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  • 1. 1. Introduction  This  assignment  discusses  and  analyses  some  of  the  most  important  theories  in  consumer  behaviour  for   instance   the   perceptual   theory,   learning,   motivation   and   consumer   lifestyle   and   applies   these  theories   through   messages   appeals   and   segmentation   based   on   products   from   two   different  categories.     Based   on   the   level   of   risk   are   classified   into   low   involvement   and   high   involvement  products.   The   low   cost   products   frequently   purchased   which   tend   to   solve   a   habitual   problem  (ie.thurst)   while   on   the   other   side   more   expensive   products   that   need   more   time,   thought   and  search   to   solve   an   extensive   problem   exist   (ie.   Car).     The   "Schweppes"   and   BMW   products   have  chosen  to  complete  this  assignment  (see  appendix  I,II).      Released   advertisements   of   both   category   products   will   be   evaluated   using   the   perceptual   theory  and  from  which  the  perceptual  process  have  been  used  to  show  how  marketers  employ  perceptual  attention,   symbolism   and   interpretation   in   constructing   their   messages.     Furthermore,   learning  theory   will   be   defined   and   via   stimulus-­‐response   models   such   as   classical   conditioning,   instrumental  conditioning   in   addition   to   the   cognitive   learning   theory   will   be   applied   to   illustrate   how   the   first-­‐mentioned  theory  supports  communication  and  branding  theory.    Moreover,   the   second   part   of   the   main   body   will   adopt   the   same   ads   to   illustrate   how   both  companies   have   used   consumer   behaviour   theory   in   marketing   their   product.     More   focus   will   be  given  upon  motivation  theory.    In  order  to  show  how  companies  has  targeted  various  segments  with  their  products  Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs  and  McCelland’s  ‘Three  Needs  Theory’  will  be  used.  This  will   be   followed   by   a   psychographic   lifestyle   model   to   demonstrate   the   use   of   psychographics   and  lifestyle  as  a  segmentation  tool  to  companies.    Finally,  a  conclusion  will  be  made  by  summing  up  the  most  important  points.      2. Task  one  –  Perceptual  Theory       2.1. Perceptual  Theory  –  Low  involvement     Exposure  is  a  stimulus  of  the  degree  of  attention  in  which  a  consumer  focuses  on  that  is  within   their   range   (Solomon   et   al,   2006).     Advertising   is   a   stimulus   in   which   marketers   have   become   very   creative   with   to   gain   consumers   attention   to   their   products   (Solomon   et   al,   2006).     The   low   involvement  product,  which  has  been  chosen,  is  "Schweppes"  (see  appendix  I).    The  ad  posted  in   ‘The  Times’  newspaper  in  UK  make  fun  of  actual  problems  and  to  try  to  make  people  smile  in  a   time  that  is  field  with  gloom  to  grab  consumer’s  attention,  and  to  refresh  memories  about  the   product  (Janssen,  2010).     According   to   Solomon   (2006)   colours   used   in   advertising   play   an   important   role.   These   visual   elements   used   within   advertisements   are   receptive   by   visual   channels   then   communicate   through   a   product   size,   styling,   brightness   and   distinctiveness   compared   to   competitors.   In   "Schweppes"   commercial   (see   appendix   I)   black   and   white   colours   have   been   used   while   the   company’s   trademark   can   easily   identified   at   the   right   side   bottom   with   its   distinctive   colours.     Black   colour   stands   for   authority,   power   and   symbolize   stylishness   and   timeless,   while   White   colour  stands  for  innocence  and  purity  (Johnson,  2012).         1  
