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Basic linux architecture


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  • 1. 1
  • 2. 1. What is FHS2. What is Structure of Root Directory3. Discuss in detail all directories4. Conclusion2
  • 3. ◦ Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the File Hierarchy System (FHS)is a file system structure, which defines the names, locations,and permissions for many file types and directories.3
  • 4. 4u s e rh o m eb in s b in libu s r e tc b in s b in/
  • 5. 1. / – Root Every single file and directory starts from the root directory.2. /bin – User Binaries Contains binary executables. Common Linux commands you need to use in single-user modesare located under this directory. Commands used by all the users of the system are located here. For example:/bin/bash, ps, ls, ping, cp. 3. /sbin – System Binaries Just like /bin, /sbin also contains binary executables. But, the Linux commands located under this directory are usedtypically by system administrator, for system maintenance purpose. For example: iptables, reboot, fdisk, ifconfig, swapon5
  • 6. 64. /etc – Configuration Files Contains configuration files required by all programs. This also contains startup and shutdown shell scripts used to start/stopindividual programs. For example: /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/logrotate.conf5. /dev – Device Files Contains device files. These include terminal devices, usb, or any device attached to thesystem. For example: /dev/tty1, /dev/usbmon0, /dev/sda , /dev/hdb.6. /proc – Process Information Contains information about system process. This is a pseudo filesystem contains information about running process.For example: /proc/{pid} directory contains information about theprocess with that particular pid. This is a virtual filesystem with text information about system resources.For example: /proc/uptime
  • 7. 77. /var – Variable Files var stands for variable files.Content of the files that are expected to grow can be found underthis directory. This includes — system log files (/var/log); packages and database files (/var/lib); emails (/var/mail); print queues (/var/spool);lock files (/var/lock); temp files needed across reboots (/var/tmp);8. /tmp – Temporary Files Directory that contains temporary files created by system andusers. Files under this directory are deleted when system is rebooted.
  • 8. 89. /usr – User Programs Contains binaries, libraries, documentation, and source-code for second level programs. /usr/bin contains binary files for user programs. If you can’tfind a user binary under /bin, look under /usr/bin. Forexample: at, awk, cc, less, scp /usr/sbin contains binary files for system administrators. Ifyou can’t find a system binary under /sbin, look under/usr/sbin. For example: atd, cron, sshd, useradd, userdel /usr/lib contains libraries for /usr/bin and /usr/sbin /usr/local contains users programs that you install fromsource. For example, when you install apache from source,it goes under /usr/local/apache2
  • 9. 10. /home – Home Directories Home directories for all users to store their personal files. For example: /home/shivam, /home/nikita11. /boot – Boot Loader Files Contains boot loader related files. Kernel intrd, vmlinux, grub files are located under /boot For example: initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic, vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic12. /lib – System Libraries Contains library files that supports the binaries located under /binand /sbin Library filenames are either ld* or lib*.so.* For example:,
  • 10. 1013. /opt – Optional add-on Applications opt stands for optional. Contains add-on applications from individual vendors. add-on applications should be installed under either /opt/ or /opt/sub-directory.14. /mnt – Mount Directory Temporary mount directory where sysadmins can mount f Temporary mount directory where sysadmins can mount filesystems.15. /media – Removable Media Devices Temporary mount directory for removable devices. For examples, /media/cdrom for CD-ROM; /media/floppy forfloppy drives; /media/cdrecorder for CD writer
  • 11.  Manage Directories and Files in Linux Understand the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard(FHS) Identify File Types in the Linux System Change Directories and List Directory Contents Create and View Files Manage Files and Directories Search File Content11
  • 12. Thankspresented by: Shivam TiwariAsst. S/W Engineer12