1. Master of Business Administration Semester I Business Communication Assignment Set- 1Q1.List the importance of effective communication in the workplace?Ans. Importance of effective communication in the workplaceEffective communication in the workplace means improving employee communication skillsEffective communication in the workplace is the backbone of any business. Without it, youcould miss out on important opportunities, waste time and cause your employees andcustomers to become frustrated.But not everyone is a born communicator, and there is always room to improve. Thats why itsimportant to train your staff to create effective communication in the workplace.
2. Removing roadblocks to effective communication in the workplaceWhen a problem arises, its often due to poor communication in the workplace. Particularly inthis digital age when we rely so heavily on emails and phone calls to get things done, vitalinformation can become lost or misinterpreted if not communicated clearly.Arming your staff with good communication skills enables them to work efficiently, effectivelyand navigate any potential issues that may arise.Everyone is differentPeople have different styles of communication in the workplace. And while there is no right orwrong way to go about it, you can ensure that your staff are understood by teaching them how toadapt their style to the needs of others.With appropriate training, your employees will be able to identify their own communication stylein the workplace, understand how this influences the process, and develop strategies to get thebest results.Effective communication in the workplace is a two-way streetCommunication skills dont simply mean the ability to talk and write effectively - they also relyheavily on listening and negotiation. Through training, employees will be able to practice theiractive listening and problem-solving skills and develop the means to influence outcomes.A professional training organization can help your employees develop effectivecommunication in the workplace by teaching: the importance of effective communication different styles of communication awareness of non-verbal communication, such as body language how to improve written communication skills how to communicate with confidence how to tailor communication for an intended audience how to manage workplace conflicts or issues negotiation and influencing skills Active listening skills and how to ask the right questions.
3. Benefits of training to improve communication in the workplace By developing better rapport with co-workers, employees are likely to be happier and more successful in their roles. Improving employees morale will make them more likely to remain loyal to your business. Improving communication between individuals, teams or departments within your organization will streamline business processes and activities. Customer retention will be improved through better customer service. Staff will learn how to handle difficult situations and resolve conflict before it becomes a problem.Opening the channelsBy promoting better communication in the workplace, youll not only increase the efficiency ofyour team, but your organization too. Talk to a training specialist today about how you canimprove the communication skills of your staff to create a more successful business.
4. Q2. Explain the different aspects of non-verbal communication?Ans. Different aspects of non-verbal communicationNon-verbal communication, defined as communication without words. It refers to any way ofconveying meanings without the use of verbal language. The game of “dumb charades” is aperfect example. Non-verbal communication is generally unintentional, unlike verbalcommunication. All of us tend to communicate silently and unknowingly send signals andmessages by what we do, apart from what we say. Gestures, facial expressions, posture and theway we dress, are all part of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication can have agreater impact than verbal communication, since “how you say something” is sometimes moreimportant than “what you say.” Although non-verbal communication can affect both ourpersonal and business relationships, it is particularly important in the workplace. While thespoken or written words may be perfect, the non-verbal aspects could convey theexact opposite meaning. Aspects of non-verbal communication:1. Kinesics this is the most often studied and important area of non-verbal communication andrefers to body movements of any kind. Different body movements can express inner states ofemotion. Facial Expressions can convey feelings of surprise, happiness, anger and sadness. Ifyou meet a long lost friend and say “I‟m very happy to meet you again”, but with a sad facialexpression, it conveys the exact opposite meaning. Eye Movements, such as wide open pupilsexpress feelings of surprise, excitement or even fear. The importance of eye contact with one‟saudience was pointed out earlier. Direct eye contact is an indication of intensity and interest,while lack of it can convey feelings of nervousness and guilt. Gestures, such as movement of thehands while giving a lecture or presentation indicates a high level of involvement in what you aresaying. On the other hand, shuffling of the feet is a sign of nervousness and speaking with one‟shands in one‟s pockets is considered to be casual or even rude. Head Movements like noddingthe head can convey interest, appreciation, agreement or understanding. Body Shape and Posture– Body shape is not within one‟s control but can be stereotyped to convey certain meanings.For example, someone who is strong and muscular is generally thought to be athletic, as opposedto a person who is short and fat! Posture on the other hand is within our control. In formalsettings such as job interviews or classroom settings, it is essential that you maintain an erectposture to convey that you are attentive, since slouching or a relaxed posture conveys a casualattitude. Physical Appearance – Our outward appearance, including the way we dress and thejewelry and make-up that we wear can convey an impression of formality or informality. Goingto a job interview dressed in blue jeans or not sticking to a stipulated dress code at the workplacecan convey that you are a rebel, non-conformist or a very casual person. Therefore, it isimportant to take care of your appearance, so that you convey the right meaning to others.