  • 2. The   company’s   established   trade   dress   colours   such   are   yellow,   black,   red,   silver   and   a   red   circle   as   a   logo   with   a   symbol   in   the   middle   which   looks   like   a   water   fountain   with   1783   year   of   establishment   underneath   (Janssen,   2010).     Yellow   colour   signifies   cheerfulness   and   is   considered   as   a   colour   for   grabbing   viewers’   attention   (Johnson,   2012).   In   addition   red   symbolizes  emotion  and  silver  sleek,  glamorous  and  rich  (Howard,  2012).       When   it   comes   to   interpretation   of   symbolism   every   marketing   message   has   three   basic   components:  the  object  which  is  the  product  that  is  focus  of  the  message,  the  sign  is  the  sensory   image   that   represents   the   intended   meanings   to   object   and   the   interpretant   the   meaning   derived   (Solomon,   2009).   From   the   selected   ads   (shown   in   Appendices   I,ll)   Schweppes   itself   is   the  main  focus  on  the  message  and  people-­‐cartoons  stand  for  the  sign  last  for  the  interpretant   this  would  be  the  meaning  which  is  “experience  matters”  at  any  case,  that  experience  is  crucial   and  that  it  is  best  to  stick  to  something  that  you  already  know  and  had  positive  past  experience   like  the  product  -­‐  Schweppes.    The  company’s  logo  would  be  the  icon  as  it  associates  with  the   product,  from  these  two  advertisements  it  is  showing  as  it  is  stating  that  Schweppes  is  a  timeless   brand.     Moreover,   what   Schweppes   is   trying   to   do   with   the   brand   and   packaging   is   to   inject   emotions  from  consumers  such  as  life  and  love  for  the  brand  and  to  create  better  engagement   with   the   consumer   (Wearebulletproof,   2012).     As   the   company’s   marketing   director   state   that   this   satiric   point   of   view   will   constantly   engage   customers   by   creating   a   dialogue   with   the   customers   and   will   bring   the   product’s   unique   brand   personality   and   heritage   (CampaingLive,   2008).         2.2. Perceptual  Theory  -­‐  High  Involvement     BMW  is  considered  one  of  the  top  brands  when  it  comes  to  brand  perception.      BMW  uses  visual   identity  within  their  ads  by  always  showing  the  logo  or  their  vehicles.    BMW  uses  a  sexy  lady  to   grab  attention  of  maybe  young  male  professionals  or  women  who  want  to  be  like  her.    Become  a   person  who  have  style  and  seems  to  like  to  take  their  time  when  it  comes  to  finding  the  right   product  or  service,  as  they  want  something  that  is  right  for  them.       White  and  blue  calm  colours  have  been  used  mostly  in  the  ad  while  the  endorser’s  dress  is  red  a   colour   symbolizing   emotional   intense   as   well   as   power   (Johnson,   2012).   The   colour   blue   commonly   used   in   the   corporate   world,   signify   importance   and   confidence   (Howard,   2012),   while   white   colour   which   was   stated   before   for   the   low   involvement   product   symbolizes   innocence  and  purity  and  is  used  because  it  is  light,  neutral,  and  goes  with  everything  (Johnson,   2012).  The  company’s  trade  dress  are  the  logo  on  the  car  which  is  the  icon  within  the  ad  show   colours   of   white,   blue   and   black,   which   blue   is   used   for   corporate   colour   which   suggests   that   people   who   drive   BMW   are   professionals   and   black   symbolizes   conservative,   mysterious,   sexy,   and  sophisticated  in  which  the  car  in  the  print  ad  shown  in  Appendices  I  is  a  very  sexy,  sleek  style   (Howard,  2012).       Regarding  the  basic  components  that  play  the  role  of  symbolism  of  interpretation,  the  BMW  Z4   at   the   background   of   the   ad   stands   for   the   object   advertised   while   the   best   financial   services   have  to  be  picked  for  this.    The  sign  would  be  the  lady  endorsing  the  brand,  who  tries  the  best  fit   -­‐  right  shoe  (financial  service)  and  the  interpretant  would  be  that  one  does  not  have  to  make  a   quick   decision   but   that   with   company’s   financial   services   can   take   his/her   time   and   maybe   try   around  to  see  which  service  best  fits  the  interested.         2  
