Environmental hazards for birds
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Environmental hazards for birds

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An overview on threats facing bird life including habitat destruction, and toxic chemical use.

An overview on threats facing bird life including habitat destruction, and toxic chemical use.

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  • In migration, their numbers used to blot out the sky. 1808 - Kentucky: 2 billion in flock Completely decimated within 40 years (1850-1890)
  • Loss of habitat and encroachment exterminated species by 1940 Range extended up to southern Minnesota riverine ecosystems
  • Happily Ever After? Probably removed from ESL
  • Removed from ESL in 1999
  • Extinct or not? Never abundant, very specific species. Is there still hope? Other species in question Ivory-billed Woodpecker Bachman’s Warbler
  • Passenger Pigeon Labrador Duck Great Auk Red Knot Great Egret Whooping Crane
  • Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis was first reported in 1994. The causative agent Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a nonzoonotic pathogen of poultry that had not been associated with disease in wild songbirds. Since the initial observations in the mid-Atlantic region, the disease has become widespread By late 1995, mycoplasmal conjunctivitis had spread to an additional species, the American goldfinch ( Carduelis tristis ). This new disease exemplifies the rapid spread of a pathogen following introduction into a mobile wildlife population
  • Some general information on climate change and birds Species returning to N. Michigan breeding grounds 21 days earlier in previous decade Recent regional changes in climate, particularly increases in temperature, have already affected terrestrial and marine ecosystems in many parts of the world. [Source: IPCC Synthesis Report 2001] For example: Between 1971 and 1995 the laying date for many species of British birds has shifted earlier by an average of nine days. [Source: Nature 388: 526] Adelie penguin breeding numbers have declined over the last 40 years. This decline is thought to be tied to a reduction in the frequency of years with extensive heavy winter sea ice in the Antarctic making suitable feeding sites too scarce or distant. At the same time, Chin-strap Penguin numbers have increased. [Source: Polar Biology 11: 525-531] Meta-analyses on 143 previously published studies reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or 'fingerprint' in a number of species from around the globe. More than 80% of the 1,400 plant and animal species studied show changes in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Of those species showing a change in spring phenology (earlier arrival, for example), the average rate of change has been approximately 5 days earlier per decade with an average study length of three decades. One of the biggest changes was in the breeding of the Common Murre which has advanced by 24 days per decade. [Source: Nature 421: 57-60]. Biodiversity will be affected by climate change and sea-level rise, with an increased risk of extinction of some species. Significant disruptions to ecosystems from disturbances (e.g., fire, insect outbreaks) are expected to increase and changes in climate could also increase the probability of abrupt, non-linear changes in many ecosystems. [Source: IPCC Synthesis Report 2001] For example: In the Prairie Pothole region of the United States, increasing temperatures will likely result in increased drought conditions and loss of wetlands. This could lead to an almost 50% reduction in breeding waterfowl numbers. While these ducks may be able to move farther north to breed, wetlands in those areas may also be adversely affected by climate change. [Source: Climatic Change 40: 343-369] The ranges of most North American grassland birds will likely shift northward into areas currently containing forests. Unless all species (birds and plants) shift at the same rate, an unlikely prospect, then habitat may be limiting for these species in the future.  Models suggest that at least two grassland birds (Sprague's Pipit and McCown's Longspur) may face extinction. [Source: Price, J.T. In press. Potential impacts of climate change on North American grassland birds. U.S.G.S. Tech. Publication]. Current research is looking at how much habitat may be available for these species to move into. Parts of northern Minnesota and southwestern Ontario may end up with 14 fewer species of warblers than are currently found there. This could lead to increased outbreaks of some forest pests like spruce budworms. [Source: Transactions of the 66th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 371-379; Managing for Healthy Ecosystems 465-469] The range of the Baltimore Oriole may shift north until it is no longer found around Baltimore. [Source: The Birdwatcher's Guide to Global Warming]
  • Example: They tear down your house -> just move Tear down a city, compete for housing
  • Imagine yourself road-tripping to Florida for Spring break and the only place to eat is in Tennesee. ...Long lines Explain annual/seasonal water level variations
  • Forest ecosystem cross section Cowbird parasitism “ scapegoat” for other problems (fragmentation) female cowbird capable of 30-40 eggs per season eggs hatch 11-13 days, while host eggs 12-14 day
  • The Problem Since the Second World War, pesticides have become a ubiquitous fact of life. It is now almost impossible to find a place anywhere on earth where pesticide residues are not detectable. The complex effect of these often highly toxic chemicals is still poorly recognized, particularly on wildlife and their ecosystems. Of the five billion pounds of pesticides that are applied worldwide each year, 20% are used in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA], 2004). Our assumption that because these pesticides are licensed by the federal government their use is automatically safe, is unfounded. One well known estimate (Pimentel & Acquay, 1992) suggested that more than 670 million birds are directly exposed to pesticides each year on U.S. farms alone, 10% of which - or 67 million birds - die as a result. Repeated exposure to some pesticides can also lead to sub-lethal effects such as decreased breeding success. These effects are hard to detect but nevertheless can produce dramatic species declines over time. Such was the case with DDT, which nearly wiped out several bird species in the U.S., including the Peregrine Falcon and Brown Pelican, by thinning the shells of their eggs to the point where they broke before hatching. But the story goes far beyond DDT. Approximately 40 pesticides still used in the U.S. are documented to have caused bird die-offs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the government agency responsible for regulating pesticides) has recorded more than 1,700 incidents of bird kills - many including hundreds of individual birds - attributable to pesticide use. Studies have shown that predators remove most dead birds within a short period (Vyas, 1999), and because of their small size, many pesticide-killed birds are likely never found.
