Biotechnology in brazil


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The real position of Brazil in the world and it trend for the future.

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Biotechnology in brazil

  1. 1. Biotechnology in BrazilAbstractThe aim of this paper is to present a study about biotechnology like a representative way forhuman survive food solution, several researches from scientists around the world committedwith human future. Following some intellectuals it was possible realize that the biotechnologyapplication is not new, for long of years people was looking for how biotech could be moreand more efficient for food production. Still in this context is necessary focus in therepresentative of important country and for sure the Brazil’s representative in food productionfor the world. Brazil is really important country in the use of this concept of biotechnologyapplication for food production, its application, the focus of Brazil, the most virtuous way,application examples, the relationship between government, universities and power private.According to the BBC documentary broadcast news in April/2011, within forty years from themoment the world will need to increase its food production by 100%, this requires a hugecommitment, since resources are increasingly scarce, it could be a serious big problem in thefuture if it doesn’t solved and the aim really achieve. According to scientists it is proven thatonly the advancement of technology in relation to the advances that we will not be able tomeet this demand so challenging. In this context it is necessary to concrete action and a jointpublic and private sectors and universities to build a solution that can achieve this vitallyimportant goal.Biotechnology is seen as the only solution capable of generating results large enough to meetthe needs of the worlds food, so researchers around the world are devoting their efforts andknowledge in order to reach this coveted level of survival of mankind on earth.This study was able to show important situation of Brazil in the food production for the world,the representative effort intend to improve biotechnology application in several areas main infood production, the success of agricultural application in Brazil, the advance of law, thegovern’s program for it promotion, the creation of many organization and committeescomposing hard effort for it improvement. These occurrences and it very good results for theeconomy and for sure for world food production. The perspective of near future of Brazil inworldwide representative context and the really big and relevant opportunity. 1
  2. 2. MethodologyThis article was focus in study of researches from Sheldon Krimsky, James G. Ennis andRobert Weissman - Science Technology Human Values 1991, Biotechnology can bepopularly summarized as the application of basic principles of science and engineering thatenable the processing of materials by biological agents and leading to the acquisition ofproducts and services. There’s lots of article published show many examples this use inseveral areas in which the advancement of knowledge obtained by basic research, quicklyreached the level of enforcement with important consequences for humanity. The strength andopportunities in the biotechnology sector is now discussed worldwide, as it has created arevolution in the fields of medicine, pharmacy, material science, forensic science, foodpreparation, agriculture, fuel production, industry, information technology, forestry, military,etc.DevelopmentMoved for the human society grow up the need for many and many product is reality,specially food, in sort time, worldwide this offers many opportunities of growing, because weare speaking about the human survive, since the begin of the history human are looking forway to ensure next generation survive, sustainability, action that can give more and better lifein the world without hungry, pests, planet destruction, etc."The modern biotechnology, different of the traditional, like a complex context AppearsBetween technical, social, Economic, politic ethic, Institutions relation, That will demandmultidisciplinary multi-corporation and development effort for it, Trigueiro says (2002, p.17)." For the author, it has two dimensions: in science and technology. At first, the newbiotechnology consists of a coordinated program of basic research (molecular biology,biochemistry, microbiology, genetics), being developed, primarily in universities andacademic institutions. Second, there is the difficulty of transforming the database project inindustrial and commercial applications. These two dimensions coexist and complement eachother. Cientists are studying form to describe the better option or use biotechnologyindustry in the Economic and Social Within aim, Believing That this is the most importantway to solve this challenge.Following older knowledge they developed researches that provide this theory, publicationsand