  • 3. 3. Task  one  -­‐  Learning  Theory     3.1. Behavioural  learning  theory     Both  ads  from  Schweppes  have  been  satiric  of  the  actual  problems  in  today’s  agenda  the  first  is   related  with  the  economic-­‐financial  global  bad  situation  and  the  lack  of  experience  to  overcome   these  problems  while  the  whole  world  is  threatened  by  the  meltdown.    The  marketers  make  use   of  negative  reinforcement.  Indeed,  negative  reinforcement  is  when  a  campaign  or  an  ad  is   showing  people  in  a  negative  situation  because  they  did  not  use  the  product  the  marketer  want   to  sell.  In  classical  conditioning  response  are  involuntary  and  simple,  in  instrumental   conditioning  the  marketers  are  using  it  to  achieve  a  goal  (Solomon  2009).  Instrumental   conditioning  is  about  learning  behaviour  in  order  to  avoid  negative  outcomes  (Solomon,  2009).   What  is  been  shown  is  the  financial  problem  resulted  by  the  global  crisis.  These  men  are  fired   because   they   did   not   have   enough   experience   and   did   not   learn   from   the   last   historic   crisis   to   avoid   the   financial   crisis.   This   is   exactly   the   same   for   the   global   warming   none   of   them   had   enough  experience  to  avoid  it.     Lot   of   people   can   give   different   meanings   to   the   message   by   Schweppes   because   individuals   perceive  things  differently.    One  interpretation  could  be  that  if  politicians  had  an  experience  as   Schweppes   do   they   could   avoid   the   financial   crisis   and   the   global   warming!   Thanks   to   the   ad   Schweppes   is   trying   to   put   forward   its   own   experience   in   order   to   promote   the   quality   of   its   product  since  the  date  of  establishment.    Regarding  to  the  consumer,  the  purpose  of  the  ad  is  to   make   theme   laugh   about   something   serious   in   order   to   promote   the   Schweppes   drink.   Moreover,  thanks  to  the  ad  the  consumer  will  understand  that  experience  matter  and  is  one  of   the  issues  of  the  big  economic  crisis.  Indeed,  the  consumer  will  feel  more  comfortable  with  the   fact  of  drinking  Schweppes,  which  have  a  huge  experience  of  229  years.      In  addition,  the  logo   “Sch...You   know   who?”   shows   again   how   much   they   are   famous   and   how   much   they   have   experience   in   drinks.   In   fact,   they   imply   that   the   consumer   knows   the   rest   of   the   brand   name   because  there  is  previous,  old  experience.     To  conclude  in  this  ad  the  experience  was  the  main  point  to  understand.  However,  the  fact  of   making   fun   about   actual   news   is   also   important   because   Schweppes   managed   to   combine   serious,   funny   and   promotion   in   one   creative   and   innovative   advert.     In   addition,   behavioural   learning   is   more   suitable   for   low   involvement   products.   In   fact,   we   have   seen   that   the   ad   was   more  emotional  rather  than  rational  and  consumers  tend  to  be  more  active  than  they  are  in  a   cognitive  learning  ad.     3.2. Cognitive  learning  theory   In  a  cognitive  learning  theory  the  company  needs  to  attract  the  consumer  who  will  focus  on  a   model’s   behaviour   thanks   to   the   advert.     Then,   the   consumer   will   need   to   retain   the   model’s   behaviour  in  memory  and  be  able  to  perform  it  in  a  real  situation.  Finally  the  consumer  needs  to   meet  a  real  situation  in  which  he  will  be  motivate  and  think  it  is  useful.    At  the  end  of  the  process   the  consumer  acquires  and  performs  the  model’s  behaviour  earlier  demonstrated:  we  call  that   the  observational  learning.  (Solomon,  2009)       3  
  • 4.   Diagram  A:  The  Learning  Process  Theory         Attention   Retention     Production  processes   Motivation    The  consumer   The  consumer  retain   The  consumer  has  the   A  situation  arises   focuses  on  a   this  behaviour  in   ability  to  perform   wherein  the   model’s   memory   behaviour  is  useful  to   the  behaviour   behaviour   the  consumer     Observational  learning     The  consumer  acquires  and  performs  the     behaviour  earlier  demonstrated  by  a  mode       Adopted  by:  Solomon,  2009       The   observational   learning   is   the   purpose   of   the   cognitive   learning   theory   and   so   the   advert   proposed  by  the  company.  