasis.We‟re planning to take the children to thezoo later.We usually leave out the second to when wejoin two infinitives with and, or with or. Wecan use to or not to alone instead of repeatinga verb or clause.Brian just wants to sit and watch videos allday.Do they intend to buy a flat or rent one?
    • The infinitive can be used in differentsyntactic functions. A single infinitive occursbut seldom: in most cases we find aninfinitive phrase, that is an infinitive with oneor several accompanying words.
    • The functions of the infinitive in the sentence The infinitive as a subject.Even to think of it gave him unspeakable torture.Though the infinitive as the subject sometimesprecedes the predicate, cases when it follows thepredicate are far more common: with the infinitivein the latter position, the sentence opens withthe introductory it. The introductory it is nottranslated into Ukrainian.It is useless to discuss the question.
    •  The infinitive as a predicative.My intention is to get into parliament.The infinitive can also be used as a part ofpredicative.The house of Jane was not easy to find. The infinitive as a part of a compound verbalpredicate.a) with modal verbs, modal expressions, andverbs expressing modalityThe train was to leave at midnight.b) with verbs denoting the beginning, duration,or end of an actionClare continued to observe the building.
    •  The infinitive as an object.Jane had learned to dance at school.After the verbs to allow, to order, to ask,to beg, to request, to implore, to teach,to instruct we often find two objects, one ofwhich is expressed by the infinitive.He asked me to come in.The infinitive used as an object can bepreceded by the introductory object it.The introductory object is not translatedinto Ukrainian.He found it utterly impossible to leave thespot.
    •  The infinitive as part of a complexobject.I never saw you act this way before. The infinitive as an attribute.I have nobody to say a kind word to me.The infinitive used as an attribute often has amodal significance – it expresses an actionthought of as obligatory or possible.There must be a lot of things in this world to makeyou very happy.Sometimes the infinitive used an attribute impliesa more or less prominent idea of purpose.Here is a nice book to read before going to bed.
    •  The infinitive as an adverbial modifier.a) The infinitive can be an adverbial modifierof purpose.Laws were not made to be broken, laws weremade to stay within.The infinitive as an adverbial modifier ofpurpose can be introduced by in order andso as.Jimmy put on his coat so as not to be cold.
    • b) The infinitive can be used as an adverbialmodifier of result. This mainly occurs afteradjectives modified by the adverbs enoughand too.I was too busy to see anyone.c) The infinitive can be an adverbial modifierof comparison (manner).She made a movement as if to run away.d) The infinitive can be used as an adverbialmodifier of attendant circumstances.She was driven away, never to revisit thisneighborhood.
    • The infinitive has the following forms Active PassiveIndefinite to write to be writtenContinuous to be writing – Perfect to have written to have been written Perfect to have been –Continuous writing
    • The Indefinite InfinitiveThe Indefinite Infinitive expresses anaction simultaneous with the actionexpressed by the verb, so it may refer to thepresent, past or future.I‟m glad to meet you.I was glad to see Mr. Paul.My mother will be very glad to see you.
    • The Continuous Infinitive To be + present participleThe Continuous Infinitive also denotes anaction simultaneous with that expressed bythe verb, but it is an action in progress.The continuous infinitive also expresses themanner in which the action is presented.They happened, at the moment, to be standingnear a small conservatory at the end of thegarden.
    • The Perfect Infinitive To have + past participle The Perfect Infinitive is used when we wantto be clear that we’re talking about an earliertime or a completed action.“I‟m glad to have seen you,” he said. After such verbs as to mean, to expect,to intend, to hope used in the Past Indefinite,the Perfect Infinitive shows that the hope orintention was not carried out.I meant to have gone there.
    •  The same meaning can be conveyed bythe Past Perfect of the verb followed bythe Indefinite Infinitive.I had meant to go there.He had meant to marry me. We can use the perfect infinitive afterwould plus like, hate, love or prefer whenwe talk about earlier events.I would like to have been there.You would hate to have seen all thedestruction.