  • 80 Years of Hunting before Eagle Protection Act Golden Eagle Not Afftected, Why? Habitat of Golden not problem mosquito areas Food Source not affected by DDT
  • Malathion Uses Diazinon uses
  • Malathion Uses Diazinon uses
  • 1 Hectare = 2.4 acres
  • “ Carbofuran (circa 1980s) has been the greatest chemical threat to wild birds since the pesticides DDT and dieldrin were banned in the early 1970s. 2005 - ecological risk assessment for carbofuran, EPA stated that there were no legal uses of carbofuran that did not kill wild birds.  If mallard flock were to feed in a carbofuran treated alfalfa field, EPA predicted that 92% of the birds in the flock would quickly die,” Carbofuran finally had registration cancelled by EPA “ Furadan” by FMC Corporation
  • Insecticide application coincides with nesting and rearing of young - at peak insect population presence
  • What You Can Do to Minimize the Threat to Birds from Pesticides Buy organic food While pesticide residues on food are carefully monitored to reduce exposure to humans, monitoring of the effects of food crop pesticides on birds and other wildlife remains inadequate and poorly understood. Purchasing organically-grown food ensures that your consumption will not lead to bird deaths from these chemicals. Asking your supermarket to stock more organic produce where their selection is inadequate is a further step you can take. Avoid using pesticides in and around your home Before using pesticides, try other alternatives such as sealing access points to your home, or rat or mouse traps in the case of rodent problems. If you must buy pesticides, follow label instruction carefully. Only dispose of pesticides or pesticide containers at hazardous waste collection sites. You may have old pesticides in your house (i.e. diazinon in Spectracide, Gardentox etc.) which are no longer sold because of their harmful effects on humans and birds. Disposing carefully of unused pesticide is an important step to protect your family and wildlife in your neighborhood. If you hire a pest control officer, ask about your alternatives and express your concern over possible bird impacts. Prevent mosquitoes breeding in your back yard Each year local authorities aerially spray millions of gallons of insecticides to kill mosquitoes due to pressure from their residents and misguided notions that such chemicals can prevent the spread of mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile virus. These chemicals can be particularly hazardous to birds as well as household pets. Try to avoid having any standing water in your back yard that attracts breeding mosquitoes. This includes even small amounts of water trapped in old tires, plant pots, buckets, etc. If you have bird baths, these must be emptied daily to prevent mosquito eggs hatching. Fish ponds can be treated with biological agents that stop mosquitoes laying eggs. Report a pesticide poisoning incident If you find a live bird which you think might be suffering from pesticide exposure, contact a federally permitted wildlife rehabilitator. The International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council (IWRC) can help you find one in your area. If you find a dead bird that you suspect is a victim of pesticide poisoning, contact the nearest U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Law Enforcement office.
