Department of LanguagesPUC Minas - Sociolinguistics/ DialectologyProf. Rodrigo Pelegrini HonoratoEnfoque Letras
How it all started…Back in the dates - Migration from England to the USA, Slaveholders, Uncle Toms, Africans, skin color ...
African American Vernacular English –(AAVE) AAVE is colloquially known as Ebonics, which is a portmanteau / combination o...
Warm-upIs there a specific grammar?Is BEV “incorrect”, “inappropriate”, or “sloppy”?Do black people linguistically suff...
Warm-up What is slang? How much slang does  Ebonics have? How is slang used?/What is it for?  (DEA/FBI) Does every sing...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE1. Reduction of a word-final consonantHand = Han’             About = ‘BouPassed = pas’      ...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE2. Deletion of word-final single   consonant.Cat = ca’             chat = cha’Vet = ve’      ...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE3. Realization of final “ng” as “n” in gerunds:Walking = walkin’Talking = talkin’Mc Donalds’ ...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE4. Realization of voiceless “th” as “t” or “f” or “v”:Nothing = nuttin’, nu’in, nuffin’Thin =...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE5. Realization of voiced“th” as “d”:That = da’Brother = broda, bro’, bruh.The = da (50 Cent –...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE6. Realization of “thr” sequence to “th”:Threw = thewThreaten = thwetenI’m throwed! = I’m tho...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE7. Deletion or vocalization of “r” after a  vowel: It also happens in British English.Sister ...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE8. Deletion of unstressed initial “a”About = ‘bou(t) “Cuz dey kno’ ‘bout dat, hataz bettah ch...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE9. Swap “ai” for “ah” such as in:I’m = “ah’m”Time = t”ah”mMy car= mah ca:While = wh’ah’le“I’m...
Pronunciation Features ofAAVE10. Deletion or reduction of the  sound“v” in words ended in –”ve”:Love = luvI love you = I l...
Grammatical Features
Grammatical Features In AAVE or colloquially Ebonics, the verb “be” is often not included. See some examples:  Ebonics   ...
Grammatical Features The use of the verb “be”, in Ebonics, is simplified to  “be”, “was”, “wuz” or “is”, for all persons....
Grammatical Features (Song)“Nigga you’s a window shopperMad at me, I think I know whyNigga yous a window shopperIn the jew...
Some Slang Terms in AAVEMan, you nuts!              I do mah thang!She my sis!                 How ya doin’?He my bro!    ...
Negative Sentences (DoubleNegative) I aint step on no line. = I didn’t step on any  line I aint belie’ed what she said, ...
Grammatical Features (Song)  Aint no mountain high Aint no valley low Aint no river wide enough, baby If you need me call ...
Immediate Future “Be + going to” is generally replaced by other terms such as:  1. Finna (about to) – I finna hit the mal...
Challenge – Reading in Ebonics What yall up 2? Damn it! I been lookin fo dat jawb fo a  long tahme. Whatcha think we shoo...
Sleep on it!“Black English is not all slang, but all black slang is Black English.”
Reference Books Akmajian, Demers and Harnish - LINGUISTICS An Introduction to Language and Communication – Second Edition...
Keep it Throwed!“The limits of my language mean the limits of my world.”“Da limits o’ mah language mean da limits o’ mah w...
Black English - Girias e Palavroes?
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Black English - Girias e Palavroes?

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Scope this with infra-reds, Black English is not what people usually think it is. Read something about it. Hope these slides help you see through what media brings up.

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Black English - Girias e Palavroes?