5. 2. Proxemics Proxemics is derived from the word “proximity” or closeness and is thecommunication term for personal space and distance. The space and distance which we choose tokeep from people is also part of non-verbal communication. Each of us has our own inner andouter circles, which differ for different people. Our inner most circle is an “intimate space”, intowhich we generally admit only select people such as family and close friends. Next comes a“personal space” which might include other friends and colleagues or coworkers. These twospaces involve communication of an informal nature. Most of us also have a “social and public”space, which includes official or workplace relationships, where the communication is of a moreformal nature. In a business context, it is more relevant to understand the concept of “fixedspace” and “semi-fixed” space. Fixed space means that the physical features of thework environment such as furniture, room size and seating arrangement are permanent.3. Time Language This refers to the meaning or importance attached to time and varies betweendifferent people. One person may value time more than another. Similarly, time language alsovaries across cultures. In most western cultures for example, punctuality is considered to beimportant. Arriving late for a business meeting is inexcusable. In other cultures, it is morerelaxed and time is not given that much importance. We convey messages to others through thetime we spend on a work related activity or by the importance that we give to time. Arrivingearly at work or for a job interview shows interest, involvement and seriousness. Spending timewith an employee and giving him suggestions on how to improve his performance shows interestand involvement in his career growth.4. Paralanguage Para means “like” or “similar to”, therefore paralanguage means “likelanguage”. Of all the forms of non-verbal communication, paralanguage is closest to verbalcommunication. It refers to the tone of voice with which something is said. In other words, it is“how” something is said, and not “what” is said. The tone of voice includes the pitch (high orlow pitch), the pace (slow or fast) the emphasis on words and the volume (soft or loud) and canconvey different moods and emotions, as mentioned earlier in this unit. Example: The statement“I practice good business communication” can be understood in different ways, depending on theemphasis on certain words. Saying “I practice good business communication” means that I alonepractice it above anyone else. On the other hand, saying “I practicegood business communication” could be interpreted to mean that you communicate particularlywell in a business context, rather than in a general context. The important point to keep in mindregarding tone of voice is to avoid mixed signals – that is, making sure that what you say isconsistent with how you say it.5. Physical Context: This refers to the physical environment or surroundings within whichwe communicate and includes two aspects – 1) color and layout and 2) design.Colors are known for their symbolic meaning and have associations with different feelings.For example, colors like black and grey are associated with death, mourning and negativefeelings. Yellow and green are associated with more positive feelings. Of course, these can also
6. vary across cultures. The point to remember is that you can make the right impressions with useof the right colors. Layout in a work environment refers to the size of an office, or thearrangement of furniture. Design refers to the type of chairs, desks or carpeting. All these canconvey status, formality or informality. We have seen how the types of non-verbalcommunication outnumber the types of verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is animportant supplement to verbal communication and can enhance verbal communication, if usedin a positive way.