  • Thailand, 2004 : An investigation concluded that probable human-to-human spread of influenza A (H5N1) had occurred in a family as a result of prolonged and very close contact between an ill child and her mother. Transmission did not continue beyond one person. Vietnam, 2004: While the majority of known human H5N1 cases have begun with respiratory symptoms, however, one atypical fatal case of encephalitis in a child in southern Vietnam was identified retrospectively as H5N1 influenza through testing of cerebrospinal fluid, fecal matter, and throat and serum samples. Further research is needed to ascertain the implications of such findings. Vietnam, 2005 : Investigations suggest transmission of H5N1 viruses to at least two persons through consumption of uncooked duck blood. Azerbaijan, 2006  : Investigations revealed contact with H5N1-infected wild dead birds (swans) as the most plausible source of infection in several cases in children.The children were involved in removing feathers from the birds. Indonesia, 2006 : WHO reported evidence of human-to-human spread. In this situation, 8 people in one family were infected. The first family member is thought to have become ill through contact with infected poultry. This person then infected six family members. One of those six people (a child) then infected another family member (his father). No further spread outside of the exposed family was documented or suspected.
  • Thailand, 2004 : An investigation concluded that probable human-to-human spread of influenza A (H5N1) had occurred in a family as a result of prolonged and very close contact between an ill child and her mother. Transmission did not continue beyond one person. Vietnam, 2004: While the majority of known human H5N1 cases have begun with respiratory symptoms, however, one atypical fatal case of encephalitis in a child in southern Vietnam was identified retrospectively as H5N1 influenza through testing of cerebrospinal fluid, fecal matter, and throat and serum samples. Further research is needed to ascertain the implications of such findings. Vietnam, 2005 : Investigations suggest transmission of H5N1 viruses to at least two persons through consumption of uncooked duck blood. Azerbaijan, 2006  : Investigations revealed contact with H5N1-infected wild dead birds (swans) as the most plausible source of infection in several cases in children.The children were involved in removing feathers from the birds. Indonesia, 2006 : WHO reported evidence of human-to-human spread. In this situation, 8 people in one family were infected. The first family member is thought to have become ill through contact with infected poultry. This person then infected six family members. One of those six people (a child) then infected another family member (his father). No further spread outside of the exposed family was documented or suspected.
  • Thailand, 2004 : An investigation concluded that probable human-to-human spread of influenza A (H5N1) had occurred in a family as a result of prolonged and very close contact between an ill child and her mother. Transmission did not continue beyond one person. Vietnam, 2004: While the majority of known human H5N1 cases have begun with respiratory symptoms, however, one atypical fatal case of encephalitis in a child in southern Vietnam was identified retrospectively as H5N1 influenza through testing of cerebrospinal fluid, fecal matter, and throat and serum samples. Further research is needed to ascertain the implications of such findings. Vietnam, 2005 : Investigations suggest transmission of H5N1 viruses to at least two persons through consumption of uncooked duck blood. Azerbaijan, 2006  : Investigations revealed contact with H5N1-infected wild dead birds (swans) as the most plausible source of infection in several cases in children.The children were involved in removing feathers from the birds. Indonesia, 2006 : WHO reported evidence of human-to-human spread. In this situation, 8 people in one family were infected. The first family member is thought to have become ill through contact with infected poultry. This person then infected six family members. One of those six people (a child) then infected another family member (his father). No further spread outside of the exposed family was documented or suspected.
  • Thailand, 2004 : An investigation concluded that probable human-to-human spread of influenza A (H5N1) had occurred in a family as a result of prolonged and very close contact between an ill child and her mother. Transmission did not continue beyond one person. Vietnam, 2004: While the majority of known human H5N1 cases have begun with respiratory symptoms, however, one atypical fatal case of encephalitis in a child in southern Vietnam was identified retrospectively as H5N1 influenza through testing of cerebrospinal fluid, fecal matter, and throat and serum samples. Further research is needed to ascertain the implications of such findings. Vietnam, 2005 : Investigations suggest transmission of H5N1 viruses to at least two persons through consumption of uncooked duck blood. Azerbaijan, 2006  : Investigations revealed contact with H5N1-infected wild dead birds (swans) as the most plausible source of infection in several cases in children.The children were involved in removing feathers from the birds. Indonesia, 2006 : WHO reported evidence of human-to-human spread. In this situation, 8 people in one family were infected. The first family member is thought to have become ill through contact with infected poultry. This person then infected six family members. One of those six people (a child) then infected another family member (his father). No further spread outside of the exposed family was documented or suspected.

