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Fragments & run ons
 

Fragments & run ons

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Mini grammar LP

Mini grammar LP

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    Fragments & run ons Fragments & run ons Presentation Transcript

    • Fragments & Run-ons Mr. O’Connor With special guest speaker Kevin Garnett
    • Sentence combining --- avoiding run-ons and fragments
      • Sentences in English are traditionally described as simple, compound, complex , or compound-complex .
        • A 'run-on' error occurs in a compound or compound-complex sentence that is not properly connected.
        • A fragment is a word-group that is not a sentence because it does not contain at least one independent clause.
      • Clearly, in order to understand what the 'Run-on' and 'fragment' errors are, we first need to know what factors make a sentence, whether simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex, really a sentence.
    • The Four Types of Sentences
      • A simple sentence has one independent clause that contains one subject and at least one verb. (Note that a clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb. It differs from a phrase in that a phrase does not include a subject and verb relationship.)
      • A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).
      • A complex sentence has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
      • A complex-compound sentence has at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
    • (1) The Simple Sentence
      • A simple sentence has a single subject-verb combination. Thus, it has only one idea, or thought.
      • Examples:
      • 1. Birds fly.
      • 2. The meeting started early.
      • 3. Water has been contaminated by the sewage system.
      • A simple sentence may have more than one subject.
      • Examples:
      • 1. Mary and Sam went home.
      • 2. Sand and dust covered my clothes.
    • (1) The Simple Sentence
      • A simple sentence may have more than one verb.
      • Examples:
      • 1. The boys played and won the game.
      • 2. The machine belched smoke and stopped.
      • Clearly, a simple sentence may have several subjects and verbs, as in the following sentence, for example:
        • Joe, Sally, and Peter cleaned the carpet, washed the windows, and changed the curtains.
    • (2) The Compound Sentence
      • A compound sentence combines two simple sentences.
      • Examples:
      • 1. Birds fly, but fish swim.
      • 2. The meeting started early, so we were late.
      • 3. Water has been contaminated, for the sewage system broke down.
      • Clearly, such a sentence carries more than one idea. Note that each of these examples has two subjects, two verbs and two ideas.
    • (2) The Compound Sentence
      • Two simple sentences should be combined correctly in order to write a compound sentence
      • Example: Mary wanted to go shopping, but Ron wanted to watch the game.
      • * A compound sentence is often prone to the run-on error.
    • (3) The Complex Sentence
      • The complex sentence has a simple sentence and a statement that begins with a dependent word.
        • Example: I failed the final exam because I did not answer all the questions.
      • A complex sentence can also start with a dependent word statement followed by a simple sentence.
    • (3) The Complex Sentence
      • Example: Because I did not answer all the questions, I failed the final exam.
      • In this second example here, 'because' is called a dependent word. The first part of this sentence is not complete in its meaning and is called a fragment. For instance, if you were to present it as a sentence,
        • Because I did not answer all the questions
      • it would be an incomplete thought, and will be called a fragment, because you need the second part (", I failed the final exam") to complete the thought.
    • (4) The Compound-Complex Sentence
      • The compound-complex sentence has both, compound as well as complex, sentences.
      • Example: I finished my household chores, so I decided to do some shopping although I did not have any money.
      • Note that the first part here ("I finished ... some shopping") is a compound sentence.
      • In constructing compound-complex sentences, therefore, we need to guard against both run-ons as well as fragments.
    • What is a 'Run-on'?
      • In Run-on sentences, the ideas run together, without any correct punctuation marks connecting them.
      • Example of a 'Run-on' sentence:
        • Mary wanted to go shopping Ron wanted to watch the game.
      • The correct form of this sentence is:
        • Mary wanted to go shopping, but Ron wanted to watch the game.
    • Try this quiz on identifying run-ons: Which of these sentences have 'Run-on' errors?
        • 1. Tom and Gloria went to the movie, but the tickets were sold out.
      • 2. The alarm sounded Gloria woke up.
      • 3. The game stopped, for the rain came.
      • 4. The meeting was over; therefore, we went home.
    • Run-ons reveal fused sentences. The following methods are commonly used to correct them.
      • Method 1: Period and a Capital Letter
      • Break the two complete thoughts into two separate sentences by putting a period at the end of the first thought, to form a complete sentence, and then a capital letter to begin the second thought as a separate sentence.
      • Method 2: Comma and a Joining Word
      • Use a comma and a joining word to connect the two complete thoughts.
      • Common joining words: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
      • Method 3: Semicolon
      • Use a semicolon to mark the break between two thoughts.
      • Example: The restaurant was beautiful the food was overpriced.
      • Method 4: Subordination
      • This method of joining related thoughts uses subordination, by showing that one thought in a sentence is not as important as the other thought.
        • Example: Although my grades are very good this year. My social life rates only a C.
      • The first word-group is clearly a fragment, and not a complete sentence. Following is one way to construct a single sentence by combining the two:
      • Although my grades are very good this year, my social life rates only a C.
    • What is a fragment?
      • A complete sentence must have a subject and a verb and must express a complete thought. Therefore, a fragment is a word group that lacks a subject or a verb, and fails to express a complete thought.
      • Clearly, in order to avoid the 'fragment' errors in your writing, you need to learn to write the complex sentences correctly.
    • How to Avoid Fragments
      • 1. Make sure every sentence has a subject and a verb.
        • Crystal works at the nursing home.
      • 2. Do not mistake a verbal* for the verb of the subject.
        • Wondering about his future (This is a fragment.)
        • My brother is wondering about his future. (This is a complete sentence.)
      • 3. Make sure every sentence has at least one independent clause (An independent clause has a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete sentence.)
        • Because she prepared for her test (This is a dependent clause.)
        • Because she prepared for her test, she got an A. (This is an independent clause.)
        • * Non-finite verbs (think "unfinished") cannot, by themselves, be main verbs:
          • The broken window . . .
          • The wheezing gentleman . .