patents were registered for all the world, the researches globe many part of the marketspecially the industry, looking for economic results, other time military advantage,competition in several kind of product the biotechnology walk for each north, this workachieve large aim producing new products with very different process and more efficientresults. Specially in USA biotech had relevant grow up since 1950 year by year, many patentswere get and several product were developed, the industry of biotechnology had boomed in2003. Governments around the world are embracing biotechnology as the next majortechnological driver of economic growth. The USA is currently the world leader in research,development and commercialization of biotechnology products. These advances have broughtto market life-saving healthcare products and microbial pesticides, and will soon offerhealthier foods, disease and insect resistant crops, additional energy resources, environmentalclean-up technologies and more. Bergerm and Chan (2004) have found that the market size ofthe USA contributes to almost 70 per cent of the world market. The productivity of USAcompanies is higher in terms of revenue per company. This is attributable to the existence oflarge markets in the USA for biotechnological products. 2
  3. 3. Biotechnology can be summarized as the application of basic principles of science andengineering that enable the processing of materials by biological agents and leading to theacquisition of products and services. The biotech was ready like the most advanced in thebiology of contemporaneous research. By the way, this services need more resources andmore specific it Can Be Understood like a country rich possibilities.One marked areas of the twentieth century ahead was the development of modernbiotechnology, the result of pioneering studies in the fields of molecular biology,biochemistry, immunology and microbiology, what went through profound changes since1950. Biotechnology can be summarized as application of basic principles of science andengineering that enable the processing of materials by biological agents and leading to theacquisition of products and services, biotechnology that deals with the most advanced incontemporary biology. Therefore, it requires significant resources, which can lead to the ideathat this is an area restricted to rich countries. Although initially developed in first worldcountries, with significant leadership from the USA, some Latin American countries likeArgentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba and Mexico, sought to invest in this exciting new area.Instead of it had the start in rich country, some of poor country like Argentina, Brazil, Chile,Cuba and Mexico look for investment in this relevant area. Between these countries Braziland Cuba had the high position on this sector. In Brazil there was great result like the biobrasin the begin of this effort initially in UFMG (Federal University of Minas Gerais), a projectthat cummins in the insulin.Since years 80 the national system of biotech achieve relevant improvement, following therecent researches presented by BBC 2010, the world have to improve food production in100% in 40 years. Govern several country are dedicating resources looking for solution forthis problem and in same time opportunity. Biotechnology in Brazil gives important grow upin the last years with clear politic, generating more trustworthy form the industry and thefinance organization, getting a great advantage, because instead of several areas working, itfocus in agricultural biotechnology, the Brazil`s program of biotechs like “ProgramaNacional de Biotecnologia (Pronab), o Programa de Desenvolvimento Científico eTecnológico (PADCT), o Programa de Núcleos de Excelência (Pronex) e os Institutos doMillenium,”. The biotechnology success needs hardly connection between private sector,industry and universities, in Brazil it could be more attractive now a days, instead of all theproblems are not solved yet.There are also other weaknesses which act as impediments in the overall growth of theindustry. These blockages are the missing links between research and commercialization,R&D spending and success in global biotech market. Other serious problem is the finance atime the researches cannot ensure results, generally 1% achieve success, it cause untrustedcomportment of finance institution or industry.By the way, ensuring success of these initiatives is based on the fact that we have stronginfrastructure in basic biomedical research, with a robust program of staff training, throughabout 170 postgraduate courses, and significant laboratory infrastructure, many working in thearea of biotechnology.Brazil has some of the most important and basic elements for a strong and innovative healthbiotechnology sector. Strong scientific capacity of the country, especially in the healthsciences, provides the basic building block for an innovative sector. In fact, the effort thatseveral innovative products in the face of numerous challenges is a testament to the strength 3