Environmental hazards for birds Environmental hazards for birds Presentation Transcript

  • Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius
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    Human Caused Environmental Impacts Affecting Bird Populations
  • Carolina Parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis
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    Human Caused Environmental Impacts Affecting Bird Populations
  • Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus
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    Human Caused Environmental Impacts Affecting Bird Populations
  • Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
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    Human Caused Environmental Impacts Affecting Bird Populations
  • Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis
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    Human Caused Environmental Impacts Affecting Bird Populations
  • Human Caused Environmental Impacts Affecting Bird Populations What is the Importance?
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    Photo by Steven Holt Birds as an Indicator Organism Measure of ecosystem health Indicator of potential human impact Bird watching as a hobby Fastest growing hobby in U.S. Ecotourism Rapidly growing industry
  • Sensitivity to Environmental Factors
    • Selective Habits
      • Food Source, Nest location
    • Human Tolerance
      • encroaching development
    • Territory
      • Larger = more factors
    • Location in the Food Web
      • Higher up, more risks
    • Migration Route
      • longer = more exposure
    Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis
  • Types of Impacts
    • Overharvesting
    • Loss of Food Source
    • Species Homogenization
    • Introduced Competition
    • Climate Change?
    • Habitat Destruction
    • Chemical Use
    • Biotechnology?
    Whooping Crane Grus americana
  • Over-harvesting and Mismanagement
    • - Skins taken in Fur Trade
        • Feathers used for hats
        • Skins used for powder puffs
        • Thought to be extinct in 1900
          • 2 nests found in 1919
          • 70 birds counted in 1935
          • 640 birds by late 1950s
        • 3 Populations Today
          • Pacific, Rockies, Restored
          • est. 16,000 birds
        • 1918 Migratory Bird Act
          • First step to protect migrating species
    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus Trumpeter Swan Cygnus buccinator
  • Loss of Food Source
    • Red-headed Woodpecker forages among dead trees
      • “ Cleaning-up” groves limits availability of food
    Red Knot Caladris canutus Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes erythroceaphalus
    • Rearing Young
    • Migration
      • Red Knot migration coincides with horseshoe crab egg laying
        • Drastic drop in crab population
        • 80% Red Knot population depends on this food source
  • Species Homogenization
      • Subspecies and forms
        • genetic diversity among species
          • hybridization among subspecies increases immunity to disease
      • Subspecies Extinction/Extirpation
        • Eliminates genetic diversity
        • Impacts community viability
          • House Finch Example
            • West Coast birds released 1940
            • Rapid spread in Eastern US from few individuals
            • Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis
    House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus
  • Introduced Competition
      • Other Bird Species
        • House Sparrow
          • Outcompetes cavity nesters
        • European Starling
          • Cavity Nester
          • Nests up to 1 month earlier than Woodpeckers - resident and migratory
      • Mammals
        • Cats
          • Estimated killing 1 billion songbirds
        • Domestic animals on islands
          • Pigs and dogs in Hawaii
          • Endemic species most threatened
    House Sparrow Passer domesticus European Starling Sternus vulgaris
  • Is Climate Change Affecting Birds?
      • Sooty Shearwater
        • 1987 - 1994 non-breeding decline
          • West Coast wintering declined 90%
          • changes in ocean currents possibly caused by climate change
    Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus Adelie Penguin Pygoscelis adeliae
      • Adelie Penguin
        • Breeding numbers declining in last 40 years
          • Reduction in consecutive heavy ice years
          • Feeding sites fewer and farther between
  • Habitat Destruction
    • - Greatest Negative Impact on Populations
        • Nesting
          • especially plains and forest
        • Migration
          • removal of staging areas
            • concentrated species means
            • greater potential for disease
            • more limited food sources
        • Wintering
          • safety from predators
          • food sources
    Northern Spotted Owl Strix occidentals caurina
  • Habitat Destruction - Prairie Ecosystem
        • Population decline in all prairie nesting species
        • Salvaged Prairie areas too small to adequately support communities
        • No species extinction yet.
    Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda
  • Habitat Destruction - Wetland Ecosystem
    • Nesting
      • biggest impact on waterfowl, wading birds
    • Migration
      • Most significant impact on migrating species
        • Fewer staging areas & are concentrated
    White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi Long-billed Curlew Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
  • Habitat Destruction - Forest Ecosystem
        • Fragmentation of Forest
          • Ex: Powerline, Roadway
          • Creates Edges and Alleys for predators
            • Cowbird Parasitism
            • 20,000 acre forest to remove threat
    Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina
        • Clear-cutting
          • Obvious impacts on habitat
          • replacement forest and understory may not be identical to the removed.
    Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater
  • Habitat Destruction - Land Development
      • Riparian Development
        • Trees and Understory removed
          • nest and foraging areas removed
        • Louisiana Waterthrush
          • affected by cattle grazing in streambanks
    Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla Piping Plover Charadrius melodrus
      • Beachfront Development
        • Crucial nesting for some species
          • predator protection
        • Piping Plover
          • human activity on beaches can damage nests, and intimidate species
  • Chemical Pesticides
    • - Pesticide Use & Environmental Factors
        • Target Organism
          • Food Source for something
        • Environmental Persistence
          • Breakdown time (half-life)
        • Biological Effects
          • Bioaccumulation (non-target)
            • high accumulation can interfere with physiology
          • Biomagnification (food chain)
          • Bioactivation
            • “ pyrroles” such as chlorfenapyr
            • metabolism activates effect
  • Laws Regulating Pesticide Use
    • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act
      • Federal Insecticide Act 1910
        • aimed at protecting farmers from substandard or fraudulent products
      • FIFRA passed in 1947 as consumer protection regulating pesticides
      • Transferred from USDA to EPA in 1970
      • Endangered Species Act requires FIFRA to ensure pesticide registration will not impact endangered species
      • Several Amendments in 70s and 80s to refine registration process
      • FIFRA today
        • Expedites “safer” chemicals to make available sooner
        • Goal of 15 year registration renewal process to meet new standards
        • Inspection of manufacturing facilities
        • Does not pertain to exports
  • Laws Regulating Pesticide Use
    • Examples of Limitations of FIFRA
      • FIFRA governs uses, not manufacturing
      • Economic and Political Pressure
        • Azinphos-methyl (AZM) on market despite high risk
          • USFWS indicates 118 endangered species jeopardized by AZM
        • Diazanon linked to human cancer, 50 fatal bird poisonings
          • 1990 EPA cancelled use at golf courses, sod farms
          • still permitted on lawns and agricultural crops
          • available at local hardware store
      • Permitting Process
        • Tedious process
        • Pressure to quickly evaluate registration
        • Several thousand chemical registrations per year
  • Chemical Pesticides - Organochlorines
        • Common Products
          • DDT
          • Endrin
          • Toxaphene
        • High Solubility in Water
          • Easily entered aquatic food chains
        • Highly soluble also in fat
          • not readily metabolized by organism
          • not readily excreted by organism
          • Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification common
        • Chemical Stability and Persistence
          • Remained in soil, water for long periods
  • Species Impacts from Organochlorides
      • DDT, DDE
    Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Osprey Pandion haliaetus Peregrine Falcon Falco Peregrinus
        • Mosquito control
        • Exposure Route
          • Eagle, Osprey - Fish
          • Peregrine - Ducks, Waders
        • Chemical Effect
          • Broke down enzyme responsible for calcium hardening in eggshell
  • Species Impacts from Organochlorides
      • Bald Eagle
    Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus
        • Estimated N.Am. Population - 1700
          • 1/4 to 1/2 million birds
        • First Problem for species was Hunting
          • uneducated, paranoid, or fearful people
          • 1880s extensive Eagle hunting.
        • 1940 Eagle Protection Act
        • 1950-1970 DDT Years
          • Also extensive winter habitat destruction
        • 1963: Only 417 Nesting Pairs
        • 1967: Predecessor to E.S.A.
        • 1972: DDT Use Banned
        • 1973: Endangered Species Act passed
        • Today: 5,000+ Nesting Pairs
  • Species Impacts from Organochlorides
      • Peregrine Falcon
    Peregrine Falcon Falco Peregrinus
        • Also affected by DDT
        • 1942: 275 eyries
          • Estimated 200 eyases produced
        • 1964
          • Extensive survey found Zero eyases
          • Scientists thought DDT was only a problem for fish eaters
          • DDT into aquatic environments easily
            • Nematodes took in DDT or DDE
            • Aquatic plants also took in
            • Shorebirds eat nematodes, Ducks eat aquatic plants
        • Today: Peregrine removed from ESL
          • Estimated 485 pairs in U.S. and Canada
  • Future for Human Caused Impacts
      • Humans and wildlife will always clash
        • Wildlife fill every niche
        • Human development increases
      • Knowing that clashes will occur…
        • What are tolerable losses?
        • How can we minimize the impact?
        • Can symbiosis occur between humans and wildlife?