In  reference  to  the  BMW  advert,  the  modelling  process  the  consumer   will   follow   is   the   woman   who   is   obviously   the   owner   of   a   BMW-­‐Z4   convertible.   For   that,   the   consumer  needs  to  be  able  to  understand  the  advert  and  the  complexity  of  the  information  to   be  processed,  we  call  that  the  information  processing.  In  other  words  the  company  depends  on   the  consumer  cognitive  ability.     Regarding   to   the   information   processing   there   are   three   possibility   of   retaining   in   memory.   There   are   the   sensory   store,   the   working   memory   and   the   long-­‐term   store   (Schiffman   and   Kanuk,   2011).   The   last   one   is   the   only   one   in   which   the   information   will   not   be   lost.     So   the   advert  needs  to  be  good  enough  to  take  the  attention  of  the  consumer  in  order  to  in  his  long-­‐ term  store  memory.     If  the  consumer  performs  to  understand  the  advert  and  learn  the  modelling  process  the  job  of   the   advert   has   been   successfully   done.   However,   as   we   said   before   the   consumer   needs   to   remember   it   and   be   motivated   in   order   to   perform   the   modelling   process   in   a   real   situation.   Here  the  real  situation  might  be  a  woman  who  buys  a  BMW  car  or  a  man  who  buy  a  BMW  car   for  a  woman.    Without  this  as  the  more  obvious  behaviour  might  be  a  professional  man  who  is   buying   a   car   for   himself.   Here   thanks   to   the   modelling   process   the   woman   is   buying   a   car   for   herself.  We  can  deduce  that  in  addition  to  sell  its  car  for  men  they  want  to  sell  it  for  women  as   well.     To   conclude,   cognitive   learning   is   more   suitable   for   high   involvement   product   because   the   process  is  more  rational  rather  than  emotional.  Indeed,  in  cognitive  learning  the  consumer  will   do   some   research   on   Internet   or   will   talk   with   friend   about   it   for   instance   before   making   a     4  
  • 5. purchase   choice   whereas   on   a   behavioural   learning   the   consumer   will   follow   his   emotions.      4. Task  Two  –  Motivation  Theory       4.1.  Motivation  theory   Consumer   behaviour   focuses   on   how   individuals   make   decisions   to   spend   their   available   resources   such   as   time,   money   or   effort   on   consumption-­‐related   items   (Kanuk   &   Shiffman,   2010).     Motivation   consist   an   essential   part   in   the   consumer   decision-­‐making   process   and   it   refers   to   the   process   that   leads   people   to   behave   as   they   do   (Solomon,   200).   Schiffman   and   Kanuk   simpler   define   motivation   as   "the   driving   force   within   individuals   that   impels   them   to   action"  (Schiffman  and  Kanuk  2007,  p.83)  in  order  to  satisfy  a  need  either  this  is  a  physiological   this   also   referred   as   biogenic   or   is   a   psychological   need.     Our   needs   and   goals   change   due   to   life   experience  therefore  motivation  is  affected.       Is   appreciated   that   the   way   each   individual   choose   a   product   depends   upon   the   degree   of   involvement  with  the  product,  the  marketing  message  or  the  purchase  situation  (Solomon,  200).     Most   of   individuals’   needs   are   inactive   most   of   the   time   but   an   internal   stimulus   found   in   the   person’s   physiological   condition   by   emotional   or   cognitive   processes   or   stimuli   in   the   outside   environment  can  awake  potential  need.    This  arousal  can  be  physiological,  emotional,  cognitive,   environmental  or  situational  (Schiffman  and  Kanuk,  2010).           A  wide  acceptable  framework  used  by  marketers  is  Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs  (see  graph  B).   Regarding   to   Dr   Abraham   Maslow   there   is   five   basic   needs   starting   from   the   basic   biogenic   needs   to   the   higher   psychogenic   needs.     The   hierarchical   structure   implies   that   the   order   of   development  is  fixed  meaning  that  individuals  must  first  satisfy  basic  needs  before  progressing   up  the  latter  (Solomon,  2009).                               5  