    • The Perfect Continuous InfinitiveThe Perfect Continuous Infinitive denotes anaction which lasted a certain time before theaction of the verb.For about ten days we seemed to have beenliving on nothing but cold meat, cake and breadand jam.
    • The passive infinitive To be + past participleWe can use the passive infinitive for present orfuture actions happening to the subject.My computer is supposed to be repaired today.The workers want to be paid in cash.We can use the perfect passive infinitive (to havebeen + past participle) for earlier actions.It was supposed to have been repaired last week.They were hoping to have been paid already.
    • The to-infinitiveWe use a to-infinitive: After an adjective.It‟s nice to have a place of your own. After a noun.I must take a book to read. ( = a book that I canread)We‟ve got a few jobs to do. ( = jobs that we mustdo)
    •  With able to, be about to, be allowed to,be going to, have to, ought to andused to.We aren’t allowed to park here.The game is about to start.We’re going to buy a computer.You have to fill in a form. After some verbs, e.g. decide, hope,manage, offer.Tom decided to leave early.I hope to see you soon.Did you manage to sort out the problem?Henry offered to pay for the meal.
    •  After some verbs + objectLaura persuaded Trevor to put up some shelves.I want you to do something for me. After for + objectWe‟ve arranged for you to visit our headoffice.It is important for students to register with adoctor.
    • After a question wordWe don‟t know where to leave our coats.This book tells you how to train racehorses. To say whyMark went out to play golf.I need the money to pay the phone bill.
    • The bare infinitiveThe bare infinitive is used: After auxiliary verbs.I don‟t understand the meaning of thispassage. After modal verbs except the verbought.If you cannot have what you love, you mustlove what you have.We may go by train.Can I park here?
    •  After verbs denoting sense perception, such as to hear, to see, to feel etc.I felt my heart jump.Notice that! An infinitive after help can bewith or without to.Can I help (to) get the tea?Vicky helped me (to) choose a present.
    •  After the verb to make in the meaning‘to force’ and the verb to have in themeaning of ‘to force, to allow, to order’. Make + someone + infinitiveThe film made me cry. ( = It caused me tocry)The verb to have in the meaning of ‘to allow’is chiefly used after the modal verbs will andwould in negative sentences.I would not have you think that I am selfish.We can use let + someone + infinitive inthe meaning ‘to allow’.She let me stay. (= She allowed me to stay)
    •  After the verb to know when itsmeaning approaches that of to see,to observe (the verb to know never has thismeaning in the Present Indefinite).I have so often known a change of medicinework wonders. After the verb to bidI bowed and waited, thinking she would bidme take a seat.
    •  After the expressions had better, wouldrather, would sooner, cannot but,nothing but, cannot choose but.You had better to go bed and leave thepatient to me.I would rather not speak upon the subject.
    •  In sentences of a special type (infinitivesentences) beginning with why.Why not come and talk to her yourself?The particle to is often used without theinfinitive if it is easily understood from thecontext.I could not defend Kate even if I wanted to.