7. Q3. Write short notes on:(a) Upward communication (b) Downward communication (c) Horizontal communicationAns: a) Upward CommunicationUpward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors, or fromemployees to management. Without upward communication, management works in a vacuum,not knowing if messages have been received properly, or if other problems exist in theorganization.By definition, communication is a two-way affair. Yet for effective two-way organizationalcommunication to occur, it must begin from the bottom.Upward Communication is a mean for staff to:Exchange informationOffer ideasExpress enthusiasmAchieve job satisfactionProvide feedback
8. b) Downward CommunicationInformation flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling peoplein the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies).Downward communication generally provides enabling information – which allows asubordinate to do something.e.g.: Instructions on how to do a task.Downward communication comes after upward communications have been successfullyestablished. This type of communication is needed in an organization to:Transmit vital informationGive instructionsEncourage 2-way discussionAnnounce decisionsSeek cooperationProvide motivationBoost moraleIncrease efficiencyObtain feedbackBoth Downward & Upward Communications are collectively called “Vertical Communication”
9. c) Horizontal/Literal communicationHorizontal communication normally involves coordinating information, and allows people withthe same or similar rank in an organization to cooperate or collaborate. Communication amongemployees at the same level is crucial for the accomplishment of work.Horizontal Communication is essential for:Solving problemsAccomplishing tasksImproving teamworkBuilding goodwillBoosting efficiency
10. Q4. Explain the different barriers to listening.List the differences between Discriminative listening and comprehension listening.Ans.Barriers to listening A pointed out earlier, listening is not easy and there are a number ofobstacles that stand in the way of effective listening, both within outside the workplace. These barriers may be categorized as follows.1. Physiological Barriers: - some people may have genuine hearing problems or deficiencies thatprevent them from listening properly. Once detected,date andgenerally be treated. Some people may have difficulties in processinginformation, ormemory related problem which make them poor listeners. Another physiological barrier is rapidthough. Listeners have the ability to process information at the rate of approximately 500 words perminute, whereas speaker talks at around 120 words per minute. Since listeners are left with a lot ofspare time, there attention may not be focused on words the speaker is saying, but may underelsewhere.2. Physical Barriers: - These referred to distraction in the averment such as the sound of an airconditioner, cigarette smoke, or an overheated room, which interfere with thelistening process. They could also be in the form of information overload.For example, if you are in meeting with your manager and the phone rings and your mobile beeps atthe same time to let u know that you have the message. It is very hard to listen carefully to what isbeing said.3. Attitudinal Barriers :- pre occupation which personal or work related problems can make itdifficult to focus one‟s attention completely on what speaker is saying, even what is being said is ofcrime importance. Another common attitudinal barrier is egocentrism or the belief that you are moreknowledgeable when the speaker and that you have nothing new to have to learn from his ideas.People with this kind of close minded attitude may very poor listeners.4. Wrong Assumptions:- The success of communication depend on the both the sender and receiver,as we have seen in an earlier unit. It is wrong to assume that communication is the sole responsibilityof the sender or the speaker and those listeners have no role to play. Such an assumption can be bigbarrier to listeningFor example, a brilliant speech or presentation, however welldelivered, is wasted if the receiver is notlistening at the other end.