  4. 4. of the country in health sciences. Many of biotechnology for health innovations in the sectorof health care needs of the local population, a market that remains the main focus of Brazilianbusinessmen. A growing number of companies are becoming involved in innovativeactivities, with creative approaches and business models that help them survive and thrivedespite the challenges, financial and otherwise. Several laws relating to the technologicaladvances, such as the Innovation Law enacted in 2005, are encouraging more intensive andmeaningful collaborations between universities and public research institutes and privatecompanies. The nations improved economic situation, increasing financial markets, stablecurrency and low inflation rate also provide an enabling environment for sustained growth ofthe health biotechnology sector."In Brazil, bio-industry is also presented in the emergency room and has a population of 304companies, including multinational companies and suppliers of equipment and supplies(39%). Over 80% of them are concentrated in the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Riode Janeiro and it is estimated that 60% are micro and small businesses with up to 50 jobs(legal, 2001). "In terms of national potential, there are great expectations for drug discovery,food and industrial raw materials from Brazilian biodiversity of the Amazon rainforest and theCerrado. However, these promises have not been completed and very few national enterprisessettled in the area effectively. Below tab. Showing the evolution of research groups inbiotechonology in Brazil:Year x number of group1980 – 1811981 – 1985 1491986 – 1990 2291991 – 1995 4411996 – 891997 – 1411998 – 871999 – 902000 – 310Font: Salles-Filho et al. (2002).The biomanufacturing products and services generate high value-added, quality jobs and, ingeneral, its applications in health tend to impact positively in improving the quality of life oflocal users, while other applications are a source of debate ethical and ecological concerns.Much has been said about the potential of biotechnology and on a future cycle of innovationthat may result from it. To date, however, the most important bio-industrial developments areconcentrated in the United States and Europe (UK, Germany and France), the main factorsmoving on the one hand, investments in venture capital and its ability to organize andconversion academic and scientific endeavors of business listed on major stock exchanges andstock markets and on the other hand, large corporations of the chemical and pharmaceutical,through acquisitions of small biotechnology companies, expand their innovation capabilitiesand act in the broader marketing of products generated.According to the Brazilian government, the new policy will permit investment of 10 billiondollars in biotechnology in Brazil over the next ten years. Of this total, 60% would come frompublic funds, both from the general budget of the Union and Banco Nacional deDesenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES) and funds for investment in research, scienceand technology. The remaining 40% would come from private partners. There some specificareas of Brazil focus: 4
  5. 5. Market segments of biotechnology companies:1. Human Health: diagnoses, drugs, natural remedies, vaccines, serums, biodiversity2. Human Health, Animal and Plant: Genetic identification, analysis of transgenic3. Animal Health: Veterinary, animal breeding, vaccines, probiotics, aquaculture4. Agribusiness: Plant Breeding, GM, forest products, plants ornamental and medicinal plants, flowers,bio-insecticides, bio-fertilizers, inoculants5. Environment: Bioremediation, waste treatment, analysis6.Instrumental complementary Biotechnology: Software, Internet, bioinformatics, commerce,R&D7. Industrial: Fine chemicals, enzymes8. In synergy: Biomaterials, biomedicine, biotechnology consulting9. Suppliers: Equipment, materials, supplies10 Multinational Enterprises, and other publicFont: Fund. Biominas (2001).Font: Fund. Biominas (2001).The policy of encouraging the development of Brazil shows biotechnological increasinglyaggressive and healthy for the country in a global context. States that investments will receivefour sectors: health, agriculture, industry and environment. "What the government will do isidentify the demand and create tools to transform the accumulated knowledge in universitiesin industrial production," according to Secretary of Industrial Development, Ministry ofDevelopment, Industry and Foreign Trade, Antonio Sergio Martins Mello. Building on theNational Biotechnology Committee will manage public policy for the area and set priorities.Coordinated by the Ministry of Development, the committee comprises representatives of the 5
