THEORIES & MODELSOF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR REPRESENTATIONS OF HOW THE REAL WORLD FUNCTIONS Help us organize our knowledge Summarize diverse findings & highlight relationships Tell us what to pay attention to (and what to ignore) Help us understand why events occur as they do (causal relationships) Give guidance about how to bring about change
THREE KINDS OF THEORIES/MODELS DESCRIPTIVE 80+ % PREDICTIVE 15+ % PRESCRIPTIVE < 5 %
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONSFAYOL (16) PLANNING ORGANIZING LEADING CONTROLLING
MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIESMINTZBERG MANAGERIAL ACTIVITY IS CHARACTERIZED BY VARIETY, FRAGMENTATION, AND BREVITY LITTLE TIME FOR QUIET REFLECTION CRISES ARE INTERSPERSED WITH TRIVIAL EVENTS MUST BE ABLE TO SHIFT GEARS QUICKLY ONLY SPENDS AN AVERAGE OF NINE MINUTES PER ACTIVITY THE MANAGER PERFORMS A GREAT DEAL OF WORK AT AN UNRELENTING PACE IN ONE DAY: PROCESSED 36 PIECES OF MAIL ATTENDED 8 MEETINGS TOOK A TOUR OF THE PLANT MET WITH UNHAPPY CUSTOMERS
MANAGEMENT SKILLSKATZ (74) TECHNICAL SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE & PROFICIENCY ABILITY TO WORK WITH THINGS, TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (A FOCUS ON WHAT IS DONE) HUMAN WORK WITH AND THROUGH OTHER PEOPLE & GROUPS MOTIVATES, COMMUNICATES, AND RESOLVES CONFLICTS (A FOCUS ON HOW SOMETHING IS DONE) CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDS THE CORPORATION AS A WHOLE; SEES THE “BIG PICTURE” FUTURE-ORIENTED….THINKS STRATEGICALLY ANALYTIC AND DECISION-MAKING ABILITY INFORMATION PROCESSING & PLANNING ABILITIES (A FOCUS ON WHY SOMETHING IS DONE)
EFFECTIVE v. SUCCESSFUL MANAGERSLuthans (88) STUDIED FOUR MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES: TRADITIONAL MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES Plans, sets objectives, strategies, makes decisions, oversees controls, etc. COMMUNICATION ACTIVITIES Exchanges relevant information inside the firm, stays in touch with others HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES Inspires and motivates, involves staff in decisions, educates & develops staff NETWORKING ACTIVITIES Interacts with outsiders, is politically & socially active within the organization
RESEARCH FINDINGS ONEFFECTIVE v. SUCCESSFUL MANAGERS N = 450 Percentage of time devoted to each activity MGRL ACTIVITYAVERAGE EFFECTIVE SUCCESS TRADITIONAL 32 % 19 % 13 % COMMUNICATION 29 % 44 % 28 % HUMAN RESOURCE 20 % 26 % 11 % NETWORKING 19 % 11 % 48 %
EFFECTIVE MANAGERS Quality and quantity of performance achievement Satisfaction and commitment of workers SUCCESSFUL MANAGERS Speed of promotion within the organization CONCLUSION: Promotions aren’t necessarily based on performance… but are related to social and political activity in the firm.
THE MANAGERIAL GRIDBLAKE & MOUTON (64)
SEARCHING FOR THE“PRINCIPLES” OF MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT THEORIES ARE DERIVED FROM: INDIVIDUAL OBSERVATION PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AND OBSERVATION CASE SITUATIONS AND STUDIES ARCHIVAL RECORDS AND DOCUMENTS SURVEY RESEARCH INTERVIEWS QUESTIONNAIRES EXPERIMENTATION LABORATORY FIELD NATURAL
EVALUATING RESEARCH IS IT VALID? DOES THE STUDY MEASURE WHAT IT CLAIMS TO MEASURE? IS IT RELIABLE? ARE THE MEASUREMENTS CONSISTENT WHEN REPEATED? IS IT GENERALIZABLE? ARE THE FINDINGS APPLICABLE TO OTHER SITUATIONS? IS IT ETHICALLY APPROPRIATE? WERE PRIVACY & CONFIDENTIALITY MAINTAINED IN THE STUDY?
OBSERVATION & CASES ADVANTAGES Probes one situation in great depth Rich in details, clues and possible causes Facilitates discovery of unexpected relationships Starting point for theory development DISADVANTAGES Selective observation and bias…information is easily distorted/lost What we “know” about a case is limited by the data available/provided Observation/data gathering is time consuming…when do we stop? Data are not easily quantifiable…relationships can’t be tested Generalizations are not possible from a sample of one
SURVEY RESEARCH ADVANTAGES Questions can be standardized Collects information independent of the researcher Allows quantitative analyses Sampling of populations is possible DISADVANTAGES Often identifies symptoms (and emotions), rather than causes Requires expertise to design…and time to administer Objectivity of responses Questions may “shape” the responses Social desirability bias Confidentiality and sensitive questions Issue of non-response Little control is really evident One-shot studies Hard to really prove cause-effect relationships
EXPERIMENTS ADVANTAGES Can infer “cause-effect” relationships Can be repeated…checked for consistency DISADVANTAGES Difficult to control all the variables Realism is lost in the laboratory Precision is lost in the field No controls over natural experiments Manipulation may affect worker productivity When is the best time to take an observation/measurement? Subject loss Subject bias Generalizability to other organizations/settings