    • Verb + to-infinitive If the verbs are followed by another verb, the structure is usually verb + to-infinitive.As it was late, we decided to take a taxi home.We can put not before the to-infinitive.We decided not to go out because of theweather.With other important verbs you cannot use theinfinitive. For example think and suggest.Are you thinking of buying a car? (NOT’thinking to buy’)Tom suggested going to the cinema. (NOT‘suggested to go’)
    •  There is a continuous infinitive (to bedoing) and a perfect infinitive (to havedone). We use these especially after seem,appear and pretend.I pretended to be reading. (= I pretendedthat I was reading)
    •  After dare you can use the infinitive withor without to. I wouldn‟t dare to ask him. OR I wouldn‟t dare ask him.But after daren’t you must use the infinitivewithout to.I daren’t tell him what happened. (NOT ‘daren’t totell’)
    •  We use tend to for things usually happen.We tend to get up later at weekends. (= Weusually get up later at weekends) We use manage to for being able to dosomething.Luckily I managed to find my way here allright. (= I was able to find my way) We use fail to for things that don’t happen.David failed to pay his electricity bill.(= David didn’t pay his electricity bill)
    •  Can’t waitIf you can’t wait to do something, you areeager to do it.I can’t wait to see the photos you took.(= I am eager/ impatient to see the photos) Happen, turn out and proveWe use prove to or turn out to whenexperience shows what something is like.In the end our forecast proved to be correct.Note the meaning of happen to.I happened to see Sarah in town. (= I saw Sarah by chance in town)
    • These verbs are followed by a to-infinitive offer decide appear forgetrefuse attempt plan seem learn (how)advise choose help tell want aim ask beg wait claimdemand desire guarantee happen prepare prove turn out undertake wish tryexpect invite teach would like darepromise manage arrange pretend tendthreaten fail hope afford agree
    •  After the following verbs you can use a question word(what/where/how etc.) + to+ infinitive ask decide know remember forget explain understandWe asked how to get to the station.Have you decided where to go for yourholidays?Tom explained (to me) how to change thewheel of the car.I don‟t know whether to go to the party ornot.
    • Also: show/tell/ask someone what/how/where to do something.- Carl, show me how to change the film in this camera?- Ask Jack. He‟ll tell you what to do.
    •  He promised to go, his promise to goSome nouns can come before a to-infinitive.Verb + to-infinitiveMark promised to go shopping.But then he arranged to play golf.Noun + to-infinitiveMark forgot about his promise to goshopping.Sarah found out about his arrangement toplay golf. Here are some nouns we can use:arrangement agreement decision demanddesire failure offer plan promise refusal tendency threat
    • Verb + Object + to-infinitive want ask expect help mean (=intend)would like would prefer would hate would loveThere are two possible structures after these verbs: Verb + to-infinitive I asked to see the manager. We expected to be late. He would like to come.
    • Verb + object + to-infinitive I asked Tom to help me. We expected him to be late. He would like me to come.After help you can use the infinitive with orwithout to.Can somebody help me (to) move this table? Be especially careful with want.Do not say ‘want that…’Everyone wanted him to win the race. (NOT‘wanted that he won’)
    •  tell remind force enable persuade order warn invite teach (how) get (=persuade) These verbs have the structure verb + object + to-infinitiveRemind me to phone Ann tomorrow.Who taught you to drive?He wanted me not to touch anything.This structure is also used in the passive.I was warned not to touch anything.BUT you cannot use suggest in the passive.Tom suggested that I bought a car. (NOT‘Tom suggested me to buy’)
    •  advise recommend encourage allow permitThere are two possible structures after theseverbs.verb + -ing (without an object)He doesn‟t allow smoking in his house.I wouldn‟t recommend staying at that hotel.verb + object + to-infinitiveHe doesn‟t allow anyone to smoke in hishouse.I wouldn‟t recommend you to stay at thathotel.
    •  Make and let These verbs have the structure verb + object + infinitive (without to)Hot weather makes me feel uncomfortable.(= causes me to feel)She wouldn‟t let me read the letter. (= allowme to read)
    • Remember that make and let have theinfinitive without to.They made me do it. (NOT ‘they made meto do it’)Tom let me drive his car yesterday. (NOT‘Tom let me to drive’)BUT in the passive make has the infinitivewith to.I only did it because I was made to do it.
    • Infinitive or –ing? – like, would like etc. like hate enjoy can’t bear dislike love mind can’t standThese verbs and expressions are oftenfollowed by –ing, however after love andcan’t bear, you can use to-infinitive. I love meeting people. OR I love to meet people. She can’t bear being alone. OR She can’t bear to be alone.