      • Science plays a crucial role in answering questions
        • Wealth of knowledge. Key is putting it together
    Can we ever really know the impact of our actions on future generations?
  •  
  • Chemical Pesticides - Organophosphates
        • Derived from phosphoric Acid
          • Related to Nerve Gasses
          • cholinesterase inhibitor
            • accumulation of acetylcholine (Ach) leads to paralysis
        • Usually More toxic than Organochlorines
        • Typically unstable or nonpersistent
        • 3 Main Organophosphate derivatives
          • Aliphatic - Carbon Chain (Malathion, Monocrotophos)
          • Phenyl - Benzene Ring attached (Parathion)
          • Heterocyclic - Different Ring Structures (Diazinon)
  • Species Impacts from Organophosphates
    • - Monocrotophos
    Swainson’s Hawk Buteo swainsoni
        • Registration cancelled in U.S., Canada, and other countries
        • Produced and marketed
        • Swainson’s Hawk mortality
          • 1980s: Canada noticed fewer birds
          • 1995: 5,000 found dead
          • 1996: 20,000 killed
          • 1997: 62,000 killed
        • Ciba-Geigy:
          • 1/3 Argentine monocrotophos sales
          • agreed to buy back remaining monocrotophos stock, and encourage other companies to follow suit.
  • Chemical Pesticides - Carbamates
        • Derived from carbamic acid
        • Broad spectrum of use
          • Insecticide, nematicide use practical for variety of conditions & methods of application
        • Plant systemic insecticide
          • taken up in root system, but not metabolized by plant
            • target organism eats plant, ingesting insecticide, dies
        • Common Products
          • Aldicarb, (Temik)
          • Carbofuran (Furadan)
          • Carbaryl (Sevin)
            • Most widely used Carbamate
  • Species Impacts from Carbamates
    • - Carbofuran
        • 82 species killed by use
          • Attributes to Dickcissel decline
          • 2000 songbirds killed in VA
            • Investigation: “No evidence of misuse”
    Dickcissel Spiza americana Brown Pelican Pelicanus occidentalis
        • 1996 USFWS Statement
      • “ there are no known circumstances under which carbofuran can be used without killing birds”
        • Documented in 17 kills in California in 1997
        • Carbofuran is still manufactured and sold in the United States
  • Chemical Pesticides - Pyrroles
        • Bioactivation initiates effect
        • Chlorfenapyr awaiting registration
          • First “pyrrole” to be submitted for registration
          • beneficial use for cotton
          • Persistent in soils
          • significant reproduction effects in avian species
          • Mallard testing
            • 41% decrease in eggs laid
            • 44% decrease in viable embryos
            • 56% decrease in successful hatchings
            • Decreased body weight in adults
  • Indirect Effects from Chemical Pesticides
      • Alteration of Habitat
        • Converting sagebrush to grazing land removes protection from predators
      • Loss of Food Source
        • Especially important for migration and nesting
        • Nesting evolved to coincide with increased insect population
      • Impaired Water Quality
        • Impacts base sources in food web
        • Increases potential for disease
    Brewer’s Sparrow Spizella breweri
  • What You Can Do
        • Buy Organic Food
        • Avoid Using Pesticides Around Home
        • Keep Mosquitoes from Breeding in Your Yard
        • Report a Poisoning Incident
  • Bioengineered Products
        • Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
          • Insert gene into organism to get a desired result
        • Popular GOMs
          • bacillus theringus (bt) corn, roundup ready soybeans
        • Benefits
          • Big savings for farmers
          • Alternative to insecticide application
    Monarch Dannus plexippus
        • BT-corn is causing quite a stir
          • Monarch butterfly population study
            • 44% larvae loss from Bt corn pollen drift
            • Survivors were 1/2 size of control group
        • Study Considerations
          • Corn pollen drift about 30 feet maximum
          • Not all Bt “events” tested. Only 2 of 5
        • Other considerations
          • Effect on endangered Lepidoptera
  • Avian Flu
        • High Pathogenic H5N1
          • Domestic poultry is the main vector of the disease
          • Highly transmissible between birds
          • Fear of pandemic similar to Spanish flu 1918
          • Not expected to diminish significantly in near term
          • Person to person spread rare and unsustained
            • Cases
        • As of September 2006
          • 49 countries have confirmed
            • 16% have found in both domestic and wild birds
          • 246 Human infections (144 deaths)
          • NONE believed to be from wild birds
  • Avian Flu
  • Avian Flu
  • Avian Flu