  1. 1. Department of LanguagesPUC Minas - Sociolinguistics/ DialectologyProf. Rodrigo Pelegrini HonoratoEnfoque Letras
  2. 2. How it all started…Back in the dates - Migration from England to the USA, Slaveholders, Uncle Toms, Africans, skin color (yellow bone, red bone), lack of reading and writing;
  3. 3. African American Vernacular English –(AAVE) AAVE is colloquially known as Ebonics, which is a portmanteau / combination of “Ebony” and “Phonics” also called Black English, Black Vernacular, or Black English Vernacular (BEV); It has pronunciation characteristics in common with various West African languages, Creole, and British English.
  4. 4. Warm-upIs there a specific grammar?Is BEV “incorrect”, “inappropriate”, or “sloppy”?Do black people linguistically suffer because of it?Is it accepted in the Business world?
  5. 5. Warm-up What is slang? How much slang does Ebonics have? How is slang used?/What is it for? (DEA/FBI) Does every single black person speak BEV? Is it very different from Mainstream English/ Standard English? Are African Americans bilingual? “Code switch proposed by Garrard McClendon.
  6. 6. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE1. Reduction of a word-final consonantHand = Han’ About = ‘BouPassed = pas’ Perfect = Perfec’Desk = des’ Right = Righ’Friend = frien’ Left = lef’
  7. 7. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE2. Deletion of word-final single consonant.Cat = ca’ chat = cha’Vet = ve’ Get = gi’That = da’ Shit = shi’
  8. 8. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE3. Realization of final “ng” as “n” in gerunds:Walking = walkin’Talking = talkin’Mc Donalds’ slogan = I’m lovin’ it!
  9. 9. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE4. Realization of voiceless “th” as “t” or “f” or “v”:Nothing = nuttin’, nu’in, nuffin’Thin = tinKeith = KeifDeath = Deaf*Brother = Brover
  10. 10. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE5. Realization of voiced“th” as “d”:That = da’Brother = broda, bro’, bruh.The = da (50 Cent – In da Club)This = dis
  11. 11. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE6. Realization of “thr” sequence to “th”:Threw = thewThreaten = thwetenI’m throwed! = I’m thowed!(I’m fresh,I’m cool = I’m clean = No stain on me)
  12. 12. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE7. Deletion or vocalization of “r” after a vowel: It also happens in British English.Sister = sistuh, sis’ Water = watahGangster = gangsta For sure = fo’ sho’ (Fo’ shizzle!)Your = yo’ Open the door! = open da do’!
  13. 13. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE8. Deletion of unstressed initial “a”About = ‘bou(t) “Cuz dey kno’ ‘bout dat, hataz bettah chill plus I’m packin’ somn dat dey classify as steal...” by TRAEAfraid = ‘frai (d)’Among = ‘mong
  14. 14. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE9. Swap “ai” for “ah” such as in:I’m = “ah’m”Time = t”ah”mMy car= mah ca:While = wh’ah’le“I’m hot cuz I’m fly, you ain’t cuz ya not.” by MIMS
  15. 15. Pronunciation Features ofAAVE10. Deletion or reduction of the sound“v” in words ended in –”ve”:Love = luvI love you = I lu’ ya!I believe in God = “Ah” belie’ in Go’.They deserved it = Dey deser’d it.
  16. 16. Grammatical Features
  17. 17. Grammatical Features In AAVE or colloquially Ebonics, the verb “be” is often not included. See some examples: Ebonics Standard English He all right He is all right She at home now She is at home now Where you at? Where are you? He workin` He is working
  18. 18. Grammatical Features The use of the verb “be”, in Ebonics, is simplified to “be”, “was”, “wuz” or “is”, for all persons. Ebonics Standard English I be here everyday I am here everyday She my homegirl She is my close friend/ girlfriend We was here yesterday We were here yesterday You my homeboy You are my best friend
  19. 19. Grammatical Features (Song)“Nigga you’s a window shopperMad at me, I think I know whyNigga yous a window shopperIn the jewelery sto’, looking at shit you cant buyNigga yous a window shopperIn the dealership, trynna get a test-driveNigga yous a window shopperMad as fuck when ya see me ride by” 50 Cent – Window shopper
  20. 20. Some Slang Terms in AAVEMan, you nuts! I do mah thang!She my sis! How ya doin’?He my bro! How ya been?Who you?Where ya stay? What’s poppin’?What’cha gon’ do tonight? What’s crackin’ ?“Dont’cha wish yo Wuz gud?girlfriend wuz hot like Fo sho! = Fo shizzleme?” by Pussy Cat Dolls What it is yo’?She bad! = Smokin’ hot! What up? = Wussap?Smoke show!She badder! Sup?She da baddast! What it do? (Houston,TX)Whoa, dat’s a smoke show! Lemme git back to daDon’t pay’em any mind! grind!Dat’s what she said! Ya got chris-browned?
  21. 21. Negative Sentences (DoubleNegative) I aint step on no line. = I didn’t step on any line I aint belie’ed what she said, man. = I did not believe in what she said. I aint seen nobody. = I have not seen anybody. I aint see nu’in = I didn’t see anything I ain’t no liar = I am not a liar. I ain’t got no cheddar = I don`t have any money
  22. 22. Grammatical Features (Song) Aint no mountain high Aint no valley low Aint no river wide enough, baby If you need me call me no matter where you are, no matter how far (dont worry baby) just call out my name. Ill be there in a hurry You don’t need to worry Cause baby there Aint no mountain high enough Aint no valley low enough Aint no river wide enough To keep me from getting to you babe By Marvin Gaye
  23. 23. Immediate Future “Be + going to” is generally replaced by other terms such as: 1. Finna (about to) – I finna hit the mall. 2.Fixin’ to – I’m fixin’ to go home! 3. I’mma - I’mma do somn now. I’mma call ya later! 4. Fittin’ to – What’cha fittin’ to do homie? 5. Gon’ – She gon’ be here in a blink of an eye.
  24. 24. Challenge – Reading in Ebonics What yall up 2? Damn it! I been lookin fo dat jawb fo a long tahme. Whatcha think we shoo b doin bout dat shit? What I can letcha kno bah now is dat I applied fo it. I aint no snitch but I needa keep on stackin up da dough, ya knowmsayin? I finna jet cuz ya kno I gotta flip a bird 2nite so I finna git da slab ready, nahImean? Damn, peep dis shit out nigga, a car fulla white girls to be taken to dat hood where ya smoked dat fuckin punk. Whattama tell ya is dat aint nobody gon put da hands on mah doja, ya heard? Imma bus da goddamn cap on dey ass if dey fuckin jump at it, aaight. Lemme head out cuz five-oh bout to show up!
  25. 25. Sleep on it!“Black English is not all slang, but all black slang is Black English.”
  26. 26. Reference Books Akmajian, Demers and Harnish - LINGUISTICS An Introduction to Language and Communication – Second Edition (315-320) Cambridge University Press, University of Arizona LABOV, William – Introduction to African American and Latino English – (122-145) University of Pennsylvania LABOV, ASH and BOBERG – Atlas of North American English - Department of Sociolinguistics/ University of Pennsylvania
  27. 27. Keep it Throwed!“The limits of my language mean the limits of my world.”“Da limits o’ mah language mean da limits o’ mah world.” * Ludwig Wittgestein
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