    • LikeWe usually say ‘I like doing’ when ‘like’means ‘enjoy’Do you like cooking? (= do you enjoy it?)When ‘like’ does not mean ‘enjoy’, we use ‘Ilike to do’.I like to do something = I find it is good orright to do something.I like to wash my hair twice a week. (Thisdoesn’t mean that I enjoy it)
    •  Would like is followed by to-infinitive.I would like to come to the party.Notice the difference in meaning between I likeand I would like. I would like is a polite way ofsaying I want.I like playing tennis. (= I enjoy it in general)I would like to play tennis today. (= I want toplay) We also use to-infinitive after would love/hate/prefer.Would you prefer to have dinner now or later?
    •  You can also say ‘I would like to havedone something’ (= I reger that I didn’t orcouldn’t do something).It’s a pity we didn‟t visit Tom. I would like tohave seen him again. The same structure is possible after would love/hate/prefer.I‟d love to have gone to the party but itimpossible.
    • Infinitive or –ing? – begin, start, intend, continue, remember, try begin start intend continue These verbs can usually be followed by –ing or to-infinitive. The baby began crying. OR The baby began to cry. John intends buying a house. OR John intends to buy a house.
    •  Remember to do and remember doingYou remember to do something before youdo it. Remember to do something is theopposite of ‘forget to do something’I clearly remember locking the door before Ileft. (= I locked it and now I clearly rememberthis)You remember doing something after youdo it. I remember doing something = I didsomething and now I remember it.I clearly remember locking the door before Ileft. (= I locked it and now I clearly rememberthis)
    •  Try to do and try doingTry to do = attempt to do, make an effort todo. I was very tired. I tried to keep my eyes open but I couldn‟t.
    • Try doingTry also means ‘do something as an experiment ortest’.We tried every hotel in the town but they were all full.(= we went to every hotel to see if they had a room)If try (with this meaning) is followed by a verb, wesay try + -ing.I‟ve got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirinbut it didn‟t help. (= I took an aspirin to see if it wouldstop my headache)
    • + ing +full infinitiveremember have a memory in do something you are/were your mind planning to Do you remember Did you remember to say seeing that comedy? sorry to James? forget not be able to not do something you remember a past are/were planning to do event Oh, no! I forgot to invite I‟d forgotten hearing Shelly! that joke. stop stop an action interrupt an action to do Stop crying – it‟s not something else that bad. I was on my way to see Maria and I stopped to get her some flowers. try do something to try make an effort to do and solve a problem something Have you tried talking I‟m trying to say I‟m sorry, to her? but you won‟t listen!
    • + ing +full infinitiveregret Regret doing something means Regret to do something means to to be sorry because of something be sorry for something you are doing, that happened in the past. e.g. giving bad news. I regret spending all that money. We regret to inform you that we are I‟ve got none left. not taking on any new staff at present.mean Means doing something Mean to do something is the same expresses the idea of one thing as to intend to do it. resulting in another. I think Nick meant to break that I‟m applying for a visa. It means glass. It didn‟t look like an accident. filling in this form.go on Go on doing something means Go on to do something means to to continue doing it. do something else, to do the next The teacher told everyone to be thing. quiet, but they just went on The teacher introduced herself and talking. went on to explain about the course. need My shoes need cleaning. I need to clean my shoes. This means that my shoes need This means that I must clean my to be cleaned. shoes, I have to clean them.
    • Infinitive or –ing? – be afraid, need, help Be afraid to do and be afraid of –ingI am afraid to do something = I don’t wantto do something because it is dangerous orthe result could be unpleasant.The streets in the city are not safe at night.Many people are afraid to go out alone.(= they don’t want to go out alone because itis dangerous)
    • I am afraid of something happening = there is apossibility that something bad will happen.I don‟t like dogs. I‟m always afraid of being bitten.(NOT ‘afraid to be bitten’)So, you are afraid to do something because youare afraid of something happening as a result.
