• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Decision Dominoes
 

Decision Dominoes

on

  • 312 views

What is the secret to aligning systems to strategy? (rated the top #1 biggest challenge facing CIOs every year for the last 15 years) ...

What is the secret to aligning systems to strategy? (rated the top #1 biggest challenge facing CIOs every year for the last 15 years)
What is the difference between decision models and rule models?
What is The Moment of Truth?
How do you transform ideas into implementations?
How do you build complex systems so they don't fall like dominoes?
Peek inside the BIZRULES achives and learn the secret.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
312
Views on SlideShare
307
Embed Views
5

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0

1 Embed 5

http://www.linkedin.com 5

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Decision Dominoes Decision Dominoes Presentation Transcript

    • What is the biggest challenge facing CIOs ? Alignment of systems to strategy Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 1
    • What is the biggest challenge facing CIOs? Why do systems fail?Alignment of IT systems to business strategy. Technology Business No alignment. Technology Business CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 2
    • Models are the bridge that enables you to connect and align Business and ITBusiness Technology Dollars Knowledge Data Sense Rules Decisions Process Events Terms Facts Concepts Knowing Understanding Meaning Thinking Reasoning Judgment Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 3
    • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE systems to strategy Models are the secret to aligning - A FRAMEWORK TM DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat to the Business Business Performs SCOPE the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) TERMS GLOSSARY PLACES Legal Entities Mission and Goals Terms & Definitions Locations Management Entities Laws and Regulations Fact Types Jurisdictions Suppliers Strategies and Policies List of Values Customers KNOWING Function = Class of RegulatorsPlanner ENTITY = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE System KNOWLEDGE MODELS BUSINESS PROCESS WORK FLOW MODELS EVENT MODELS MODELMODEL BUSINESS DECISION (CONCEPTUAL)(CONCEPTUAL) Terms & Meaning MODELS MODELS Domain Models BPM / BPMN Decision Model Fact Models Diagrams Concept MapsOwner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner UNDERSTANDING Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle BDM / BDMS Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model BUSINESS RULE SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL DATA MODELS MODELS (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) USER INTERFACE Rule Family Tables Fact Tables ARCHITECTURE ER Diagrams Business Logic Models DBMS Model Ent = Data Entity BPMN > BPMS Node = I/S Function BDMS > BRMS Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion DesignerDesigner Reln = Data Relationship I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Cycle = Processing Cycle Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGY RULEBASEMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) DATABASE Architecture (PHYSICAL) Rule Designs Data Table Designs BRMS > BRE DBMS SQL DDL DML BPMS > Programs Node = Hardware/SystemBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Builder Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition BUSINESS RULE e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- ENGINE REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS Rule Specifications (OUT-OF(OUT-OF- DBMS / Database Engine Programs > Code CONTEXT) Rule Code CONTEXT) BRE > CodeSub- Sub-Contractor Business RulesProc.= Language [Conditions==Protocols Then [Conclusions Decisions=Actions] Ent = Field Reln = Address If Stmt I/O = Control Block Node Events] Link Addresses People = Identity Work = Job Time = Interrupt Cycle Machine Cycle [Goals] End = Sub-condition Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 4
    • Everything connects to everything else “Principles for the development of a Complete Mind: Study the science of art. Study the art of science. Develop your senses - especially learn how to see. Realise that everything connects to everything else.” Leonardo da Vinci Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 5
    • Terms & Definitions Terms & Relationships Rules Events Terms Facts we think we know and Fact Models Instances (Records) Logic Time Words Data WhatWhat to do and How-to do it Sequential Steps, Activities, and Tasks Process Procedures, Instructions, Code Concepts What we truly Ontology The Decision The Moment of Truth understand Semantic MapDoing Thinking Reasoning Judgment Knowing Understanding Meaning Terms & MeaningThink and DecideWhat to do & Why Logic Business Rules If/Then Rules Decision Models Rule Family Tables Decision Tables Decision Trees Rulesets Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) Rulebase Hierarchy Inference Reuse Global Rules Conditions Rulebase Inheritance Common Rules Intermediate Conclusions Conclusions Deduction , Induction Local Rules Specialized Rules Laws Rules & Regulations Policies Rules of Thumb Heuristics Expert Rules Single and Multiple InheritanceTerms & Conditions Rev. 5 November 2012 Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 6
