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The article

  1. 1. SINGULAR COUNTABLE NOUNS• an apple(it doesn’t matter what apple we are talking about; it’s like a representative of a class)• the apple(we know that the speaker means this apple; it’s clear from the situation; it was mentioned before)
  2. 2. PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUNS• (my; some; three) apples• the apples
  3. 3. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS• (my; some) coffee• the coffee(the coffee she prepares or the coffee in a definite restaurant)
  4. 4. ABSTRACT NOUNS• music(it expresses general meaning)• a nice music(the speaker describes it)• the music(a particular music)
  5. 5. OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH• the first (snow)(ordinal numerals)• the best (cat)(the superlative degree of adjectives)
  6. 6. SOME NOUNS• the sun• the moon• the sky• the universe• the world• God
  7. 7. NO ARTICLES• Good evening, teacher!(in addresses)• Fireman saves cat(in newspaper and magazine headings)
  8. 8. PROPER NAMES• Bart• Dr. Hibbert(titles, professions)• The Simpsons(we mean the whole familyas a unit)
  9. 9. PROPER NAMES• the Mr.Bean(the speakermeans the exact person)• a Mr.Bean(the speaker doesn’t know a person he is talking about)
  10. 10. PROPER NAMES• the Red Cross(public agencies, companies, political parties)• Parliament, NATO, (the) Congress
  11. 11. PROPER NAMES• Westminster Bridge, Hyde Park(bridges, parks)• London Airport (airports, sea ports, railway stations, metro)• Columbia University(university, college)• Time Magazine (magazines)
  12. 12. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the North, the West, the South, the East(the four corners of the world) but to go west• the Far East, the north of England(regions)• the Sahara(deserts)
  13. 13. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the Atlantic Ocean• the Baltic Sea• the Strait of Magellan• the Panama Canal• the Thames• the Ontariobut Lake Ontario
  14. 14. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the British Isles(groups of isles)• the Andes(mountain ranges)• Europe, Asia(continents)
  15. 15. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• England, London(countries, towns, cities)• but the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom = the UK(unions, kingdoms, states, emirates)• the Netherlands(in the plural)
  16. 16. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the British Museum (galleries,museums, monuments)• the Hilton(hotels, restaurants)
  17. 17. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the Titanic(ships, groups and bands)• the Washington Post(most newspapers)but Izvestia ("Известия“)(source language)• the Bolshoy Theatre(theatres, cinemas, clubs)
  18. 18. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the Great Wall of China(unique buildings)• Broadway, Trafalgar Square(streets, squares)
  19. 19. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• Hudson Bay, the Gulf of Mexico (bays)• Kamchatka (peninsulas)• Niagara Falls (falls)• Cuba (separate isles)• Elbrus (peaks)
  20. 20. SET EXPRESSIONS WITH “A”• a few • to go for a walk• a little • to have a cold• a lot of • to have a good time• a great deal of • to have a mind• a good deal • to have a look• as a rule • to have a smoke• as a result • to have a rest• as a matter of fact • to take a seat• at a speed of • to tell a lie• at a time when • It is a pity• for a while • It is a pleasure• for a long (short) time • It is a shame!• in a low (loud) voice • What a shame!• to be in a hurry
  21. 21. SET EXPRESSIONS WITH “THE”• by the way • on the right (left)• the morning • on the whole• n the afternoon • out of the question• in the evening • the other day• in the country • the day after tomorrow• in the past • the day before yesterday• in the present • to go to the theatre (the cinema)• in the future • to go to the country• in the distance • to pass the time• in the plural • to play the piano• in the singular (guitar, violin, etc)• in the street • to tell the truth• just the same • to tell the time• on the one hand…on the other • the right (left) hand • What is the time?
  22. 22. SET EXPRESSIONS WITH “ZERO ARTICLE”• to ask permission • to go to sea• to be in bed • to go to town• to be at home • to keep house• to be at school • to leave school• to be at table • to leave town• to be in town • to make haste• to be on holiday • to make use of• to declare war • to play chess (cards, football,• to go by water (air, sea, land) tennis, hockey, etc.)• to go home • to take care• to go to bed • to take part in• to go to school • to take place • to tell lies