    •  Need to do and need –ingI need to do something = it is necessary forme to do something. I need to take more exercise.Need -ing = need to be done (so themeaning is passive). This jacket is rather dirty. It needs cleaning. (= needs to be cleaned) I tried to be serious but I couldn’t help laughing.
    •  HelpHelp is followed by the infinitive with orwithout to (bare infinitive). Can somebody help me (to) move this table?But there is also an expression ‘can’t helpdoing something’. I can’t help doingsomething = I can’t stop myself from doingsomething.
    •  To apologize for something we are doing, we use a to-infinitive. I‟m sorry to tell you this, but your test score is rather low.To express regret, we also use a to-infinitive. I was sorry to hear that Mike‟s uncle had died.To apologize for something we did, we canuse about + -ing-form I‟m sorry about making all that noise last night. (OR I‟m sorry I made all that noise last night).
    • Infinitive of purpose We use to + infinitive to talk about thepurpose of doing something (= whysomeone does something). She telephoned me to invite me to party.We also use to + infinitive to talk about thepurpose of something, or why someonehas/wants/needs something. The minister has two bodyguards to protect him.
    • You can also use in order to + infinitive.We shouted in order to warn everyone of the danger.Do NOT use for in these sentences.I‟m going to Spain to learn Spanish.(NOT ‘for learning/for to learn’)
    •  We also use to-infinitive to say what can be done or must be done with something.It‟s usually difficult to find a place to park in the city centre.We also say time/money/energy to do something.They gave me some money to buy some food. (NOT ‘for buying’)
    •  Sometimes you have to use so that(NOT to + infinitive) to talk about the purposeof doing something. We use so that:a)when the purpose is negative (so that …won’t/wouldn’t…) I hurried so that I wouldn’t be late. (= because I didn’t want to be late)
    • b) with can and could (so that…can/could…)He‟s learning English so that he can study in the United States.c) when one person does something so that another person does something else. I gave him my address so that he could contact me.
    • Prefer and would rather Prefer to do and prefer doingYou can use ‘prefer to do’ or ‘prefer doing’to say what you prefer in general.‘Prefer to do’ is more usual. I don‟t like cities. I prefer to live (OR prefer living) in the country.
    • I prefer (doing) something to (doing)something else.BUT: I prefer to do something rather than(do) something else.Tom prefers to drive rather than travel by train. I prefer to live in the country rather than (live) in a city.
    •  Would prefer (to do)Use ‘would prefer to do’ to say whatsomeone wants to do in a particular situation(not in general). - „Shall we go by train?‟ „Well, I’d prefer to go by car.‟ (NOT „going‟)
    •  Would rather (do) = would prefer to do.After would rather we use the infinitivewithout to (bare infinitive). I‟m tired. I‟d rather not go out this evening, if you don‟t mind.Note the structure: I’d rather do somethingthan (do) something else. I‟d rather stay at home than go to the cinema.
    •  Would rather someone did somethingWhen you want someone else to dosomething, you can say I’d rather you did…OR I’d rather he did… etc. We use the pastin this structure but the meaning is present orfuture, not past. I‟d rather cook the dinner now. I‟d rather you cooked the dinner now. (NOT „I‟d rather you cook‟) I’d rather you didn’t tell anyone what I said.„Shall I stay here?‟ „Well, I‟d rather you came with us.‟
    • Had better do something it’s time someone did something Had better do somethingThe meaning of had better (I’d better) issimilar to should. ‘I’d better do something’ = Ishould do something or it is advisable for me todo something; if I don’t do this, something badmight happen. I have to meet Tom in ten minutes. I‟d better go now or I‟ll be late.„Shall I take an umbrella?‟ „Yes, you’d better. It might rain.‟
    • The negative form is had better not (‘d betternot).You don‟t look very well. You‟d better not go to work today.The form is always ‘had better’ (usually’d better in spoken English). We say had butthe meaning is present or future, not past. I‟d better go to the bank this afternoon.Remember that had better is followed by theinfinitive without to. It might rain. We’d better take an umbrella. (NOT „better to take‟)
    •  It’s time…You can say ‘it’s time (for someone) to dosomething’. It‟s time to go home. It‟s time for us to go home.There is another structure: It’s time someonedid something.It‟s nearly midnight. It’s time we went home.