  • 6. Diagram  B:  Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  UPPER-­‐LEVEL  NEEDS       SELF-­‐ACTUALIZATION     Self-­‐fulfilment         EGO  NEEDS  /(SELF-­‐ESTEEM)       Status,Accomplishment,Recognition,Respect     S   BELONGING       Love,  friendship,  Family,  Acceptance  by  others     SAFETY     Security,  stability,  Protection,  Freedom  from  fear     PHYSIOLOGICAL     Water,  food,  Shelter,  Warmth,  Sleep                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOWER-­‐LEVEL  NEEDS   Adopted  from:  M.R.  Solomon,  2009     The   model   is   characterised   as   very   general   and   does   not   have   empirical   evidence   on   how   one  level  is  precisely  satisfied  before  you  move  to  the  next  one  (Schiffman  and  Kanuk,  2007).     An   additional   model   is   McClelland’s   three   needs   theory   consisted   of   the   need   for   power,   affiliation  and  achievement,  which  are  included  in  Maslow’s  hierarchy  (Schiffman  and  Kanuk,   2007).        However,  the  hierarchy  of  needs  is  a  highly  practical  and  useful  framework  adopted   by  many  marketers  by  focusing  their  advertising  appeals  on  a  need  that  is  widely  shared  by  a   huge  segment  of  people  (Schiffman  and  Kanuk,  2007).         When   it   comes   to   the   selected   ad   of   low   involvement,   Schweppes   made   use   of   the   political-­‐ economic  and  environmental  arousal  to  motivate  viewers  to  think  about  it  and  ‘at  the  end  of   the   day   there’s   always   a   Schweppes’   to   enjoy.     Insecurity   and   instability   at   every   level   of   economic   and   social   has   been   shown   sarcastically   through   the   company’s   cartoon   ads.     Therefore  it  stresses  the  need  of  security  and  safety,  since  people  are  afraid  of  what  is  going   to   happen   next   but   when   it   comes   to   the   brand   they   feel   confident   and   safe   from   their   previous   positive   experience   with   the   product,   which   can   lead   to   the   purchase   of   the   product   because   a   need   has   aroused.       This   so   called   situational   arousal   can   trigger   business   people  to  have  refreshment  ‘Schweppes’  drink  after  a  tired  long  day  at  work  when  they  go   home.       The  BMW  ad  in  reference  to  Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs  appeals  in  more  than  one  need   segment,   the   safety   and   security   need   and   the   ego,   self-­‐esteem   needs.     The   high   quality   brand   reflects   status   and   prestige   is   clearly   targeted   at   independent   or   even   professional     6  
  • 7. people,   urban   customers   aged   39   years   and   younger   with   a   high   disposable   income.   It   stresses  also  the  power  and  self-­‐confidence  (BMWeducation,  2012).    Also,  according  to  the   message  "Guilty  pleasures  are  bought.  The  finer  pleasures  can  be  leased"  the  first  refers  to   shoes  which  you  have  to  pay  in  order  to  have  them  but  greater  satisfaction  referring  to  the   BMW-­‐Z4   car,   can   be   experience   securely   with   a   fixed   payment   every   agreed   date.     At   this   point  the  safety  and  security  needs  is  applied  communicating  that  the  company  can  ensure   people  and  provide  financial  support,  provided  by  its  financial  department  from  which  this   ad  was  established.      5. Consumer  Lifestyle  theory     Marketers  have  always  been  accustomed  to  using  demographic  and  psychographic  profiling   when  it  comes  to  advertising  their  products  (Solomon,  2008).  However  in  today’s  market  there  is   now  more  of  a  need  to  narrow  down  adverts  and  messages  when  it  comes  to  questions  such  as   whom  they  are  targeting  and  what  they  are  going  to  say  and  where  they  should  say  it  (Solomon,   2008).     This  brought  forward  the  revelation  of  Lifestyles  and  psychographic  theory.  Solomon  (2008)   describes  this  theory  as  looking  into  where  people  spend  most  of  their  time  and  money  and  how   they  elect  to  allocate  it.  The  VALS2  model  helps  in  sorting  people  into  groups  on  the  basis  of  the   things  they  like  and  what  they  do  and  also  how  they  spend  their  disposable  income  (Solomon,   2008).  Below  is  a  diagram  of  what  the  VALS2  diagram  is  broken  down.                                   7  
