Maslow Need HierarchyComparative Study Presentation By: Rohit Kushwaha
What is NeedA Deficiency that a person experience at a particular time.A need is something that is necessary for organisms to live ahealthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants. Needs canbe objective and physical, such as food, or they can be subjectiveand psychological, such as the need for self-esteem. On a sociallevel, needs are sometimes controversial.Theories of Need and Motivation • Maslow Need Hierarchy • McClelland Three Need Theory • Alderfer’s ERG Model • Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory • McGregor X and Y Theory
Maslow Hierarchy of Need Theory proposes that peopleare motivated by multiple need and that needs exist inHierarchical order. Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological
Physiological NeedPhysiological need are the biological needs required to preserve human life, theseneeds include need for Food , Clothing, Shelter. As pointed out by Maslow “ Man lives by bread alone, when there is nobread” Safety NeedOnce physiological need is well gratified, the safety need begins to manifest. Theseinclude 1 protection from physiological danger i.e. fire, accident etc. 2 Economic Safety i.e. Fringe, Health, Insurance programme etc. 3 Desire for orderly, predictable environment. 4 Desire to know the limit of acceptable behavior.Maslow stressed emotional as well as physical safety. Social NeedWhen lower need are satisfied , the social and love need become importantmotivator of behaviour . Man wants to belong, to associate, to gain acceptance, togive and receive friendship and affection.
Esteem NeedEsteem need are two fold in nature: Self Esteem and esteem of Others. Self-esteem includes Self-Confidence, achievement , Self-Respect, Knowledge. Thesecond group include one’s reputation, need for status, for recognition etc. Self Actualization Need “Self Actualization is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming”There are those need for realizing one’s own potentialities for continued self-development, for being creative in the broadest sense of the term. Like amusician must make a music, an artist must make a art, a poet must write.
Alderfer’s ERG ModelRohitKushwahaRoll no . 309 Clayton p. Alderfer
Existence Need – Need Require to preserve Human life. They include all of theMaslow termed as Physiological need relating to material safety.Relatedness needs – They refer to all socially intended needs i.e. how peoplerelates to their surrounding social environment. These include the need formeaningful social and interpersonal relationship.Growth Need – They reflect the individual Desire to be self-confident, productive, and Creative, the desire to engage in tasks that require thefull utilization of abilities and that develop additional capabilities/Skill.
Self Actualization Growth Need Esteem Relatedness Social Need Safety Existance Need PhysiologicalMaslow’s Need Hierarchy Alderfer’s Need Hierarchy
Comparative view of Maslow’s and Alderfer’s Theory• Alderfer’s ERG theory is less restrictive as compared with Maslow.• Alderfer’s theory represent the simplification of Maslow need priority theory.• Alderfer has removed the restriction about the activation of need in any hierarchical order, he said that more then one theory can be activated at same point of time.
Maslow Need Hierarchy Self- Esteem Actualizatio Social Need n Security NeedPhysiologic Need al need E R G
Herzberg’s Two Factor TheoryRohitKushwahaRoll no . 309 Frederick Irving Herzberg
• This theory is also known as Dual Factor or Motivation- Hygiene theory of Motivation. The theory originally was derived by analyzing “critical incident” written by 200 engineers and accountant in 9 different company in Pittsburgh area, USA. He researched and ask them about there liked or Disliked about there job. Herzberg called it as Motivation and Maintenance factor respectively• Hygiene Factor (Maintenance Factor)• Motivation Factor
Hygiene Factor - Hygiene factor represent the need to removepain from the environment they are not intrinsic part of job butthey are related to the condition under which a job is performed.They are environment related factor. Like Hygiene they do notlead to growth but only prevent deterioration.Motivators – Motivators are related with positive feeling of anemployee about the job. They are related with the content of thejob. They make person satisfied with there job . If managers wishto increase motivation and performance above the average level,they must enrich the work and increase a person’s freedom onthe job. Motivators are necessary to keep job satisfaction and jobperformance high.
Maslow Herzberg• Maslow formulated • Herzberg formulated Theory in term of need. Theory in term of goal or reward• Theory is Descriptive. • Theory is perspective.• Payment is motivator if it • Payment is not motivator. satisfy need.• Relevant for all worker. • Probably more relevant for White collar and• All needs are motivator at professional worker. some time. • Only some need are motivators
McClelland Achievement TheoryRohitKushwahaRoll no . 309 David McClelland
David C. McClelland studied achievement phenomenon for over 20years at Harvard University and proposed Achievement motivationtheory. According to McClelland there are three important need whichhelps to understand human motivation in organization. • Power Need • Achievement Need • Affiliation Need
Power Need – this is the need to dominate and control people. Powerspeak about ability to manipulate or control the activities of other to suits oneown purposes. People with high need of power look for position ofleadership. They like to set goals make decision and direct activities.Affiliation need – the need for affiliation is an social need forcompanionship and support and for developing meaningful relationship withpeople person with high need for affiliation are motivated by job that demandfrequent interaction with co-worker.Achievement need – This is the need for challenges, for personalaccomplishment and success in competitive situation .
Herzberg Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factor Motivation factor Self- Esteem Actualizatio Social Need n Security NeedPhysiologic Need al need Affiliation -- Power -- Achievements
McGregor X and Y theoryRohitKushwahaRoll no . 309 Douglas McGregor
Douglas McGregor proposed basically two Distinct sets of assumption aboutwhat motivate people basically negative, labeled theory X and other basicallypositive, labeled Theory Y. Theory X Assumption Theory Y AssumptionEmployee dislike work and will try to Employee can view work as being asavoid it. natural as rest or playSince employee dislike work they must People will exercise self Direction andbe controlled, threatened with Self Control if they are committed topunishment to achieve goal the objective.Employee will seek formal direction Employee do not avoid responsibilitywhenever possible and avoidresponsibility.Employee wants security above all in People want security but they alsotheir work . have need such as self actualization and esteem need.
Self Actualiza tion Esteem Theory Y Social Safety Theory XPhysiological
• Theory X – Theory x contends that people have an inherent dislike of work and avoid it whenever possible. Most people being lazy ,prefer to be directed, want to avoid responsibility and are relatively unambitious. They are controlled even threatened with punishment to get them to work toward organizational goal.• Theory Y – Theory Y present very much more optimistic view of human nature. It assumes that hardworking, creative and productive. They will direct themselves toward objective if there achievements are rewarded. Most of people have capacity to accept the responsibility
Herzberg Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factor Motivation factor Self- Esteem Actualizatio Social Need n Security NeedPhysiologic Need al need Theory Y Theory X Affiliation -- Power -- Achievements