  6. 6. Civil and seven ministries: Health, Science and Technology, Agriculture, Environment,Education, Agricultural Development and Justice, the Brazilian Agricultural ResearchCorporation (Embrapa), the Agency Brazilian Industrial Development (ABDI), the NationalCouncil for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and the Coordination ofImprovement of Higher Level Personnel (Capes). Institutions that help fund projects such asBNDES and the Financier of Studies and Projects (FINEP) are also part of the committee.The National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) and the National Health SurveillanceAgency (Anvisa) are the other members.The committee will work with the Forum of Competitiveness in Biotechnology. Comprised ofrepresentatives from government, society, academia, industries and workers, the forum hasexisted since the end of 2004 and designed the Brazilian model of biotechnologicalproduction. During this period, 54 meetings were held which resulted in ten-depth studies ofthe areas with greatest potential for development. Brazilian Government Genome Projects Network Project Coordination Functional and Differential Genome Maria Sueli Soares FelipeNetwork Midwest Paracoccidioides brasiliensis UnB/IB Creation of the Genome Network ofGenome Network Minas Gerais Naftale Katz - FAPEMIG Minas GeraisGenome network Northeast Sequency of Leishmania chagasi Paulo Paes Andrade - UFPE Functional genomics of the process cell differentiation of Trypanosoma Cruzi:Program Deployment Institute of selection and characterization of new Samuel Goldenberg - IBMPBiology Molecular of Parana genes and analysis of new chemotherapeutic targets Structural and functional genome of theGenome Program of the State of bacterium endophytic nitrogen-fixing Fabio de Oliveira - UFRPParana Herbaspirillum seropedicaeImplementation of the Program Sequencing the genome of Paulo CavalcantiState of Rio de Janeiro Gluconacetobacter diazottrophicusExpansion of Network Genomicsin the State of Bahia Perniciosa genome of the fungus disease- Gonçalo Amarante -Genomics in the State of Bahia causing "witches broom" in UNICAMPNetwork of the Amazon Paullinia culpana genomic analysis: the Spartaco Astolfi - UFAMGenomic research guaranaGenomic ResearchResearch Program South South Network Analysis and Genome Arnaldo Zaha - CBIOT -genomes Biology UFRGSFont: MCT (2003).Access to resources and biotechnology legislation for the grant of patents in this area shouldbe reviewed. This is a condition for Brazil to ensure a favorable environment for attractinginvestment and development of biotechnology in the country. According to a researcher at the 6
  7. 7. INPI, Zea Mayerhoff Duke, "it is important to note the emphasis received in matters relatingto intellectual property not only by specialists in biotechnology as well as by representativesof the Brazilian business." It evidence is the problems faced by the organization researchdeveloper and registry the patent are not unique to Brazil. The backlog in maintenance of theexaminations and examiners are also a challenge similar to the USA office, according to theleaders of the USPTO. According to a statement from the president of Bio International,Stephen Hill, Brazil is an example of success in developing technologies for biofuels and theuse of this technology.World agriculture today has more than 50 million hectares of transgenic crops planted,predominantly soybeans, corn and cotton. In 2002 alone, the global rate of growth of adoptionof GM crops was 12%, which demonstrates a significant increase in the use of this newtechnology. Information is the agronomist Andrew Person, managing partner of Agroconsult,a company specializing in Agricultural Market Analysis. Person was one of the speakers atthe Media Workshop II, held today, April 23, the CIB - Council for BiotechnologyInformation, which was titled The Impact of Biotechnology in Agribusiness. The event wasattended, in Sao Paulo, more than 20 professional general and specialized media throughoutthe country.Person, who is advisor to the IWC, also presented an estimated cost of production oftransgenic soy in Brazil carried out by Embrapa, which shows a possible reduction of over10% compared with the production of conventional soybeans. "So far, Brazil has enoughproduct to allow the non-use of genetics modified organism in Brazil, however, my concernis the medium and long term, because the lack of adoption of this new technology can makethat Brazil lags behind in compared to our competitors, "he says. For him, there are immediatebenefits from the adoption of GMO in Brazil, such as reducing costs, machinery andmanpower, less risk of contamination of workers, ease in handling, helping the practice at thetill, and harvest without impurities reduced vulnerability in the supply of corn and rice.The Argentine Eduardo Trigo, executive secretary of the Consultative Group onBiotechnology for Latin America and the Caribbean, spoke about the success story of thecultivation of transgenic agriculture