  • 8. Diagram  C  :  VALS2  Framework       High  Resource       Innovators   High  Innovation           Ideals     Achievement       Self-­‐expression       Thinkers     Achievers     Experience     Believers       Strives     Makers         Low  Resource     Strugglers       Low  Innovation       Adopted  by:  Solomon,  2008  (p.  268)     Psychographics  breakdowns  use  a  mixture  of  psychological,  sociological  and  anthropological   factors  to  help  marketers  determine  various  factors  (Schiffman  and  Kanuk,  2007).   Psychographic  segmentation  has  also  got  various  uses  for  marketers.  It  helps  them  in   defining  new  target  markets  and  helps  them  create  new  views  of  the  market  (Solomon,   2008).  They  also  hep  them  in  positioning  new  products  and  also  better  communicate  a   products  attributes.  Psychographic  segmentation  also  helps  marketers  determine  and   develop  a  product  strategy  and  also  their  social  and  political  issue.           8  
  • 9. 5.1. Low  involvement  product  –  Shcwepps     Shcwepps  is  regarded  as  a  low  involvement  product,  as  there  is  no  great  financial  risk  in  buying   the  product.  There  are  many  copycat  and  piggyback  products  in  the  market  that  are  sold   alongside  Shcwepps  for  a  much  cheaper  price.  Shcwepps  seeks  to  attract  people  from  various   psychographic  groups.     1. Innovators  –  These  consumers  are  at  the  leading  edge  of  change  and  have  the  highest  forms   of  incomes  (Blythe,  2008).  I  think  this  is  reflected  well  in  the  advertisement  as  the  men  and   characters  in  the  advert  seem  all  to  be  people  from  a  good  background  of  jobs  and  those   that  may  have  a  say  in  leading  the  edge  of  change  (Blyhte,  2008).  As  we  can  see  in  the   cartoons  “G20  The  London  Summit  2008”  and  also  the  second  advert  of  the  polar  ice  caps   melting.  These  consumers  also  base  a  great  importance  on  image  and  they  have  and   expression  of  taste,  independence  and  character.  They  are  also  directed  towards  the  finer   things  in  life.  Shcwepps  also  fits  into  this  category  because  the  types  of  consumers  that   purchase  the  Shcwepps  brand  have  a  particular  taste  and  image  as  not  everyone  buys  this   brand.       2. Believers  –  These  consumers  also  fit  into  this  category  as  they  have  preferences  for   American  and  well  established  brands  (StrategicBusinessInsights,  2012).    Although  they  are   from  a  low  resource  group  they  are  highly  motivated  by  ideals.  They  are  also  regarded  as   very  predictable  consumers  (StrategicBsuinessInisights,  2012).  These  individuals  are  also   centred  on  family,  community  and  the  nation.  This  is  evident  in  this  advert  as  the  cartoon   characters  are  talking  and  looking  at  things  that  matter  to  the  community  and  nation,   referencing  things  such  as  global  warming  and  also  the  “G20  London  Summit”.         5.2. High  involvement  product  –  BMW     BMW  is  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  luxurious  road  cars  being  manufactured,  making  it  a  high   involvement  product  as  there  is  great  financial  risk  involved  in  making  this  type  of  purchase.   BMW  seeks  to  attract  people  from  two  possible  psychographic  groups.     1. Experiencers  –  These  consumers  are  generally  aged  around  the  median  age  of  25,  and  come   from  a  high-­‐resource  group  that  is  motivated  by  self-­‐expression.  This  group  also  tends  to  be   into  physical  exercise  and  also  social  activities,  spending  heavily  on  clothing,  fast  food,  music   and  other  youthful  activities.  This  can  be  seen  reflected  in  the  advert,  as  the  woman  in  the   advert  is  getting  ready  and  dressed  to  possibly  go  out  to  social  event   (StrategicBusinessInisights,  2012).  The  woman  is  also  young  in  the  picture,  which  means  she   also  fits  into  the  median  age  of  this  category.  