MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS
Dr Rohan Bhoil
CONTENTS
Introduction
Methods of studying mandibular movements
Importance
Factors which regulate jaw motion
Mandibula...
INTRODUCTION
Mandibular
movements are
complex.
METHODS OF STUDYING MANDIBULAR
MOVEMENTS
Direct Clinical Observation
Sophisticated Electronic
Instrumentation :
Facial Cli...
SIGNIFICANCE OF UNDERSTANDING
MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS
•Developing Tooth Forms For Dental
Restorations,
• Understanding Occlus...
FACTORS WHICH REGULATE JAW
MOTION
•The Neuromuscular Role
•Contacts Of Opposing Teeth
•Anatomy And Physiology Of TMJ's
•Th...
NEUROMUSCULAR ROLE
Mastication is a
programmed event
residing in a
‘chewing centre’
located within the
brain stem, probabl...
The cerebellum
ensures a
coordinated
response from
muscles during
mandibular
movements, by
acting as a feedback
control me...
Loss of
propioceptors, locate
d principally in
periodontal
ligaments, eliminates
an important source
of control in
positio...
INFLUENCE OF OPPOSING TOOTH
CONTACTS
Opposing tooth surface
contacts are related to
• occlusal surfaces of teeth
• muscles...
INFLUENCE OF THE
TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTS
Mandibular
movements except
opening and
closing movements
at the terminal
hinge ...
ROTATION:
The movement of a rigid body in which the parts move in
circular paths with their centers on a fixed line called...
TMJ
Rotation - in the
lower
compartment of
the TMJ.
The translatory or
gliding movements
- in the upper
compartment.
• A complex joint.
• GINGLYMOARTHRODIAL JOINT.
• TMJ consists of 4 main structures:-
– Condyle
– Temporal bone (Squamous p...
THE TEMPORO MANDIBULAR JOINT
Articulating part of TMJ
includes convex head of
mandibular condyle and the
convexoconcave pa...
ARTICULAR DISC
SAGITTAL PLANE ANTERIOR VIEW
LIGAMENTS OF TMJ
1. Fibrous capsule
2. Lateral temporomandibular ligament
3. and two accessory ligaments i.e.
sphenomandib...
TMJ LIGAMENTS
ACCESSORY LIGAMENTS
Stylomandibular ligament limits excessive protrusive
movement of mandible.
MUSCULAR INVOLVEMENT IN JAW
MOTION
ROLE OF MUSCLES
There are four main
muscles of mastication
Masseter, Temporalis and
the Medial and Lateral
Pterygoids.
All...
MASSETER
Functions:-
Elevation
Superficial portion: protrusion
Deep portion : stabilization against articular eminence
TEMPORALIS:-
It is a significant positioning
muscle of the mandible
• It has 3 types of fibres
– Anterior fibers – or vert...
MEDIAL PTERYGOID
FUNCTION:
• Elevation and protrusion.
• Unilateral contraction –mediotrusive movement
LATERAL PTERYGOID
Function
Inferior Lateral Pterygoid:-
• Simultaneous contraction:
depression and protrusion
• Unilateral contraction:
medi...
THE SUPRAHYOID MUSCLES
These depress the
Mandible, if the hyoid
bone remains fixed.
Thus help when the
mouth is opened
wid...
MOVEMENTS
OPENING &
CLOSING
Lateral Pterygoid is the main
muscle responsible for opening.
Opening of mouth is limited by
the superio...
PROTRUSION AND RETRACTION
Protrusion is brought about
by simultaneous
contraction of the lateral
and medial pterygoids of
...
CHEWING
Chewing or
side to side
movements
occur due to
alternate
contraction of
muscles of
both sides.
CERTAIN BASICS : JAW MOTION
MANDIBULAR ROTATION
In opening and
closing and
lateral
movements.
AXES OF MANDIBULAR ROTATION
Rotation occurs around three
axes: transverse, vertical and
sagittal, that move constantly
dur...
MOVEMENT ABOUT A
HORIZONTAL AXIS, AS SEEN IN A
HINGE AXIS OPENING.