11. Listeners have as much responsibility as speakers to make the communicationsuccessful, by payingattention seeking clarifications and giving feedback. Another wrong assumption is to think thatlistening is a passive activity, in which a listener merely the thoughts of the speaker. On the contrary,real listening or active listening is hard work – it requires speaking sometimes to ask question, agreeor disagree with the speaker, give feedback etc.5. Cultural Barriers: - accents can be barriers to listening, since they interfere with the ability tounderstand the meaning of words that are pronounced differently. The problem of different accentsarises not only between cultures, but also within a culture. For example, in a country like India wherethere is enormous cultural diversity, accents may differ even between regions states. Another type ofcultural barrier is doddering cultural values. Theimportanceattached to listening and speaking differs in westen and oriental cultures.Generally,Orientals regard listening and silence as almost a virtue, whereas Attach greater importance tospeaking. Therefore this would interfere withthelistening process, when two people from these two different cultures communicate.6. Gender Barriers: - communication research has shown that gender can be barrier to listening.Studies have revealed that men and women listen very differently and for different purposes. Womenare more likely to listen for the emotion behind a speaker‟s words, when men listen more for the factsand the content.Example: - salespersons giving a demonstration of a new type of office equipment may be asked bytwo colleagues if the equipment will work without ant problem and respond by saying “Sure.” Amale user may take his at face value; whereas the female user may detect some hesitation in hisvoice. This is because the male user listens for the content of the message, where as the female userlisten for the tone of the message.7. Lack of Training: - listening is not an inborn skill. People are not born good listeners. Theyhave to develop the art of listening through practice and training. Lack of training in listing skills isan important barrier to listing, in the Indian Context.8. Bad Listening Habits: - Most people are very average listeners who have developed poorlistening habits that are hard to say and that act as barriers to listening. For example,some people have the habits of “faking” attention, or trying to look like a listeners, in order toimpress the speaker and to assure him that they are paying attention. Others may tend to listen toeach and every fact and, as a result, miss out on the main point.
12. Q5. Discuss the principles of business writing? Ans. Principles of Business WritingInitial ThoughtsQuite a number of writing principles have made the rounds over time and I hope my contributionhelps to further sharpen these principles; first off, what Ive found to add tremendous benefit to theseprinciples is the art of passive vs. active writing.The PrinciplesEach of these will be explained in a few sentences...Stay FocusedFirst off, you need to adjust the scope and scale of your writing to influence the behavior of yourreaders. This is the first step towards sharpening the focus of your writing.Scope - adjust the breadth (restricting yourself to the subject matter) and depth (level of detailincluded) of your material.Scale - length of your writing. The larger your scale, the higher the need to plan your writing.Behavior - action or inaction of your reader after reading your material.Identify your PurposeNext is to identify the purpose of your writing and connect it to your readers‟ expectations. Avoidbuzzwords and simply use a „purpose analysis model‟ (usually sieved from questions asked whentaking your initial brief) to gather your thoughts in 3 simple ways:Identify your personal values and ambitionsIdentify your readers expectationsFind areas of overlap emphasize recurring commonalities and address all discrepancies.
13. Explain your MeaningAlways explain the meaning of whatever you write, whilst making sure readers can also relate!! :0)For example, answering the question „what does A mean to B‟ in a business stakeholderscommunication is a simple, yet effective way of connecting with your readers. If you are looking fora simple way to put this into writing, use the „[Statement], meaning [consequence]„ format. Simpleillustrations include:We are facing stiffer competition in our market, meaning we need to develop new productsThis logistics team achieved its set targets, meaning team members have earned a bonus.Substantiate, substantiate, substantiate!!!Your writing will gain credibility when it is substantiated with facts. Always make sure to verifyyour factual statements before publishing. ;0)My approach will be to use focus as the lead principle. This will guide you when building a text fromscratch. Once the main structure of the text has been prepared, your substantiating details can then beadded.Always build a StructureThree useful indicators include the use of sequence, consistency and balance to build a structure thatguides the reader though your text…Sequence - order in which your writing unfolds;Consistency - using the same style and the same words when referring to the same object;Balance - your sentence or paragraph must be long enough to maintain a readers interest but not toolong. Consider sentences that are around 2 to 3 lines and paragraphs that hover around 6 to 10 lines.Provide enough writing ClarityEnsuring clarity when youre writing is presenting your piece so that the readers‟ thinking revolvesaround a compelling idea.Total clarity is therefore achieved during editing, since this is where you create a distance betweenyourself and the material; i.e. reviewing and re-writing it. This puts your writing into perspective and
14. allows proper evaluation of the pros and cons of your work, a definite litmus test to check whetherthe initial five principles are self-evident.Remain Humble!!!Be humble while writing and editing, and always critically judge your work first. Though this has noeffect on how good the technicality of your work is, the truth is that most people are sick of readinganything that has an arrogant or condescending tinge to it. A tinge you definitely want to avoid ifyour thoughts are to be heard via your writing.