in Argentina. According to him, "the increasingagricultural production in Argentina and its international market share are directly related tothe adoption of biotechnology for their farmers." Currently, GM crops approved by thegovernment of Argentina are the RR soybean, Bt cotton and Bt corn. About 95% of transgenicsoybeans is produced, which allows many competitive advantages to Argentine agriculture.The adoption of transgenic soybeans resulted in a significant reduction in the costs of cropproduction, which is around $ 20 to $ 25 per hectare, and increasing the area available foragriculture of about 4.6 million hectares. Wheat said that exports also increased considerably.To get an idea of the impact of the adoption of transgenic soybeans in Argentina, in 2002 thecountrys export volume was about U.S. $ 7 billion. Wheat also highlighted other indirectbenefits such as increased employment in agriculture, reduction of herbicides with hightoxicity and ease of expansion of cultivated area reduced.In addition to person and wheat, also attended the workshop, Professor of Economics at USP(University of São Paulo) and researcher Fipe, Fernando Homem de Melo, and Marcos Jank,an agronomist trained by ESALQ-USP. Melo pointed out the importance of the decliningtrend of food products and the competitiveness of exports due to the instability of theexchange rate. "GMOs are a major technological innovation and certainly could contribute tothe reduction of costs of products that are in the basket of Brazilians, such as rice, beans andcorn," he explains. 7
  8. 8. Marcos Jank, part of the board of the Brazilian Agribusiness Association (ABAG), addressedthe issue of commodities on world markets. For him, the basic concept of transgenic foodproduction is cheaper for the consumer and creating products that can improve the quality offood. Regarding the process of release of transgenic crops in Brazil, Jank believe the countryis being economically affected by deadlock, and argues for immediate government action.After the positive results in the first two events, the CIB is already thinking about theformatting of the Third Workshop for journalists, which will address new themes toincreasingly contribute to the dissemination of information on biotechnology in Brazil.The year 2010 was very positive for Biotechnology, particularly with regard to geneticallymodified (GM), whose approvals had thriving commercial progress during the period. SinceFebruary, the National Technical Commission on Biosafety (CTNBio) is under the commandof the geneticist Edilson Paiva, which shall remain in office until 2012. For 2011, theexpectation is that more approvals related events of corn and cotton, and possibly also oftransgenic soya. In this case, the variety is resistant to golden mosaic virus of bean, which isthe worst enemy of this crop in South America In Brazil, the disease is present in all regions,and is reached in the very early planting, can cause losses of up to 100% of production. Theresult is unprecedented for the biotech world, because it is the development of the firsttransgenic plants produced entirely by public research institutions, in the case EmbrapaGenetic Resources, in partnership with Embrapa Rice and Beans.Contributions to the field and the environment according to the ISAAA report, released inFebruary/2011, Brazil 21.4 million hectares planted with GM crops and has become thesecond largest producer of GM crops in the world - behind only the United States , leavingArgentina in third place in a universe of 25 producing countries. The number represents anincrease of 35.4% over 2008, especially justified by the rapid adoption of GM maize.ConclusionThrough biotechnology, we can increase the number of industrial processes that userenewable resources. In the agricultural sector, biotechnology can be applied through the useof biopesticides to preserve and protect forests as well as through the production and use ofGMOs, which despite being very debatable in society, offers a number of advantages such asthe development of features desirable improvement in product quality, resistance to pests anddiseases. For a global food security of the world population, which is constantly growing, isnaturally important to increase food production. Therefore, applying biotechnology would beessential to increase the quality of products generated as well as the productivity of somecrops.Biotechnology has endless links with industry and society, can be used in various sectors andbring many benefits. However, we know that changes are not fast and that many scientificprinciples are not easily accepted by the population. For this reason it is important tounderstand what can really be considered an advance of biotechnology could benefit societyin relation to the environment that they only bring economic benefits.Regardless of ideological issues, the fact is that biotechnology is at the table of consumers fora long time. The bread, cheese, yogurt, beer and wine, for example, foods that are part of thediet of families from all social classes, are enzymes produced by genetically modified ortransgenic bacteria and yeast that work directly in the fermentation , formation of aroma andflavor and food preservation. Scientific studies, conducted over the last decade indicate thatGM foods approved for worldwide production and consumption does not pose risks to human 8