MOVEMENT OCCURS AROUND
A VERTICAL AXIS DURING A
LATERAL EXCURSION.
THE MANDIBLE ALSO ROTATES
AROUND A SAGITTAL AXIS
WHEN ONE SIDE DROPS DOWN
DURING A LATERAL EXCURSION
BASIC JAW POSITIONS
Centric Occlusion
it is defined as maximum intercuspation of teeth.
Centric Relation
the most posterio...
• CENTRIC RELATION (GPT-8) :
the maxillomandibular relationship in which the condyles
articulate with the thinnest avascul...
BASIC JAW POSITIONS….
Centric relation is used to transfer position
of mandible in relation to maxilla, to an
articulator....
TERMINAL HINGE AXIS
When the condyles are in their most superior position in the
articular fossae and the mouth is purely ...
Condylar guidance – “Mandibular guidance
generated by the condyle and articular disc
traversing the contour of the glenoid...
Retruded Contact
Position
- guided occlusal
relationship occurring at
the most retruded
position of the condyles
in the jo...
MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS
Mandible performs
habitual and border movements
opening and closing movements
protrusive and lateral ...
THE CLINICAL UNDERSTANDING OF
MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT
PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES.
Factor of muscle pull related to positioning of...
THE ENVELOPE OF MOTION.
Defining the limits of
possible mandibular motion
and certain mandibular
reference positions.
Reco...
Envelope of motion in
the sagittal plane.
•CO, Centric occlusion;
•CR, centric relation;
•MHO, maximum hinge-opening
posit...
SAGITTAL PLANE BORDER &
FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENTS:-1. Posterior opening border.
2. Anterior opening border.
3. Superior contact...
Posterior Opening Border Movements:-
1st STAGE
• Condyles: terminal hinge
position
• Pure rotational movement
2ND STAGE
• ...
1st STAGE
• Opening range: 20-25mm
• The movements are the
only repeatable hinge axis
movement of mandible.
2ND STAGE
• Co...
Anterior Opening Border Movements:-
• Generated when closure
accompanied by contraction
of inferior lateral pterygoid.
• N...
Superior Contact Border Movements
• Throughout this entire border movement tooth contact
is present.
• It depends on:-
– A...
Envelope of
motion in the
frontal plane
•CO, Centric
occlusion
•MO, point of
maximum
opening of the
jaws
• Rest, postural
...
Left lateral superior movement
Left lateral opening movement
Right lateral superior border movement
Right lateral opening border movement
• Maximum movements-
Opening : 50-60 mm
Lateral : 10 to 12 mm
Protrusive : 8 to 11 mm
And retrusive range is
about 1 mm.
Functional Movements:-
• Occur during functional activity of mandible.
• Free movements: take place within border movement...
Functional Movements:-
• During chewing, the mandible
drops directly inferiorly until the
desired opening is achieved.
• I...
EFFECT OF POSTURE
Envelope of Motion
Gives reference positions from where fundamental movements of
mandible occur-
– Helps in making vertica...
• Multiple restorations and
complete dentures are so
constructed that their occlusion is in harmony with
centric relation,...
The gothic arch or arrow point tracing.
It is a graphic registration of lateral
border movements on a horizontal
plane, wh...
WORKING & NONWORKING SIDE
The side toward which the
mandible moves in a lateral
excursion is called Working side
And
The N...
Left lateral border movement
Continued left lateral border movement
with protrusion
Right lateral border movements
Condyles in CR
Contraction of left inferior
lateral pterygoid
Left condyle moves
anteriorly...
Continued right lateral movement with
protrusion
Contraction of rt. lateral pterygoid
& continued contraction left
inferio...
BENNETT SHIFT
Described by Dr. Norman Bennett in 1908 , it is the
direct lateral side shift that occurs simultaneously
wit...
The primary cause :is the contraction of lateral pterygoid
muscle because its origin is located medially to its insertion....
Physiological rest position
• Established by muscles and gravity.
• Is actively determined.
• It is a ‘range of posture’
•...