    • We use the past (went) after It’s time someone…,but the meaning is present or future, not past. Why are you still in bed? It’s time you got up. (NOT „time you get up‟)
    • We use the structure It’s time someone didsomething especially when we are complainingor criticizing or when we think someone shouldhave already done something.It’s time the children were in bed. It‟s long after their bedtime.You‟ve been wearing the same clothes for ages. Isn’t it time you bought some new ones?
    • We also say:‘It’s high time someone did something’.‘It’s about timeThis makes the complaint or criticism stronger.You‟re very selfish. It’s high time you realizedthat you‟re not the most important person in the world.
    • See someone do and see someone doing Tom got into the car and drove away. You saw this. You can say. I saw Tom get into his car and drive away.In this structure we use the infinitive (get, drive, etc.)Someone did something I saw someone do something I saw thisRemember that we use the infinitive without to. I saw her go out. (NOT ‘to go out’)But after a passive (‘he was seen’ etc.) we use to-infinitive. She was seen to go out.
    •  Yesterday you saw Ann. She was waitingfor a bus. You can say.I saw Ann waiting for a bus.In this structure we use –ing (waiting).Someone was doing something I saw someone doing something I saw this
    •  ‘I saw him do something’ = he did something(past simple) and I saw this. I saw the completeaction from beginning till the end.The accident happened. We saw this.We saw the accident happen.
    • „I saw him doing something‟ = he didsomething (past continuous) and I saw this. Isaw him when he was in the middle of doingsomething. This does not mean that I saw thecomplete action.He was walking along the street. I saw thiswhen I drove past in my car.I saw him walking along the street.The difference is not always important.Sometimes you can use either form: I‟ve never seen Tom dance. OR I‟ve never seen Tom dancing.
    •  We use these structures especially withsee and hear, and also with watch, listen to,feel and notice.I didn‟t hear you come in.I could hear it raining.Did you notice anyone go out?Listen to the birds singing!After smell and find you can use the –ingstructure only.Can you smell something burning?She found him reading her letters.
    • Chance and opportunity Chance to do somethingWe use ‘chance to do something’ whenchance = time or opportunity to do something(‘Chance of –ing’ is less with this meaning)We didn‟t have much chance to talk to eachother when we last met. (= we didn’t havemuch time/ opportunity to talk)
    •  OpportunityWe normally say ‘opportunity to dosomething’ (opportunity of –ing is alsopossible).I have the opportunity to study in theUnited States for a year. Do you think Ishould go? (= the chance to study)You can also say any/ no/ little/ much/plenty of/ more opportunity.We live near the mountains, so we haveplenty of opportunity to go skiing.Do NOT say ‘possibility to do something’.I had the opportunity to study in Canada.(NOT ‘possibly to study’)
    • Question word + to + infinitive Structures with what to do, where to go,etc.Before the question word we can use a verbsuch as: ask decide discover discuss explain find out forget know learn remember say think understand wonderIt was a real problem. I couldn‟t think what to do.We were wondering where to park the car.
    • Sometimes there is the verb + object beforethe question word.In this structure we can use advice, ask,show,teach and tell.Tom showed me how to change a wheel.The guide didn‟t tell the tourists when to beback at the coach.
    • Before the question word we can also usethe adjectives clear, obvious and sure andthe expressions have an idea and make upyour mind.Claire doesn‟t have much idea how to cook.A preposition can come before the questionword.You need to be informed about what to do in anemergency.
