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Transcript

  • 1. SINGULAR COUNTABLE NOUNS• an apple(it doesn’t matter what apple we are talking about; it’s like a representative of a class)• the apple(we know that the speaker means this apple; it’s clear from the situation; it was mentioned before)
  • 2. PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUNS• (my; some; three) apples• the apples
  • 3. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS• (my; some) coffee• the coffee(the coffee she prepares or the coffee in a definite restaurant)
  • 4. ABSTRACT NOUNS• music(it expresses general meaning)• a nice music(the speaker describes it)• the music(a particular music)
  • 5. OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH• the first (snow)(ordinal numerals)• the best (cat)(the superlative degree of adjectives)
  • 6. SOME NOUNS• the sun• the moon• the sky• the universe• the world• God
  • 7. NO ARTICLES• Good evening, teacher!(in addresses)• Fireman saves cat(in newspaper and magazine headings)
  • 8. PROPER NAMES• Bart• Dr. Hibbert(titles, professions)• The Simpsons(we mean the whole familyas a unit)
  • 9. PROPER NAMES• the Mr.Bean(the speakermeans the exact person)• a Mr.Bean(the speaker doesn’t know a person he is talking about)
  • 10. PROPER NAMES• the Red Cross(public agencies, companies, political parties)• Parliament, NATO, (the) Congress
  • 11. PROPER NAMES• Westminster Bridge, Hyde Park(bridges, parks)• London Airport (airports, sea ports, railway stations, metro)• Columbia University(university, college)• Time Magazine (magazines)
  • 12. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the North, the West, the South, the East(the four corners of the world) but to go west• the Far East, the north of England(regions)• the Sahara(deserts)
  • 13. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the Atlantic Ocean• the Baltic Sea• the Strait of Magellan• the Panama Canal• the Thames• the Ontariobut Lake Ontario
  • 14. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the British Isles(groups of isles)• the Andes(mountain ranges)• Europe, Asia(continents)
  • 15. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• England, London(countries, towns, cities)• but the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom = the UK(unions, kingdoms, states, emirates)• the Netherlands(in the plural)
  • 16. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the British Museum (galleries,museums, monuments)• the Hilton(hotels, restaurants)
  • 17. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the Titanic(ships, groups and bands)• the Washington Post(most newspapers)but Izvestia ("Известия“)(source language)• the Bolshoy Theatre(theatres, cinemas, clubs)
  • 18. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• the Great Wall of China(unique buildings)• Broadway, Trafalgar Square(streets, squares)
  • 19. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES• Hudson Bay, the Gulf of Mexico (bays)• Kamchatka (peninsulas)• Niagara Falls (falls)• Cuba (separate isles)• Elbrus (peaks)
  • 20. SET EXPRESSIONS WITH “A”• a few • to go for a walk• a little • to have a cold• a lot of • to have a good time• a great deal of • to have a mind• a good deal • to have a look• as a rule • to have a smoke• as a result • to have a rest• as a matter of fact • to take a seat• at a speed of • to tell a lie• at a time when • It is a pity• for a while • It is a pleasure• for a long (short) time • It is a shame!• in a low (loud) voice • What a shame!• to be in a hurry
  • 21. SET EXPRESSIONS WITH “THE”• by the way • on the right (left)• the morning • on the whole• n the afternoon • out of the question• in the evening • the other day• in the country • the day after tomorrow• in the past • the day before yesterday• in the present • to go to the theatre (the cinema)• in the future • to go to the country• in the distance • to pass the time• in the plural • to play the piano• in the singular (guitar, violin, etc)• in the street • to tell the truth• just the same • to tell the time• on the one hand…on the other • the right (left) hand • What is the time?
  • 22. SET EXPRESSIONS WITH “ZERO ARTICLE”• to ask permission • to go to sea• to be in bed • to go to town• to be at home • to keep house• to be at school • to leave school• to be at table • to leave town• to be in town • to make haste• to be on holiday • to make use of• to declare war • to play chess (cards, football,• to go by water (air, sea, land) tennis, hockey, etc.)• to go home • to take care• to go to bed • to take part in• to go to school • to take place • to tell lies