Conclusion
Knowledge of Jaw Movements is Essential for
Successful Treatment of Patients. It is imperative
to learn as much...
References
• Complete denture prosthodontics – 3rd
edition, by John J Sharry
• Prosthodontic Treatment for Edentulous
Pati...
Thank you !!!
Mandibular Movements
Mandibular Movements
Mandibular Movements
Mandibular Movements
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  • Complex, vary, func n parafunc
  • How we can study Various mthds, comp analysis, motion picture markers
  • Why,
  • Brain regulates, chewing centre, effort, inhi or excitation
  • Impulse flow, memory pattern, bypass bt in eden if not harmony,altrdmovmnt.
  • Thus unable to discern, meet evenly in cr
  • Condylar mov, opposing tooth contact, deflectiv or steep incisal guidance, teeth in harmony
  • How tmj influences
  • Condyle can translate a-p bout ¾ of inch or 1.8cm
  • To understand this we go to anatomy
  • Means capable of both
  • Antr 2 fibrous capsule n post 2 head, its supr lamina limits the…
  • Use diagram next slide
  • Synovial membrane, inner surface of fibrous capsule n non articular surfaces, lubri,
  • Thickening of investing , deep cervical fascia of nck
  • Muscles, activity increase,emg or clinically evaluate.
  • Quadrilatral, zy arch, ramus n angle, 3 layers
  • Fan, temporal fossa, tendon, coronoid process n antrbrdr of ramus. Postr- mainly in retrusion, ie CR, others 2 elevate. Isotonic n isometric
  • 2 heads, superfifrmtuberosity n deep frm, medial sur of angle of mandible.
  • Uppr head frminfratemsur of grtrwng of sphenoid, lowrfrmlatrl of, into fovea, fib capsule n intra-arti disc
  • Depressesmn 2 open mouth by pulling neck fwd with disc, relatively inactive in terminal hinge opening, jointly fwd, singly opposite side.
  • Mylo,genio,digastric n stylohyoid. SLIDE. In forced depression digastric is activated soon with lp.
  • To summarize the muscular involvement. i.e. the influence of… next
  • Same side of temporalis postr n middle, n oppo side tempoantr + ptrygoids.
  • The mandible rotates in… slide
  • These are instantaneous axis.
  • During opening n closing, a pure rota movement, used 2 orient mx cast on articulator.
  • In lateral excursion. One condyle moves antr out of terminal hinge. Other still.
  • One condyle moves inferiorly out of terminal hinge position.
  • In natural dentition in majority CO is antr to CR bout 1mm, and in 10% co n icp coincide.
  • Seating of dentures, m-m, n temporalis antr n postr. Direction in line with long axis, so in eden, at 90 degrees.
  • Eden can make reproducible, using stabilized base plates to supprtpantorecrding device.
  • In erect posture, postural position is 2-4mm below intercuspal position. Path of closure can be antr or postr to this.
  • The lateral mandibular movements are of great importance because they influence the intercuspation of teeth in working mastication.
  • Mandibular Movements

    1. 1. MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS Dr Rohan Bhoil
    2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction Methods of studying mandibular movements Importance Factors which regulate jaw motion Mandibular positions The clinical understanding Conclusion
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION Mandibular movements are complex.
    4. 4. METHODS OF STUDYING MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS Direct Clinical Observation Sophisticated Electronic Instrumentation : Facial Clinometers , Roentgen Fluoroscopy , Radionucleotide Tracking; Optical Pantography; Gnathic Replicator etc
    5. 5. SIGNIFICANCE OF UNDERSTANDING MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS •Developing Tooth Forms For Dental Restorations, • Understanding Occlusion, •Arranging Artificial Teeth, • Treating TMJ Disturbances, • Preserving Periodontal Health • And the designing, selection and adjustment of articulators.
    6. 6. FACTORS WHICH REGULATE JAW MOTION •The Neuromuscular Role •Contacts Of Opposing Teeth •Anatomy And Physiology Of TMJ's •The Action Of Muscles /Ligaments
    7. 7. NEUROMUSCULAR ROLE Mastication is a programmed event residing in a ‘chewing centre’ located within the brain stem, probably in reticular formation of pons.