    • BIZRULES® RULEMAP™ EXAMPLE GLOBAL ENTITY MANAGEMENT: U.S. EMPLOYER COMPLIANCE RULESConcept Map Employment Eligibility Verification BUSINESS MAP (FACT MODEL) Terms TERMS Authorization To WorkSemantic Model Work Form I-9 Compliant Misdemeanor is a Illegal Alien Individual U.S. Citizen Authorization aka are are guilty of a Lawful Permanent Resident Status Penalty and Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services Bureau of Citizenship Comply with Violate the Law Fine Is evidence of used to verify the Law U.S. Employers and Immigration is given by the Employment Employing Services Eligibility imposes Employment Eligibility formerly Authorizatio Verification who Identify required to n to Work Form complete a Employees Immigration and U.S. The makes all Immigration Hired to Work Naturalization Service has Employers Employment Eligibility Verification Form (Form I-9) is given to an Reform and Control Act Work Authorization Status Guilty responsible to Individual Misdemeanor has an Verify is an Identity November 6, 1986 Facts An Illegal Alien is an individual, who is not a Citizen or a Lawful Permanent FACTS Illegal Alien Citizen Lawful Resident Verify Permanent Employment Resident and who has not been given Authorization To Work by the Bureau of Resident is an Eligibility Effective Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly, the Immigration and of all Date is Naturalization Service). of the of all Governing Rules GOVERNING RULES U.S. Employers must verify the Employment Eligibility and Identify of all United Employees Hired to Work in the United States after November 6, 1986. States Employees Employers are required to complete Employment Eligibility Verification Forms in the (Form I-9) for all Employees, including U.S. Citizens. Location that are Anyone Employing an Illegal Alien without Verifying his or her Work To work in hired after Authorization Status is Guilty of a Misdemeanor.(i.e. Ontology) DIGITIZED PROCESS (BUSINESS PROCESS MODEL) BUSINESS RULES Corporate / External / Compliance Rules RULE NO. HR Initiates Business Rules for Employment Eligibility 1 2 3 4 5 Business Unit notifies Employment START Decides to Hire HR Eligibility BU continues BUSINESS UNIT END PROCESS Employee Verification here… NOTES IF (BU) Process Company is _______ a US not a US - - - Employer Employer Employee Company wants to hire an - Con- - - ______ tractor Notify BU Candidate Work Location the US In - - Outside - is ______ the US Decision Record Reason Candidate Can Candidate Hire Date is After - - - On or and Decision Be Hired as an ______ Nov. 6, 1986 before Verify No Inferences Employee Evaluate Candidate’s Yes Record Reason ENTERPRISE COMPLIANCE SYSTEM Business Employment and Decision THEN Rules Eligibility or Inferences Identify? Yes Prepare Wait for Is Candidate Submit I-9 Company must verify Yes No No No No Authorized Candidate Must Electronic Form Government No form Candidate’s Employment to Work in Not Be Hired as Eligibility I-9 Notification an Employee U.S. ? No No No Company must verify Yes No Candidate’s Identity Decision Rule Submit eForm Send Notification Work Authorization Rules Determine Candidate Work Receive & Model BUREAU OF CITIZENSHIP AND Work Process Authorization IMMIGRATION SERVICES (BCIS) Authorization Status? FEDERAL AGENCY Form I-9 Status OUTPUT: Work Authorization Status is either Process Model Illegal Alien, Citizen, Lawful Permanent Resident, or Resident Candidate is not Authorized to Work in US Candidate is Authorized to Work in US ENTITY MANAGEMENT RULEBOOKSource: This is from a BIZRULES presentation archived on the Web at http://bizrules.info/files/bizrules-brf2005orl.pdf. 1 LEGAL ENTITY MASTERFILE 10/06/08 FINAL
    • The Moment of Truth What do we do? We must decide now! Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 8
    • Long Term Short Term Survival ProfitsThe Moment of Truth 1-800 CALL-SME
    • Build decision models to Ignore experts, make consistent, legal, rules and regulations. and profitable decisions Guess, hope and prayThe Moment of Truth 1-800 CALL-SME
    • Update Your Models Make changes to then change the System the system and forget the modelsThe Moment of Truth 1-800 CALL-SME
    • A general framework for building any complex systemHow to transform idea into implementation Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 12
    • Architecture The result of architecture Engineering Design & Build Idea Implementation Logical PhysicalRepresentation Instantiation Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 13
    • A general framework for building any system Architecture  Engineering  Design  BuildName Define Represent Specify Configure Instantiate it it it it it it Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 14
    • A general framework for building any system Architecture  Engineering  Design  BuildName Define Represent Specify Configure Instantiate it it it it it it Lack of specificity in one step leads to ambiguity in the next steps… Lack of quality in one step leads to mistakes in the next steps… Lack of completeness in one step leads to gaps in the next steps… Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 15
    • A general framework for building any system Architecture  Engineering  Design  BuildName Define Represent Specify Configure Instantiate it it it it it it Lack of specificity in one step leads to ambiguity in the next steps… Lack of quality in one step leads to mistakes in the next steps… Lack of completeness in one step leads to gaps in the next steps…Consequences are the need for reiteration & rework in the process. That takes more time, and costs more money. Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 16