    •  Why, what, whose, which and whetherWe cannot use why before a to-infinitive.No one could explain why we had to wait.(NOT ‘No one could explain why to wait’)
    • After what, which, whose, how many andhow much, we can use a noun.We wondered whose story to believe –both drivers said it wasn‟t their fault. It‟s difficult to know how much luggage to take with you.We can use whether but not if.We‟ll have to decide whether to go aheadwith the project. (NOT ‘We’ll have to decide ifto go ahead’)
    • Adjective + to-infinitive It is easy to drive the carAn adjective + to-infinitive often comes inthis structure with it + be. It‟s important to look in the mirror. It‟s lovely to see you.The subject can also be a person. I‟m delighted to see you. We‟re ready to start now.
    •  The car is easy to drive It is easy to drive the car. The car is easy to drive.We do not use it in the second sentence. (NOT ‘The car is easy to drive it’ and NOT ‘The car it is easy to drive’) The ladder is quite safe to use. Your writing is difficult to read.
    • We can use this structure with adjectivesmeaning ‘good’ or ‘bad’, e.g. awful, bad,exciting, fascinating, good, marvellous,nice, wonderful.We can also use it with these adjectives:cheap, convenient, dangerous, difficult,easy, expensive, impossible, safe, simple.
    •  Certain, sure and likelyWe can use a to-infinitive after certain, sure,likely and unlikely.United are certain/ sure to win. (= They will certainly win) Sarah is likely to be at work. (= She is probably at work)
    •  For and of After some adjectives we can use for + object + to-infinitive.It‟s important for drivers to take care.It isn‟t safe for children to play on ladders.After an adjective describing how someonebehaves (e.g. polite, silly), we can use of.It was polite of Emma to write and thank us. (Emma was polite)It was silly of me to forget the tickets. (I was silly)
    • For with the to-infinitive For expressing purposeWe can use this structure to say whysomething is done (to express purpose).Mark photocopied the figures for the SalesManager to have a look at.(= He photocopied the figures so that theSales Manager could have a look at them).
    • Too and enoughWe can use too and enough with this structure.The road is too busy for the children to crosssafely.Unfortunately the table was too small for all ofus to sit round.
    • For and of For Of We often use After an adjective saying how for + object + to-infinitive after someone behaves, we use an adjective. of + object + to-infinitive.Would it be possible for you to It‟s kind of Melanie to put you upmove your car, please? for the night. (Melanie is kind.) Compare these two sentences. It was good for you to come It was good of you to come jogging jogging. with me. (= It was a kind action by(= It was good for your health) you)
    • For OfSome of the adjectives we can use Some of the adjectives can bewith for: used with of:anxious, awful, cheap, brave, careless, clever,convenient, dangerous, foolish, generous, good,difficult, eager, easy, helpful, honest, intelligent,exciting, expensive, friendly, kind, mean, nice, polite,good, happy, horrible, sensible, silly, stupid, wrongimpatient, important,interesting, marvellous,necessary, nice, normal,polite, possible, ready, safe,sensible, silly, stupid,terrible, useful, willing,wonderful, wrong
    • Used to do and be used doing Used to doUsed + to-infinitive means that somethinghappened regularly or went on for a time in thepast.I used travel means that in the past I regularlytravelled, BUT I no longer do so. We used to play this game when we were younger. I used to like fish, but I never eat it now.
    • We cannot use this structure in the presenttense. Claire travels a lot. NOT ‘Claire uses to travel a lot.’We normally use didn’t use to in negativesand did … use to in questions. We didn’t use to have computers. OR We never used to have computers. Where did people use to buy their food before the supermarket was built?
    •  Be used to doingBe used to + -ing form means that somethingis familiar and is no longer strange. I’m usedto travelling means that travelling is nolonger strange or difficult because I have doneit for so long.We‟re used to getting up early. We do itevery day. NOT „We‟re used to get up early.‟
    • We can also say get used to talk aboutthings becoming more familiar. It was difficult at first, but Mike soon got used to working at night.