    8. 8. The cerebellum ensures a coordinated response from muscles during mandibular movements, by acting as a feedback control mechanism..
    9. 9. Loss of propioceptors, locate d principally in periodontal ligaments, eliminates an important source of control in positioning of mandible; for the edentulous patients.
    10. 10. INFLUENCE OF OPPOSING TOOTH CONTACTS Opposing tooth surface contacts are related to • occlusal surfaces of teeth • muscles • TMJs’ • and neurophysiological components.
    11. 11. INFLUENCE OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTS Mandibular movements except opening and closing movements at the terminal hinge position, are combinations of rotation and translation.
    12. 12. ROTATION: The movement of a rigid body in which the parts move in circular paths with their centers on a fixed line called the axis of rotation. The plane of the circle in which the body moves is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. TRANSLATION • The motion of a body at any instant when all points within the body are moving at the same velocity and in the same direction.
    13. 13. TMJ Rotation - in the lower compartment of the TMJ. The translatory or gliding movements - in the upper compartment.
    14. 14. • A complex joint. • GINGLYMOARTHRODIAL JOINT. • TMJ consists of 4 main structures:- – Condyle – Temporal bone (Squamous part) – Articular disc – Ligaments
    15. 15. THE TEMPORO MANDIBULAR JOINT Articulating part of TMJ includes convex head of mandibular condyle and the convexoconcave part of the temporal bone i.e. mandibular fossa and articular tubercle. An intrarticular disc made of fibrous tissue divides joint cavity into upper and lower compartments.
    16. 16. ARTICULAR DISC SAGITTAL PLANE ANTERIOR VIEW
    17. 17. LIGAMENTS OF TMJ 1. Fibrous capsule 2. Lateral temporomandibular ligament 3. and two accessory ligaments i.e. sphenomandibular and the stylomandibular ligaments.
    18. 18. TMJ LIGAMENTS
    19. 19. ACCESSORY LIGAMENTS Stylomandibular ligament limits excessive protrusive movement of mandible.
    20. 20. MUSCULAR INVOLVEMENT IN JAW MOTION
    21. 21. ROLE OF MUSCLES There are four main muscles of mastication Masseter, Temporalis and the Medial and Lateral Pterygoids. All these except the lateral pterygoids act as ELEVATORS.
    22. 22. MASSETER Functions:- Elevation Superficial portion: protrusion Deep portion : stabilization against articular eminence
    23. 23. TEMPORALIS:- It is a significant positioning muscle of the mandible • It has 3 types of fibres – Anterior fibers – or vertical. – Middle fibers –run obliquely. – Posterior fibers – consists of fibers that are aligned almost horizontally.
    24. 24. MEDIAL PTERYGOID FUNCTION: • Elevation and protrusion. • Unilateral contraction –mediotrusive movement
    25. 25. LATERAL PTERYGOID
    26. 26. Function Inferior Lateral Pterygoid:- • Simultaneous contraction: depression and protrusion • Unilateral contraction: mediotrusion & movement to opposite side. Superior Lateral Pterygoid • During opening: remains inactive. • Becomes active only in conjunction with elevator muscles. • Active during power stroke & when teeth held together
    27. 27. THE SUPRAHYOID MUSCLES These depress the Mandible, if the hyoid bone remains fixed. Thus help when the mouth is opened wide or against resistance.
    28. 28. MOVEMENTS
    29. 29. OPENING & CLOSING Lateral Pterygoid is the main muscle responsible for opening. Opening of mouth is limited by the superior lamina of the articular disc.
    30. 30. PROTRUSION AND RETRACTION Protrusion is brought about by simultaneous contraction of the lateral and medial pterygoids of both sides While Retraction is mainly due to contraction of the posterior horizontal fibres of temporalis muscle
    31. 31. CHEWING Chewing or side to side movements occur due to alternate contraction of muscles of both sides.
    32. 32. CERTAIN BASICS : JAW MOTION
    33. 33. MANDIBULAR ROTATION In opening and closing and lateral movements.