    • A general framework for building any system Name it Define Architecture it Represent Engineering it Specify Designing it Configure Building it Instantiate it Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 17
    • TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Name itPlanner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) Define (CONCEPTUAL) Architecture itOwner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL(LOGICAL) Represent (LOGICAL) Engineering it Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) Specify (PHYSICAL) Designing it Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS Configure TATIONS(OUT-OF- Building (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) itSub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING Instantiate e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY FUNCTIONINGENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE itJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 18
    • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA A FRAMEWORK Enterprise Architecture – - Framework TM TM DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL)Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 19
    • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA A FRAMEWORK Enterprise Architecture – -Architecture Complete “Data Model” Framework TM TM DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE(CONTEXTUAL) to the Business Business Performs Terms Operates the Business Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) GlossaryPlanner ENTITY = Class of Terms & Definitions Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISEMODEL Semantic Models System MODEL (CONCEPTUAL)(CONCEPTUAL) Fact/Concept ModelsOwner Ent = Business Entity Terms &Node = Business Location Proc. = Business Process Meaning People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM ArchitectureMODEL Logical Data Models Architecture MODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Fact Tables Ent = Data Entity ER Diagrams etc) Proc .= Application Function Node = I/S Function (Processor, Storage, People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 20
    • Complete “Business Process – A A FRAMEWORK TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - Framework Enterprise Architecture Model” Architecture TM DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL)Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 21
    • Complete “Business Rule Model” Architecture TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE(CONTEXTUAL) to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Mission Business to the Important to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) Goals and Objectives Management IntentionPlanner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISEMODEL System Strategy & Policy MODEL (CONCEPTUAL)(CONCEPTUAL) Decision Models Informal or Detailed DescriptionOwner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL(LOGICAL) Business Rule Models (LOGICAL) Detailed Logical Definition Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL Formal/Detailed Rules MODEL (PHYSICAL)(PHYSICAL) Designs and Specifications Node = Hardware/System Detailed Technical SpecificationBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Builder Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- TATIONS Automated Rules REPRESEN- TATIONS(OUT-OF- CONTEXT) Source Code (OUT-OF CONTEXT)Sub- ImplementationContractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. Enterprise Decision / Prescription ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 22
    • ENTERPRISE“Business Model”Framework Complete ARCHITECTUREA AArchitecture Enterprise Architecture – - FRAMEWORK TM TM DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL)Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 23
    • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA A FRAMEWORK Enterprise “System Model” Architecture Complete Architecture – - Framework TM TM DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL)Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 24
    • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA A FRAMEWORK TM Enterprise Architecture – - Framework TM Complete “Technology Model” Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL)Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 25
    • Object Oriented Modeling (UML; Use Cases) TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL)Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 26
    • Structured Methods Modeling-(Mainframe Era) TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE A FRAMEWORK DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL)Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 27
    • Models are the only known way to transform ideas into implementations ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK TM DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/StratSCOPE TERMS MISSION & GOALS SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model BUSINESS PROCESS e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. WorkFLOW MODELS WORK Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule BUSINESS DECISION e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE MODELS System MODELSMODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL)(CONCEPTUAL) KNOWLEDGE MODELS Fact ModelsOwner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. USER INTERFACE Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business RuleRULE BUSINESS Model ARCHITECTURE SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELS MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) DATA MODELS Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGY RULE DESIGNS ANDMODEL SPECIFICATIONS MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition RULES SOURCE CODE e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Business Rules Language Stmt [Events or Addresses Proc.= If Node = Conditions] Then Identity People = [Decisions or Time = Interrupt Actions] [Goals] End = Sub-condition Sub- Contractor Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = StepFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 28
    • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE systems to strategy Models are the secret to aligning - A FRAMEWORK TM DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION WhySCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat to the Business Business Performs SCOPE the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) TERMS GLOSSARY PLACES Legal Entities Mission and Goals Terms & Definitions Locations Management Entities Laws and Regulations Fact Types Jurisdictions Suppliers Strategies and Policies List of Values Customers KNOWING Function = Class of RegulatorsPlanner ENTITY = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE System KNOWLEDGE MODELS BUSINESS PROCESS WORK FLOW MODELS EVENT MODELS MODELMODEL BUSINESS DECISION (CONCEPTUAL)(CONCEPTUAL) Terms & Meaning MODELS MODELS Domain Models BPM / BPMN Decision Model Fact Models Diagrams Concept MapsOwner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner UNDERSTANDING Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle BDM / BDMS Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model BUSINESS RULE SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL DATA MODELS MODELS (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) USER INTERFACE Rule Family Tables Fact Tables ARCHITECTURE ER Diagrams Business Logic Models DBMS Model Ent = Data Entity BPMN > BPMS Node = I/S Function BDMS > BRMS Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion DesignerDesigner Reln = Data Relationship I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Cycle = Processing Cycle Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGY RULEBASEMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) DATABASE Architecture (PHYSICAL) Rule Designs Data Table Designs BRMS > BRE DBMS SQL DDL DML BPMS > Programs Node = Hardware/SystemBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Builder Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition BUSINESS RULE e.g. Rule Specification DETAILEDREPRESEN- ENGINE REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS Rule Specifications (OUT-OF(OUT-OF- DBMS / Database Engine Programs > Code CONTEXT) Rule Code CONTEXT) BRE > CodeSub- Sub-Contractor Business RulesProc.= Language [Conditions==Protocols Then [Conclusions Decisions=Actions] Ent = Field Reln = Address If Stmt I/O = Control Block Node Events] Link Addresses People = Identity Work = Job Time = Interrupt Cycle Machine Cycle [Goals] End = Sub-condition Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 – A Framework™ Enterprise Architecture ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 29
    • Decisions and Rules are the glue that connects the elements ofthe Enterprise Architecture and aligns the systems to strategies WHO people / organization DECISION Condition/Event Conclusion/Action/Decision Permission/Constraint WHY goal / motivation 30 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
    • A general framework for Decision/Rules/Process Integration User Interface model WHO people / organization Decision Model Condition/Event Conclusion/Decision/Action Permission/Constraint Business Rule Model Logic Model WHY goal / motivation Strategy Mission Vision Goals & Objectives 31 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
    • What do you get when you use a rules architecture framework and knowledge engineering? The Framework  Alignment / Qualityhelps you minimize risk and ensure  The implemented systems (Row 6) align with the business objectives success of your (Rows 1/2 ) business rules, decisions, and  Integration process initiatives  Vertical integration from intention to decision  Horizontal integration of rules with process, code, and data  Flexibility / Time to market  Can change one concept without impacting the entire implementation  Can change things with minimal time, cost, and disruption  Reuse  Standard interchangeable parts You get success… and a Mission Accomplished! 32 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
    • What will you get without rules architecture knowledge engineering ?  No Alignment / Quality  The implemented systems (Row 6) WILL NOT align with the business objectives (Rows 1/2 )  No Integration  NO Vertical integration from intention to decision  NO Horizontal integration of rules process, code, and data  No Flexibility / Time to market  Changing one concept IS LIKELY TO impact the entire implementation  Changing things takes more time, costs more money, causes destruction  No Reuse  NO Standard interchangeable parts You get to hope and pray that the whole system doesn’t fall like dominoes 33 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002-2008 BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
    • Good luck! Rolando Hernandez Rules Coach BIZRULES BIZRULES has been helping Fortune 500 firmsand large government agencies document business rules and preserve expert knowledge since 1995 Copyright © 2011 BizRules® (brand) is a registered trademark of BIZRULES (company) 34