15. Q6. Explain the advantages of oral communication with the help of suitable example.Ans. Oral CommunicationOral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing witheach other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussionsare all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when thecommunication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to facecommunication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build arapport and trust.Advantages of Oral CommunicationThere is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it isinterpersonal.There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowingchanges in the decisions previously taken.The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can bemade quickly without any delay.Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts.Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes andmany issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over.Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy.Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale amongorganizational employees.Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidentialinformation/matter.
16. Set 2Q1. List the differences between extensive reading and intensive reading?Ans: Differences between extensive reading and intensive reading Intensive readingIt is related to further progress in language learning under the teachers guidance. It provides a basisfor explaining difficulties of structure and for extending knowledge of vocabulary and idioms. Itwill provide material for developing greater control of the language and speech and writing. Studentswill study short stories and extracts from novels, chosen for the standard of difficultly of thelanguage and for the interest they hold for this particular group of students. Intensive reading isgenerally at a slower speed and requires a higher degree of understanding to develop and refine wordstudy skills, enlarge passive vocabulary, reinforce skills related to sentence structure, increase activevocabulary, distinguish among thesis, fact, supportive and non-supportive details, provide sociocultural insights. Extensive readingIt develops at the students own pace according to individual ability. It will be selected at a lowerlevel of difficulty than that for intensive reading. Where frequency word counts are available for thelanguage being learned, extensive reading will conform to a lower frequency word count thanintensive reading. Material will be selected whose choice of structure is habitually less complex andwhose vocabulary range is less extensive. The purpose of extensive reading is to train the students toread directly and fluently in the target language for enjoyment without the aid of the teacher. Wheregraded texts are available, structures in texts for extensive reading will be already familiar, and newitems of vocabulary will be introduced slowly in such a way that their meaning can be deduced fromcontext or quickly as certained. The student will be encouraged to make intelligent guesses at themeaning of unfamiliar items. Material consists of authentic short stories and plays, or informativeor controversial articles from newspapers and magazines. A few adaptations of vocabulary andstructure will be made. The style of writing should entail a certain amount of repetition withoutmonotony. Novelties of vocabulary should not coincide with difficulties of structure. It meansreading in quantity and in order to gain a general understanding of what is read. It is intended todevelop good reading habits, to build up knowledge of vocabulary and structure and to encourage aliking for reading, Increase total comprehension, enable students to achieve independence in basicskill development, acquaint the student with relevant socio-cultural material, and encouragerecreational reading.
17. Q2. Explain the different advantages and disadvantages of intranet.Ans: Advantages and disadvantages of intranet are as follows: Advantages of IntranetThere are number of advantages of intranet discussed below:Intranet‟s offering workforce productivity which can help user to find and observe informationvery fast. User may also use applications according to their roles and tasks. Through webbrowser a user can get access to entire contents of any website from anywhere or any time.Intranet also increase the ability of employees by performing their job confidently very fast, andaccurately. Intranet permits business companies to share out information to employees according to theirneed or requirements. Employees may also link to appropriate data at their expediency.The best advantage offered by intranet is communications within an organization or businesscompany, landscape or portrait. Intranets are helpful to converse planned initiative that has aninternational reach all through the organization. The well known examples of transportation arechat, email, and blogs. Actual world example of Intranet is Nestle had a number of foodprocessing plants.The most significant advantage of Intranet is Web publishing which permits burdensomecorporate knowledge to be continued and effortlessly access all through the company using Webtechnologies and hypermedia. The familiar examples of web publishing consist of training, newsfeed, company polices, documents, and employee manual. Intranet can be accessed generalinternet standards such as CGI applications, Flash files, and Acrobat files. Each unit can bring upto date the online copy of a document and intranet always provides the most recent version toemployees. IntranetOffering business operations and administration solutions because it also being used as aplatform of mounting and organizing applications across the internet world.Another advantage of Intranet is time saving because there is no need to maintain physicaldocuments such as procedure manual, requisition forms, and internet phone list.