    34. 34. AXES OF MANDIBULAR ROTATION Rotation occurs around three axes: transverse, vertical and sagittal, that move constantly during normal jaw function.
    35. 35. MOVEMENT ABOUT A HORIZONTAL AXIS, AS SEEN IN A HINGE AXIS OPENING.
    36. 36. MOVEMENT OCCURS AROUND A VERTICAL AXIS DURING A LATERAL EXCURSION.
    37. 37. THE MANDIBLE ALSO ROTATES AROUND A SAGITTAL AXIS WHEN ONE SIDE DROPS DOWN DURING A LATERAL EXCURSION
    38. 38. BASIC JAW POSITIONS Centric Occlusion it is defined as maximum intercuspation of teeth. Centric Relation the most posterior relation of the upper to the lower jaw from which lateral movements can be made at a given vertical dimension. {Boucher}
    39. 39. • CENTRIC RELATION (GPT-8) : the maxillomandibular relationship in which the condyles articulate with the thinnest avascular portion of their respective disks with the complex in the antero-superior position against the slopes of articular eminences. This position is independent of tooth contact. This position is clinically discernible when the mandible is directed superiorly and anteriorly.
    40. 40. BASIC JAW POSITIONS…. Centric relation is used to transfer position of mandible in relation to maxilla, to an articulator. The centric occlusion is a tooth determined position, whereas the centric relation is a jaw to jaw relation determined by the condyles in the fossae.
    41. 41. TERMINAL HINGE AXIS When the condyles are in their most superior position in the articular fossae and the mouth is purely rotated open, the axis around which movement occurs is called the ‘Terminal Hinge Axis’.
    42. 42. Condylar guidance – “Mandibular guidance generated by the condyle and articular disc traversing the contour of the glenoid fossa” Incisal guidance – “ The influence of the contacting surfaces of the mandibular and maxillary anterior teeth during mandibular movements”
    43. 43. Retruded Contact Position - guided occlusal relationship occurring at the most retruded position of the condyles in the joint cavity.
    44. 44. MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS Mandible performs habitual and border movements opening and closing movements protrusive and lateral movements And stopping positions along these movements centric occlusion, centric relation, protrusive border position, right and left lateral border positions and a rest position.
    45. 45. THE CLINICAL UNDERSTANDING OF MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES. Factor of muscle pull related to positioning of mandible after loss of teeth. Direction of forces is affected by occlusal vertical dimension. Mainly two parallelograms. In edentulous, occlusal plane is made parallel to ala-tragus line.
    46. 46. THE ENVELOPE OF MOTION. Defining the limits of possible mandibular motion and certain mandibular reference positions. Records made in sagittal and frontal planes.
    47. 47. Envelope of motion in the sagittal plane. •CO, Centric occlusion; •CR, centric relation; •MHO, maximum hinge-opening position • MO, point of maximum opening of the jaws •P, most protruded position of the mandible with the teeth in contact •Rest, postural rest position
    48. 48. SAGITTAL PLANE BORDER & FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENTS:-1. Posterior opening border. 2. Anterior opening border. 3. Superior contact border. 4. Functional.
    49. 49. Posterior Opening Border Movements:- 1st STAGE • Condyles: terminal hinge position • Pure rotational movement 2ND STAGE • Axis of rotation shifts to bodies of rami.
    50. 50. 1st STAGE • Opening range: 20-25mm • The movements are the only repeatable hinge axis movement of mandible. 2ND STAGE • Condyles: anteriorly & inferiorly. • Mandible: posteriorly & inferiorly. • Max opening: 40-60mm.
    51. 51. Anterior Opening Border Movements:- • Generated when closure accompanied by contraction of inferior lateral pterygoid. • Not a pure hinge movement due to eccentricity.
    52. 52. Superior Contact Border Movements • Throughout this entire border movement tooth contact is present. • It depends on:- – Amount of variation between centric relation and maximum intercuspation. – The steepness of the cuspal inclines of the posterior teeth. – Amount of vertical and horizontal overlap of anterior teeth – Lingual morphology of maxillary anterior teeth. – General inter arch relationships of the teeth.
