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Conditional sentences

Conditional sentences






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    Conditional sentences Conditional sentences Presentation Transcript

    • Conditionals
      • A conditional sentence is a sentence which has a condition and a result.
      • If is used in conditional sentences.
      • There are two clauses in a conditional sentence.
      • Clause - a part of a sentence that contains a subject and a verb.
      • One subject+one verb = a clause.
      • One clause begins with the word if – it is called if clause.
      • If clause + result clause
      • The second clause is called the result clause or the main clause.
    • The First Conditional
      • If + Present simple (if-clause), Future simple (main clause).
    • Example:
      • If I have enough time, I’ll visit my uncle in prison every week.
      • Or
      • I’ll visit my uncle in prison every week If I have enough time.
      • If we begin a sentence with if we must have the comma.
      • If we have the other way round – no comma.
      • The lawyer will still meet with the prisoner if the prisoner has no money.
      • If the prisoners don’t eat breakfast, they always get hungry in the prison yard.
      • The Present Simple is used in the result clause to show that something always happens. It’s a habitual activity or a situation.
    • Example:
      • A person will go to jail if he commits a burglary .
      • In the result clause Present Simple or Future Simple is used to show that a predictable fact will happen.
    • Example:
      • If Tom doesn’t shoplift an apple, he will have nothing to eat tonight.
      • Future Simple is used in a result clause when a sentence concerns a particular activity or situation in the future.
      • If the family leave home tomorrow, the burglar will rob their house.
      • Present Simple can also be used in the if clause when a sentence concerns a particular activity in the future.
    • More examples:
      • The murderer will kill his wife if he finds a gun.
      • The prisoners can’t use the telephone if they are in solitary confinement.
      • If a burglar enters my house, I will shoot him.
      • If a purse snatcher grabs your purse, you will be sorry.
    • The Second Conditional
      • If I were a warden, this prisoner wouldn’t be here.
      • The shoplifter would be taken to jail if I were the shop owner.
      • If the arsonist had some petrol, he would start a fire.
      • Larry wouldn’t be a burglar if he had won the lottery.
      • A sentence in the second conditional expresses something that is not true in the future or in the present.
      • If I were a warden, this prisoner wouldn’t be here. ( in reality I am not a warden )
      • The shoplifter would be taken to jail if I were the shop owner .(I am not the shop owner).
      • If the arsonist had some petrol, he would start a fire. (the arsonist doesn’t have petrol).
      • To make the 2 nd conditional we use this formula:
      • If + Past simple, would + base form
    • Examples :
      • The warden would change his job if his wife found one.
      • The prisoner would escape if he had a chance.
      • If the weather were nice today the prisoners would go into the yard.
    • The Third Conditional
      • If the prisoner had had enough time, he would have made a new weapon.
      • The warden would have been angry if he had known the guard had given the prisoner a cigarette.
      • If the pickpocket had been quicker he wouldn’t have been caught.
      • The burglar would have been rich if he had emptied the safe.
      • The third conditional can be used to describe ideas about past situations or events that did not happen.
      • If + Past Perfect, would have + Past participle.
    • Examples:
      • If the prisoner had told me about the problem, I would have helped him. (in reality the prisoner didn’t tell me in the past)
      • If the burglar had studied the house plan better, he wouldn’t have been arrested.
      • The prisoner wouldn’t have broken his arm, if he hadn’t slipped on the ice.
      • If you’d told me, I would have helped the prisoner.
      • If the prisoner had had more money, he would have hired a better lawyer.
      • Sometimes, we use should have , could have , might have instead of would have , for example: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won.
      • We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of the condition is always true, like a scientific fact : If you heat ice it melts.
      • The important thing about the zero conditional is that the condition always has the same result.
      • If I am late for work my boss is angry.