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The church-and-crusades lecture ver
 

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  • The Church was a vital part of the daily lives of the people. It decided political matters and sometimes even matters of life or death. The daily life was centered around the Church. To become a King, Lord, Vassal or knight, you had to celebrate it through a religious ceremony. Holidays were in honor of Saints or for some religious event. The people honored the “ no meat on Fridays” rule and attended Mass each Sunday. The Church ran the schools and the hospitals and Monks and nuns helped travelers with food and lodging. Priests recorded births, performed marriages and presided over burials.
  • Along with the Kings and Lords, the Church helped govern the western world of Europe. The high Church leaders were also lords and vassals who had control over other lords. The Church served as a advisory council for the king and nobles. Helped the king keep order by persuading people to follow the kings rules unless they went against canon law. Going against canon law would cause excommunication from the Church and loss of political rights.
  • Although the Church was strong, it still faced problems. Heresy was a large problem. They tried to stop it by preaching, but that did not succeed. In 1129 the council of bishops set up the “inquisition” or Church court to deal with the issue of heresy. Those suspected were given 1 month to confess. If confessed, they were whipped and sentenced to a short time in jail. Those who did not confess, were seized and brought to trial. Here they were given a chance to confess. 2 witnesses were brought forth to help decide a verdict. If found guilty of heresy and the person confesses, they served time and the whipping. If they did not confess, they were tortured. Some were burned at the stake.
  • The Church made money from the people tithing 10% of their earnings to it. Rich nobles donated land and money to build churches and monasteries to the monks. Some monks began to get careless with the money that the were being given and were not carrying out their religious duties (got the big head). The nobles too were also guilty of not doing what was right. When a bishop died, instead of letting the Church replace him, the noble would take charge and appoint someone, usually a friend to the post or he would “sell” the position. The person who took the post was not always a religious person. That led to non-religious people having leading and decisive roles in the Church and politics of the time.
  • Many devout catholic monks fought back by forming new monasteries. They followed the Benedictine Rule. One such monastery was the Cluny. These monks lived simple and prayerful lives. They followed the rules of the Pope, not the king and believed only the Pope could elect new church officials. Many new monasteries began to spring up following this example across Europe
  • In an attempt to regain control over the Church, the pope issued a document in 1075 that proclaimed his powers. In it, the documents states that only the Pope may choose bishops and church leaders. The Pope has power over the kings/nobles. Any government official who disobeyed the Pope was removed from office. Also, the people only had to follow an official that followed the rules of the Pope. They did not have to listen to an official that did not. The kings thought this was a deliberate attack on their power and resisted at first, but eventually gave in and lost some of their power to the Pope.
  • In the 1200’s, preachers called Friars spread the word of reform and Christianity across Europe. They were like monks but did not live in a monastery. They sold their belongings and depended upon the people for food and shelter. They did not marry and roamed from town to town proclaiming the word.
  • 2 famous orders came out of the friars. The Franciscans and the Dominicans. The Franciscans were founded by Francis of Assisi. He was the son of a rich, Italian merchant. These friars were cheerful and confident that God would take care of them. They loved nature and thought it should be respected because it was a gift from God. They took a vow of poverty.
  • The Dominicans were founded by a Spanish monk named Dominic. They also took a vow of poverty. They studied many languages so they could spread the word of Christianity to many people. Through their words and deeds they brought many people to the Church and to God.
  • Schools were held in cathedrals, headed by bishops. The main goal was to prepare noble’s sons for the Church. Not every boy wanted to be a priest or monk so they were also trained as government workers, lawyers and teachers
  • 7 subjects were taught (see slide)
  • School was not free. The classes were held in a cold, damp hall that was rented by the teacher. There were not many books and they were very expensive. The students had to memorize what the teacher said because there was nothing to fall back on.
  • Students wanted more classes and subjects, teachers complained that too many untrained people were trying to teach so teachers and students got together and formed a union. They came together because of their desire to learn. Their union became the university. By the 1200’s the system spreads throughout Europe.
  • The chancellor was the head of the university. He was also a church official. The chancellor had to give you permission before you could teach. There were set times for classes on particular subjects. The students listened to lectures and had to pass special tests. Lecturers/teachers had to be a minimum of 21 years old and have studied for at least 6 years.