    53. 53. Envelope of motion in the frontal plane •CO, Centric occlusion •MO, point of maximum opening of the jaws • Rest, postural rest position.
    54. 54. Left lateral superior movement
    55. 55. Left lateral opening movement
    56. 56. Right lateral superior border movement
    57. 57. Right lateral opening border movement
    58. 58. • Maximum movements- Opening : 50-60 mm Lateral : 10 to 12 mm Protrusive : 8 to 11 mm And retrusive range is about 1 mm.
    59. 59. Functional Movements:- • Occur during functional activity of mandible. • Free movements: take place within border movements. • Occur chiefly around centric.
    60. 60. Functional Movements:- • During chewing, the mandible drops directly inferiorly until the desired opening is achieved. • It then shifts to the side on which bolus is placed and rises up. • As it approaches maximum intercuspation, bolus is broken down between the opposing teeth. • In the final closure, the mandible quickly shifts back to the intercuspal position.
    61. 61. EFFECT OF POSTURE
    62. 62. Envelope of Motion Gives reference positions from where fundamental movements of mandible occur- – Helps in making vertical & horizontal jaw relation records • CR– MHO :represents Posterior terminal hinge movement, which is used to locate transverse hinge axis for mounting of casts on articulator. – The rest position is a guide to re-establishing the proper vertical dimension of occlusion.
    63. 63. • Multiple restorations and complete dentures are so constructed that their occlusion is in harmony with centric relation, because mastication in dentulous occurs at CO but in edentulous at CR. • Except at the occlusal contact position, where envelope of movement is controlled by teeth, all other contours are controlled by muscles, joints and soft tissue forces. Envelope of Motion
    64. 64. The gothic arch or arrow point tracing. It is a graphic registration of lateral border movements on a horizontal plane, which results in an angular tracing. The direction of lateral movements is actively determined by the lateral pterygoid muscle on nonworking side and by the deep capsular ligaments of condyle on working side.
    65. 65. WORKING & NONWORKING SIDE The side toward which the mandible moves in a lateral excursion is called Working side And The Nonworking side is that side of mandible that moves toward median line in a lateral excursion
    66. 66. Left lateral border movement
    67. 67. Continued left lateral border movement with protrusion
    68. 68. Right lateral border movements Condyles in CR Contraction of left inferior lateral pterygoid Left condyle moves anteriorly,medially and Inferiorly
    69. 69. Continued right lateral movement with protrusion Contraction of rt. lateral pterygoid & continued contraction left inferior pterygoid Right condyles moves anteriorly and to left Mandibular midline coincides with midline of face
    70. 70. BENNETT SHIFT Described by Dr. Norman Bennett in 1908 , it is the direct lateral side shift that occurs simultaneously with a lateral excursion
    71. 71. The primary cause :is the contraction of lateral pterygoid muscle because its origin is located medially to its insertion. When mandible shifts to the side, its movement occurs in two segments- an immediate side shift in which the major direction of movement is mediolateral and a progressive side shift, which begins thereafter and continues with the major direction of movement being anterior.
    72. 72. Physiological rest position • Established by muscles and gravity. • Is actively determined. • It is a ‘range of posture’ • Usually 2-4mm below maximum intercuspation position, but can be upto 10 mm. • Remains relatively stable for reasonable periods of time. • Affected by short and long term intra oral and general health factors and by position of head.
    73. 73. Conclusion Knowledge of Jaw Movements is Essential for Successful Treatment of Patients. It is imperative to learn as much possible about jaw movement, in order to reproduce those aspects of its motion, considered necessary for proper functioning of the occlusion, either natural or artificial.
    74. 74. References • Complete denture prosthodontics – 3rd edition, by John J Sharry • Prosthodontic Treatment for Edentulous Patients – by Zarb and Bolender, 12th edition. • An evaluation of mandibular border movements: Their character and significance - Harry C. Lundeen
    75. 75. Thank you !!!
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