It  is  clear  that  image  and  self  expression  are   important  to  the  woman  in  the  picture  simple  by  what  is  photographed  alongside  her,  i.e.   the  three  pairs  of  shoes  and  also  most  importantly  the  car.       2. Innovators  –  These  consumers  are  on  the  leading  edge  of  change,  and  have  the  highest   forms  of  incomes  (StrategicBusinessInsights,  2012).  They  like  to  indulge  in  the  “finer  or  finest   things  in  life”.  Image  is  most  important  thing  in  their  life,  alongside  their  expression  of  taste,   independence  and  character.  This  again  is  also  evident  in  the  advertisement,  with  what  is   written  on  the  advert,  “guilty  pleasure  are  bought,  and  the  finer  pleasures  in  life  can  be   leased”.    It  also  evident  that  image  is  important  as  the  women  in  the  advert  is  choosing   between  three  different  types  of  heels  and  not  just  one.         9  
  • 10. 6. CONCLUSION    To  sum  up,    Learning   theory   can   be   both   behavioural   or   cognitive   marketers   are   using   different   types   of  involvements  according  to  what  they  want  to  say.  In  fact,  a  low  involvement  advertisement  is  more  suitable   for   a   behavioural   learning   and   high   involvement   is   contrary   more   suitable   for   cognitive  learning.   It   is   all   about   rational   or   emotional.   Behavioural   learning   is   emotional   whereas   cognitive  learning  is  rational.      Marketers   generally   use   motivation   to   encourage   consumption.     Indeed,   they   construct   their  advertising  messages  in  reflection  to  personal  needs  in  order  to  target  and  reach  a  large  number  of  people   who   usually   share   the   same   need   or   goals.     A   common   and   flexible   to   different   needs  framework  exploited  by,  is  the  Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs.  Meaning  that  an  ad  can  appeal  to  more  than   one   of   human’s   need,   which   could   be   physiological,   safety,   belonging,   self-­‐esteem   or   self-­‐fulfilment.      It   is   also   fair   to   say   that   consumer   lifestyles   are   also   a   main   target   to   marketers;   it   is   evident   that  these   types   of   sectors   are   forevermore   being   targeted   now.   Marketers   need   now   more   than   ever   to  focus  on  consumer  lifestyles  in  order  to  ensure  that  they  are  going  after  the  correct  consumers  and  that  they  are  reaching  out  to  their  target  audience.                                     10  
  • 11. 7.  Appendix    Appendix  A           11  
  • 12. Appendix  B                                                         12  
  • 13. Appendix  C:  Group  Working  Log  Meeting  Date   Activity   Agreed  Action        02/03/12   • Divide  the  work  into  4  parts  and  share  our   1  question  each     personal  details                  09/03/12   • Define   which   advertise   will   used   in   the   Schweppes  and  BMW  ad     assignment                16/03/12   • Talking   about   what   each   person   of   the       group   will   write   in   his   part   in   order   to   be     agree  on  each  point          21/03/12   • Combine  the  work  all  together            22/03/12   • Print  and  submit  the  work          Group  Signatures  below:                                 13  
  • 14. Appendix  D:    Individual  Working  Log  (Member  1)  Task  Number   Contribution      1   • Going   throw   all   the   theories   I   need   to   understand   before   doing   my   job.   I     read  several  books  and  use  the  presentation  I  have  done  in  class.        2   • Understand  the  advertisement  clearly  in  order  to  do  not  make  a  confusion.     I  also  agreed  with  everyone  about  the  understanding  of  the  ads.        3   • Write  my  part  of  the  group  assignment  using  my  understanding  of  the  ads     and  the  theory.        4   • Write  the  introduction  in  collaboration  with  on  of  the  group  person.      Name:      Hugo  Barbier                                                                                                                                                                                                Date:  22/03/2012  Individual  Working  Log  (Member  2)  Task  Number   Contribution          1   I  was  responsible  for  completing  the  consumer  lifestyles  theory  in  relation  to  both     advertisements        2   I  was  also  in  charge  of  the  final  layout  and  how  it  has  all  been  displayed        3   Created  the  contents  page  and  also  the  reference  layouts.        4   Reading   over   other   people   work   and   also   ensuring   that   it   flowed   and   helped   out     anyone  else  who  needed  help                    Name:  Rodrigue  Eid                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Date:  22/03/12           14  
