Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Fragments & Run-ons Mr. O’Connor With special guest speaker  Kevin Garnett
Sentence combining --- avoiding run-ons and fragments <ul><li>Sentences in English are traditionally described as  simple,...
The Four Types of Sentences <ul><li>A  simple sentence  has one independent clause that contains one subject and at least ...
(1) The Simple Sentence <ul><li>A simple sentence has a single subject-verb combination. Thus, it has only one idea, or th...
(1) The Simple Sentence <ul><li>A simple sentence may have more than one verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><...
(2) The Compound Sentence <ul><li>A compound sentence combines two simple sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:  </li></u...
(2) The Compound Sentence <ul><li>Two simple sentences should be combined correctly in order to write a compound sentence ...
(3) The Complex Sentence <ul><li>The complex sentence has a simple sentence and a statement that begins with a dependent w...
(3) The Complex Sentence <ul><li>Example:   Because I did not answer all the questions, I failed the final exam. </li></ul...
(4) The Compound-Complex Sentence <ul><li>The compound-complex sentence has both, compound as well as complex, sentences. ...
What is a 'Run-on'? <ul><li>In Run-on sentences, the ideas run together, without any correct punctuation marks connecting ...
Try this quiz on identifying run-ons: Which of these sentences have 'Run-on' errors? <ul><ul><li>1. Tom and Gloria went to...
Run-ons reveal fused sentences. The following methods are commonly used to correct them. <ul><li>Method 1: Period and a Ca...
What is a fragment? <ul><li>A complete sentence must have a subject and a verb and must express a complete thought. Theref...
How to Avoid Fragments <ul><li>1. Make sure every sentence has a subject and a verb. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystal works a...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Fragments & run ons

2,606

Published on

Mini grammar LP

1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,606
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
100
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Fragments & run ons"

  1. 1. Fragments & Run-ons Mr. O’Connor With special guest speaker Kevin Garnett
  2. 2. Sentence combining --- avoiding run-ons and fragments <ul><li>Sentences in English are traditionally described as simple, compound, complex , or compound-complex . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 'run-on' error occurs in a compound or compound-complex sentence that is not properly connected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A fragment is a word-group that is not a sentence because it does not contain at least one independent clause. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clearly, in order to understand what the 'Run-on' and 'fragment' errors are, we first need to know what factors make a sentence, whether simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex, really a sentence. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Four Types of Sentences <ul><li>A simple sentence has one independent clause that contains one subject and at least one verb. (Note that a clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb. It differs from a phrase in that a phrase does not include a subject and verb relationship.) </li></ul><ul><li>A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). </li></ul><ul><li>A complex sentence has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>A complex-compound sentence has at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. </li></ul>
  4. 4. (1) The Simple Sentence <ul><li>A simple sentence has a single subject-verb combination. Thus, it has only one idea, or thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Birds fly. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The meeting started early. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Water has been contaminated by the sewage system. </li></ul><ul><li>A simple sentence may have more than one subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Mary and Sam went home. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sand and dust covered my clothes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. (1) The Simple Sentence <ul><li>A simple sentence may have more than one verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The boys played and won the game. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The machine belched smoke and stopped. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly, a simple sentence may have several subjects and verbs, as in the following sentence, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joe, Sally, and Peter cleaned the carpet, washed the windows, and changed the curtains. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. (2) The Compound Sentence <ul><li>A compound sentence combines two simple sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Birds fly, but fish swim. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The meeting started early, so we were late. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Water has been contaminated, for the sewage system broke down. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly, such a sentence carries more than one idea. Note that each of these examples has two subjects, two verbs and two ideas. </li></ul>
  7. 7. (2) The Compound Sentence <ul><li>Two simple sentences should be combined correctly in order to write a compound sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Mary wanted to go shopping, but Ron wanted to watch the game. </li></ul><ul><li>* A compound sentence is often prone to the run-on error. </li></ul>
  8. 8. (3) The Complex Sentence <ul><li>The complex sentence has a simple sentence and a statement that begins with a dependent word. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: I failed the final exam because I did not answer all the questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A complex sentence can also start with a dependent word statement followed by a simple sentence. </li></ul>
  9. 9. (3) The Complex Sentence <ul><li>Example: Because I did not answer all the questions, I failed the final exam. </li></ul><ul><li>In this second example here, 'because' is called a dependent word. The first part of this sentence is not complete in its meaning and is called a fragment. For instance, if you were to present it as a sentence, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because I did not answer all the questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>it would be an incomplete thought, and will be called a fragment, because you need the second part (&quot;, I failed the final exam&quot;) to complete the thought. </li></ul>
  10. 10. (4) The Compound-Complex Sentence <ul><li>The compound-complex sentence has both, compound as well as complex, sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: I finished my household chores, so I decided to do some shopping although I did not have any money. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the first part here (&quot;I finished ... some shopping&quot;) is a compound sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>In constructing compound-complex sentences, therefore, we need to guard against both run-ons as well as fragments. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is a 'Run-on'? <ul><li>In Run-on sentences, the ideas run together, without any correct punctuation marks connecting them. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of a 'Run-on' sentence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary wanted to go shopping Ron wanted to watch the game. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The correct form of this sentence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary wanted to go shopping, but Ron wanted to watch the game. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Try this quiz on identifying run-ons: Which of these sentences have 'Run-on' errors? <ul><ul><li>1. Tom and Gloria went to the movie, but the tickets were sold out. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. The alarm sounded Gloria woke up. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The game stopped, for the rain came. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The meeting was over; therefore, we went home. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Run-ons reveal fused sentences. The following methods are commonly used to correct them. <ul><li>Method 1: Period and a Capital Letter </li></ul><ul><li>Break the two complete thoughts into two separate sentences by putting a period at the end of the first thought, to form a complete sentence, and then a capital letter to begin the second thought as a separate sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Method 2: Comma and a Joining Word </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma and a joining word to connect the two complete thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Common joining words: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so </li></ul><ul><li>Method 3: Semicolon </li></ul><ul><li>Use a semicolon to mark the break between two thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The restaurant was beautiful the food was overpriced. </li></ul><ul><li>Method 4: Subordination </li></ul><ul><li>This method of joining related thoughts uses subordination, by showing that one thought in a sentence is not as important as the other thought. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Although my grades are very good this year. My social life rates only a C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first word-group is clearly a fragment, and not a complete sentence. Following is one way to construct a single sentence by combining the two: </li></ul><ul><li>Although my grades are very good this year, my social life rates only a C. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is a fragment? <ul><li>A complete sentence must have a subject and a verb and must express a complete thought. Therefore, a fragment is a word group that lacks a subject or a verb, and fails to express a complete thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly, in order to avoid the 'fragment' errors in your writing, you need to learn to write the complex sentences correctly. </li></ul>
  15. 15. How to Avoid Fragments <ul><li>1. Make sure every sentence has a subject and a verb. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystal works at the nursing home. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Do not mistake a verbal* for the verb of the subject. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wondering about his future (This is a fragment.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My brother is wondering about his future. (This is a complete sentence.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Make sure every sentence has at least one independent clause (An independent clause has a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete sentence.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because she prepared for her test (This is a dependent clause.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because she prepared for her test, she got an A. (This is an independent clause.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Non-finite verbs (think &quot;unfinished&quot;) cannot, by themselves, be main verbs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The broken window . . . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The wheezing gentleman . . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×