• Definition-waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public
health or the environment is known as hazardous wastes.
• Classification of hazardous wastes:
1. Characteristic hazardous wastes:
2. Listed hazardous wastes:
discarded chemical products.
• Causes of generation of hazardous wastes:
– Production ranges from large industries to individuals.
– Lack of realization of the hazard of the wastes
– Chemicals used for industrial processes and the significant rise in use
of these chemicals in the recent past due to heavy industrialization.
– Unwillingness of the industries to properly manage the hazardous
wastes due to the heavy expenses involved.
• General solutions for hazardous waste management:
– Increase in strict regulations on the disposal of hazardous waste.
– Industries can break down dangerous chemical compounds into less
dangerous forms by physical, chemical, or biological treatment
– Participation at individual level.
– Provisions of concessions by the government to the industries for
treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes.
• Effects of hazardous wastes:
– Soluble nitrates from manure
may dissolve into groundwater
and contaminate drinking-water
– Insulation material on furnace
pipes contain asbestos
particles, which can break off
and hang suspended in air;
when inhaled, they can cause
lung disease and cancer.
– Toxic substances that do not
break down or bind tightly to
the soil may be taken up by
– If rivers and lakes are polluted
and become toxic enough, they
may kill animal and plant life
– Evaporation of toxic solvents
from paints and cleaning agents
is a common problem causing
serious air pollution issues for
Effects on animals
Paints and other hazardous chemicals
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
– To study the planning, design of current systems of
management of hazardous wastes viz.
– Generation of hazardous waste at source.
– reduction of hazardous waste at source.
– Transport of hazardous wastes.
– Treatment and recovery of hazardous wastes.
– Final Disposal of the hazardous wastes.
– To give recommendations for the improvement and
modification of these systems.
• The treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes cannot be done in
the regular ways used for non-hazardous wastes. Some special
methods are devised for the hazardous waste management
• Methods for treatment and disposal of the hazardous wastes:
– Recycling of hazardous wastes
– Stabilization by Portland cement
– Incineration, destruction and waste-to-energy
– Hazardous waste landfill (sequestering, isolation, etc.)
• Hazardous waste scenario in the past in India:
– Indian cities alone generate more than 100 million tons of solid waste a year,
– India's garbage crisis is from rising consumption. India's waste problem also points
to a stunning failure of governance
– In 2000, India's Supreme Court directed all Indian cities to implement a
comprehensive waste-management program that would include household
collection of segregated waste, recycling and composting.
– In 2011, several Indian cities embarked on waste-to-energy projects of the type in
use in Germany, Switzerland and Japan.
– Lack of technical and financial resources and the regulatory control for the
management of hazardous wastes in the past had led to the unscientific disposal of
hazardous wastes In India
– Government of India notified the Hazardous Waste Management & Handling Rules
(HWM Rules) on July 28, 1989 under the provisions of the Environment Protection
Act, 1986 and was further amended in the year 2000 & 2003.
– The top four waste generating states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh
and Tamil Nadu.
– States such as Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, all the North Eastern States
excepting Assam generate less than 20,000 MT per annum.
CASE STUDY NO.1-
COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT
PLANT, KOPARKHAIRNE, NAVI MUMBAI
• Liquid hazardous wastes containing toxic impurities are called effluents
• Liquid hazardous waste from various participating industries is treated
• Treated water is discharged in the Waghivali Creek by pumping through
HDPE closed pipeline
• CETP helps the industries in easier control of pollution, as it is a semi-
• Treatment of The liquid wastes from various industries individually up to
the desired concentration, become techno-economically difficult:
– Land scarcity
– Requirement of separate staff
– Very expensive
• Dilution factors due to the mixing of different liquid wastes comes into
CASE STUDY NO.2-
BIO MEDICAL WASTE TREATMENT PLANT,
CHATRAPATI SHIVAJIHOSPITAL, KALWA
• Takes care of the bio-medical waste disposal problem in the entire city of
• Approved by Maharashtra Pollution control board
• Set up by the Thane based NGO 'Enviro-vigil' that has been assigned the
task of starting and maintaining the disposal facility.
• Thane Municipal Corporation provided land and electricity free of cost.
• Daily, 525-625kg of BMW is generated from private hospitals and nursing
homes and 200 kg from municipal hospitals.
• Prior to this plant, most of the city's bio-medical wastes got mixed with
the rest of the garbage and eventually found its way to the dumping
• Segregation, Incineration and autoclaving are the main processes used.
• Two special vans are used for transporting the bio-medical waste.
• Charges are Rs.7.25 per bed for private hospitals and half for municipal
hospitals in exchange of free electricity and land.
CASE STUDY NO.3-
LANDFILL SITE, TRANS THANE CREEK WASTE
MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION, THANE
• A facility for disposing off toxic wastes set up in the Trans Thane Creek
(TTC) industrial area on about 70,000 sq. meter land at Mahape
• The project approved by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forest
with 25% funding from their side and has been taken up by the Thane
Belapur Industrial Association.
• Scientifically collects and disposes off solid and hazardous wastes
generated by industrial units functioning in the TTC area, in a centralised
• Prior to this project,About 250 industries in the TTC area generated
31,427 tonnes per annum of hazardous waste and there was no proper
facility for its disposal
• The waste produced by these units include, heavy metal
concentration, organic content, halogens etc
• The generation of hazardous waste cannot be reduced to zero with the
help of available hazardous waste management technologies and
treatment,hence landfills are required.
• The principles of sound landfill management are based on four main
– Environmental nuisances such as odours,fires,vermin
insects, birds, windblown litter and visual instrusion should be
eliminated or at least kept to minimum.
– The available void space in the site should be utilised to the full by
ensuring good compaction of the waste.
– Problems of water pollution and gas generation should be minimised.
– The management of the site should reflect the after use for which the
reclaimed land is intended.
LIKELY OUTCOME AND CONCLUSIONS
• Reduction in generation by using modification at source.
• Better methods of transport.
• Increased efficiency of management and disposal.
• Recycling of raw materials at the initial stage so that ultimately
lesser hazardous waste is generated
• Transportation system more environmentally safe.
• Reduction in the cost of the overall transport of hazardous waste.
• The management systems of hazardous waste are more and more