18. Disadvantages of IntranetIntranet has great features for interconnected manners but has some disadvantages too Management does need to stop control of specific information, this problem can be minimized but with appropriate prudence. The other disadvantage of Intranet is security issue Intranet gathered everything in one location which is really good but if it is not prearranged then you will spoil everything. The cost of intranet is very high but has lots of advantages after implementing.
19. Q3. List the different principles of business letter writing.Ans. Principles of Writing Business Letters:The format of a business letter is different from other styles. Expect the tone to be less casual andthe information kept straight to the point. Keep the intended audience in mind at all times. Likeall types of writing, however, planning is a must. First organize your thoughts, and then put pento paper or fingers to the keyboard Tone The tone of a business letter is formal. Avoid casual words and slang. Write the letter as if you applying for a job and not as if you were talking to a friend. Avoid phrases such as, "you know what I mean," "its cool," and "you know that." Stay away from the light, conversational tone found in emails and messages to friends. This will help you project professionalism in your writing. Intent and Clarity Jump right in and state the intent of your letter in as few words as possible. Write short and clear sentences. Do not use complicated words when a simpler word will do. Include just enough information so that your message is clear and concise, while still allowing the sentences to flow and maintaining a tactful and polite tone. Pronoun Use Writing a business letter in the first and second person is acceptable. Using "I" and "you" help to create a connection between the author and reader of the message. When printing your message on paper that includes your businesss letterhead, use the pronoun "we." The usage of this word could imply that the opinions or information presented in the letter are those of the entire company rather than just you. Format The proper format of a business letter includes the date, addresses of the writer and recipient, greeting, body, closing and signature. The recipient may not view your letter as professional if each of these sections is not included.
20. Q4. Write short notes on:(a) Corporate identity advertising (b) institutional advertisingAns. (a) Corporate identity advertisingAdvertising signatures should be presented in a consistent manner, clearly conveying federalsponsorship of the message. Set out here are guidelines on how government policy on the use ofthe federal signature and the “Canada” word mark should be applied in advertising. Theseguidelines are intended to promote clear and consistent identification of the sponsor, whileallowing flexibility on how signatures are being applied. The guidelines were developed to assistall those involved in the planning and preparation of government-sponsored advertising.This section should be used with Chapter 470, “Federal Identity Program”, and Chapter 480,„Government Communications Policy” of the Administrative Policy Manual. Official languagesrequirements with respect to advertising are set out in Chapter 470.Section1. 1, “Design”, of the FIP Manual contains comprehensive guidelines on the use ofsymbols and signatures, as well as information on the availability of proofs for reproduction.Guideline examplesThese guidelines include typical examples to show how the signature and wordmark should beapplied in federal advertising. Most of the examples stem from actual advertisements; some ofthem were modified to reflect the guidelines.ScopeGuidelines set out the use of corporate signatures in government-sponsored advertising withinCanada. They apply to print advertising, outdoor and transit advertising, television and radioadvertising, as well as to paid announcements.Advertising signaturesDescribed below are design criteria that apply to advertising signatures in print advertising,outdoor and transit advertising, and in paid announcements. These criteria pertain to the layout,the relative size and position of the signature and word mark, as well as the use of colour.