  • 15. Individual  Working  Log  (Member  3)  Task  Number   Contribution      1   • With   another   member   of   the   group   search   to   find   the   advertisements     appropriate  for  this  assignment      2   • Email   everyone   the   ads   and   share   personal   details   and   keep   others     updated  about  what  is  going  on      3   • Complete  my  part  –Task  two  Motivation  theory      4   • Do  introduction  part  in  collaboration  with  another  member      5   • Check  the  layout  and  grammar  and  do  the  final  changes         • Responsible  with  two  members  of  the  group  to  print  out  the  coursework  6   and  submit  it  at  the  Faculty  Office          Name:  Lia  Christodoulou                                                                                                                                                                                                          Date:  22/03/12    Individual  Working  Log  (Member  4)  Task  Number   Contribution      1   • With   another   member   of   the   group   search   to   find   the   advertisements     appropriate  for  this  assignment      2   • Email  to  keep  others  updated  and  responsible  to  arrange  the  meetings        3   • Complete  my  part  –Task  one  Perception  theory      4   • I  did  conclusion  in  collaboration  with  another  member      5   • Submit  the  work      Name:  Natasha  Williams                                                                                                                                                                                                            Date:  22/03/12     15  
  • 16. 8.  Reference:  Blythe  J.  2008,  Consumer  Behaviour,  Thomson  Learning  London  CampaignLive  (2012)  Schwepps  experience  matters  by  mother.  [Online],  Available  from:­‐experience-­‐matters-­‐Mother/?DCMP=ILC-­‐SEARCH    [Accessed:  March  15,  2012]  Charles   G.   2009,   Schweppes   unveils   Hogarthian-­‐style   satiric   cartoons,  [Online]   Available   from:­‐unveils-­‐Hogarthian-­‐style-­‐satirical-­‐cartoons/?DCMP=ILC-­‐SEARCH  [Accessed  by:  13  March,  2012]  Consumerreports   (2012)   Top   five   in   brand   perception   by   category.   [Online],   Available   from:­‐cars/news/2008/01/brand-­‐perceptions/top-­‐five-­‐in-­‐brand-­‐perception/brand-­‐perceptions-­‐top-­‐5.htm  [Accessed:  March  15,  2012]  ConsumerReports  (2008)  Top  five  in  brand  perception  by  category.  [Online],  available  from:­‐cars/news/2008/01/brand-­‐perceptions/top-­‐five-­‐in-­‐brand-­‐perception/brand-­‐perceptions-­‐top-­‐5.htm  [Accessed:  March  15,  2012]  Howard,   J   (2012)   The   meaning   of   color.   [Online],   Available   from:  [Accessed:  March  15,  2012]  Janssen, S (2010) Schweppes: Experience matters. [Online], Available from: [Accessed: March 15, 2012]Johnson,   D   (2012)   Color   Psychology.   [Online],   Available   from:  [Accessed:  March  15,  2012]  Schiffman   L.G.   and   Kanuk   L.L.   2007,   Consumer   Behaviour,   9th   edn,   Pearson   Education,   Inc.,   Upper  Saddle  River,  New  Jersey.  Schiffman  L.G.  and  Kanuk  L.L.  2011,  Consumeur  Behaviour:  an  european  outlook  2nd  ed  Solomon   M.R.   2009,   Consumer   behaviour:   Buying   Having   and   Being   8th   edn,   Pearson   Education,   Inc.,  Upper  Saddle  River,  New  Jersey.  StrategicBusinessInsight  (2012)  US  Framework  and  VALS  Types,  [Online]  Available  from:  [Accessed  by:  18  March,  2012]  Subby   (2010)   Schweppes   core   range.     [Online],   Available   from:  [Accessed:  March  15,  2012]  Wearebulletproof   (2012)   We   are   luvly   bubbly.   [Online],   Available   from:­‐work/schweppes/  [Accessed:  March  15,  2012]         16