  9. 9. health and the environment. These surveys were followed up and validated by variousnational and international institutions, including the United Nations Food and AgricultureOrganization (FAO), whose guidelines are published on its website. It is noteworthy that GMproducts approved for human consumption were thoroughly tested before they reach storeshelves, the evaluations that are part of an intense process of analysis by which, curiously,there are conventional products. That is, it can be said that the safety of GM crops is at leastsimilar to conventional foods.The safety of GM crops can also be proven in the environmental field through studies inseveral countries. One example concerns the survey "Global Impact of Biotech Crops: Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects in the First Ten Years of Commercial Use", conductedin 2006 by PG Economics, UK. According to the indicators of this research, the cultivation ofGM crops since 1996 provided a worldwide reduction of 15% over the environmental impactscaused by pesticides, totaling 224 000 tons less in direct release of pesticides into theenvironment. Similar data were observed in Brazil, where it is estimated that the reduction ofenvironmental impacts was 6% between 1996 and 2005.On one side are found, fortunately, the gains of the environment with the adoption of GMcrops on the other losses that the delay imposed on the country are evident. And theseprivations are striking proportions: according to the study "Economic and EnvironmentalBenefits of biotechnology in Brazil", developed by consulting Céleres, Brazilian farmers haveceased to accrue benefits of U.S. $ 4.6 billion in the last decade, with only the geneticallymodified (GM). The reason: bureaucratic, legal and ideological immobilized the developmentof research and application of agricultural biotechnology.Brazil has enormous biotechnological potential and needs to officially take a stance consistentwith his position as mega-diverse country and a major producer of food worldwide. And notonly that. With regard to research, to have an idea, Brazil is considered a vast storehouse ofhighly qualified professionals. Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, for example,is developing cassava and bean-string genetically enhanced to resist drought and pests in theNortheast, which should benefit the regions agriculture. Researchers at the Center for NuclearEnergy in Agriculture (CENA), University of São Paulo (USP) in Piracicaba, developedorange and lime tolerant to diseases of economic impact on citrus crops, citrus-like cancer andbuds, among others. The surveys are already conducted in greenhouses of the institution. Andin this time of bioenergy, the Center for Sugarcane Technology (CTC), and CanaviallisAlellyx, Brazilian companies, emerge in the breeding of cane sugar.Surely as the data show, in a few years Brazil will be exporting technology and growingindustry with environmental responsibility. But this requires clarity and wisdom in this timeof decision. The result of the public hearing CTNBio and definition of the MP 327 willinterfere directly in the development of national research in agribusiness courses and,consequently, the lives of Brazilian citizens. At other times we lose opportunities like these,however, now seems to be different. Everything indicates that fundamentalism is finallyreturning the space to the reason.ReferenceABDC-10 proceedings: Biotechnologies for Agricultural Development - – access in 06/2011;Academic-Corporate Ties in Biotechnology: A Quantitative Study - - 06/2011; 9
  10. 10. Biotechnology - The New Age ‘Global’ Industry: Justin Paul and Festi Lova - – access in 06/2011;Brazilian health biotech - fostering crosstalk between public and private sectors,Bonalume Neto, R. Brazil next biotech trailblazer in Latin America Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 1184(2006). - - access in 06/2011;Business, D. In Brazil. (British Chamber of Commerce Publication, São Paulo, Brazil, 2005).Conselho de Informações sobre Biotecnologia (CIB) -ão C&T com informações da ABDI - Business Strategies. The Biotechnology Market in Brazil (InternationalBusiness Strategies, Los Gatos, CA, USA, 2003).M.C. in Biotechnology in the Developing World and Countries in Economic Transition,Oda, L.M, Correa Soares, B.E. & Valadares-Inglis, (eds. Tzotzos, G.T. & Skryabin, K.G.) 43–52 (CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 2000).Pesquisador da Embrapa Meio-Norte - Teresina/PI E-mail: - 10