21. Federal signatureThree aspects determine the design of a signature: layout, type size and typeface. This involveschoosing the appropriate layout (e.g. one-, two- or three-line signature), the type size, and thesuitable typeface (i.e. Helvetica light, regular or medium). Described below is the effect of thesevariables on the design of a signature.LayoutThe signature layout should be chosen on the basis of the signature‟s length (i.e. number ofwords) and the space allocated for it in the advertisement. Basically, it is a question of whether asignature should be displayed horizontally, or in a more compact, vertical layout.Where horizontal space is limited, the choice of layout is directly related to the signature‟s typesize. To fit a particular width and to permit the use of a large enough type size, certain signaturesmay need to be displayed in three or possibly four lines. (b)Institutional advertisingInstitutional advertising is marketing designed to promote a company rather than a specific goodor service. It can be designed to make the public more aware of a company or to improve thereputation and image of an existing company. Depending on the company, this can be a form ofbrand advertising.Many forms of advertising are about promoting products. This can involve promoting a newproduct so that the public is aware of its existence, or trying to persuade the public to buy moreof an existing product. Institutional advertising instead promotes the company itself. Oneexample would be a grocery chain running advertisements which stressed the general quality orlow prices of its food, rather than detailing specific offers it was running.Some forms of institutional advertising are so geared towards promoting a positive image thatthey effectively discourage sales of a product to some extent. For example, alcohol firms mayrun commercials warning against excessive drinking or driving while under the influence. Suchcommercials are usually designed to improve the image of the company, making it seem moretrustworthy or responsible.
22. In some cases, institutional advertising is the same thing as brand awareness advertising. This iswhere the advertising promotes a particular brand rather than the product itself. For example, abanking group might run commercials promoting one of its banks as being dynamic and exciting,while promoting a sister bank as being particularly helpful to customers. In both cases this isdifferent than promoting a specific service, for example by advertising a low rate on loans fornew customers.It is also possible for institutional advertising to promote an industry rather than a particularcompany. This will usually be carried out by an industry association. It happens most often inindustries where many of the companies are small firms without the budgets to carry outmajor advertising, particularly in national media. To give a hypothetical example, most willsprepared by lawyers are done so by small law firms with only a few offices. A trade associationfor inheritance lawyers could carry out institutional advertising by putting together a televisioncommercial which promotes the importance of getting a will, then lists a website which refersviewers to lawyers in their area.Institutional advertising can cause problems for marketing analysis. Where a commercial is for aspecific product, marketers can track how it affects sales and see how effective theadvertising was. With institutional advertising, the link between the advertising and the effect onbusiness is much weaker and may take longer to show any effects.
23. Q5. Discuss the different types of business reports?Ans. Different Types of Business ReportsThis particular article I located discusses the different types of reports used for communication inthe business world. Choosing the right type of report also requires a smart analysis. The writermust decide what type to use based on the information that he or she is trying to communicate.Also the writer must take into consideration their intended audience. Is the audience expectingthe report to be in a specific format? Are they used to receiving information in one way? andwhich format will convey the message in the most appropriate way? Finally, how formal orinformal should the report beReports, according to this article, can be classified as according to function or according toformality? Reports according to function can also be subdivided into the following: Informational reports. Analytical reports Research reportsWhereas reports according to formality can be subdivided into the following: Statutory reports Non statutory or voluntary reportsThe article goes further into outlining other types or reports such as information, analytical,research, statutory, non-statutory, special, and routine reports.Information reports are solely to provide facts without suggestion or personal opinions.Whatever one‟s findings is that is what reported. These facts are given without personalexplanation or, again, any suggestions.Analytical reports are one step further as they contain facts alongside analytical explanation ofthese facts. They contain a sort of a narration of facts and collected data. They also contain aconclusion or a set of interpretations reached by the writer.
24. Q6. List the different steps involved in report preparationAns. Steps in writing a report1. Define the purpose of your report2. Define the readers of your report3. Define your sources of data4. Gather and analyze your data5. Decide on your recommendations6. Decide on the key points to include in the report7. Decide on the best order for your points8. Decide on the best structure for the report9. Select data to support your key points10. Write a draft11. Prepare tables and graphics12. Edit and proof-read the report13. Write an executive summary14. Format the report professionally15. Make a title page and table of contents