  • People from all over Europe came to University. At first they lived in boarding houses. Then rich sponsors built special buildings like dorms. In order to stay in the dorm each student had to attend daily Mass, could not gamble, disturb the peace and could not sword fight. If they did any of these things, they were punished.
  • A traditional numbering scheme for the crusades totals nine during the 11th to 13th centuries. This division is arbitrary and excludes many important expeditions, among them those of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. In reality, the crusades continued until the end of the 17th century,
  • There were frequent "minor" Crusades throughout this period, not only in the area the crusaders called Outremer but also in the Iberian Peninsula and central Europe, against Muslims and also Christian heretics and personal enemies of the Papacy or other powerful monarchs.
  • In 1071, The turks conquered Jerusalem taking control of the shrines in Jerusalem. Many Christians throughout Europe were used to traveling to Palestine (Jerusalem) to visit these shrines. Once taken over by the Turks, it became very dangerous for them to do so. This sent a shockwave across Europe and sparked off a series of “holy wars” that lasted 200 years
  • The Turks continue to expand into other territories. They began to threaten the Byzantine Empire. The emperor asked Pope Urban II for military aid. He agreed to help because he hoped that this would help reunite the split between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church
  • In a speech to several people in France, Urban II encouraged the Lords to stop fighting amongst themselves and focus on the Turks. He reminded them that they were not producing enough food to feed their people because their population was growing rapidly. Palestine had rich, fertile land that would produce lots of food. He proclaimed that any knight who would go on a crusade would be forgiven an any debts or taxes and told them that if they died on the crusade, God would forgive them of all of their sins. He also told them to wear a red cross on their tunic as a symbol of their dedication and obedience to God’s will.
  • Pope Urban II went across Europe for 6 months talking up the Crusades. Many were ready to jump on board. The battle cry “Deus Vult” meaning “It is the will of God” was prevalent throughout Europe. Christians thought it was their duty to reclaim the holy lands, Nobles wanted to expand their land and also wanted the fame of being and winning a crusade and peasants wanted a change from the lives they had been living for so many years. The peasants were impatient and ready to get started, so they formed their own armies
  • In 1096 About 12,000 untrained soldiers from France and 2 other groups from Germany headed across Europe towards Constantinople. On their way, they attacked farmers, looted villages, burned wheat fields, but perhaps the worst of all was they massacred all of they Jews that they encountered. They believed that since the Jews were not Christians then they must be their enemies. The villagers did try to fight back buy poisoning the water in the wells at night and attacking the camps at night.
  • Once the peasants made it to Constantinople over 1/3 of them had perished. They were broke, in rags and stole from the people on the streets for whatever they could. The emperor had expected the Pope to send trained soldiers, and was disappointed with what he saw. He wanted them out of the city, so he supplied them with ships and supplies and sent them to Asia Minor to fight the Turks. They were quickly wiped out.
  • In 1097, the Lords led their crusade across Europe. They took their vassals, wives, kids, clerks, cooks and blacksmiths with them. They also had to supply themselves with battle wagon, rations, horses etc. Some of them had to sell jewelry/land to cover costs. 30,000 of them arrive in Asia Minor and they defeat the Turks. They then turn and head for Syria.
  • They were not prepared for the hot weather along the way and did not have enough food to feed everyone. Many died of starvation/dehydration. The survivors conquered Syrian cities on their way to Jerusalem.
  • Godfrey of Bouillon , however, who now had revenue from his brother's territory in Edessa, refused to do the same. On January 5, Raymond dismantled the walls of Ma'arrat, and on January 13 began the march south, barefoot and dressed as a pilgrim, followed by Robert and Tancred. Proceeding down the coast of the Mediterranean , they encountered little resistance, as local Muslim rulers preferred to make peace and give supplies rather than fight. The local Sunnis may have also preferred Crusader control to Shi'ite Fatimid rule. [ citation needed ]
  • January 13 began the march south, barefoot and dressed as a pilgrim, followed by Robert and Tancred. Proceeding down the coast of the Mediterranean , they encountered little resistance, as local Muslim rulers preferred to make peace and give supplies rather than fight. The local Sunnis may have also preferred Crusader control to Shi'ite Fatimid rule. [
  • The siege of Arqa lasted until May 13 when the crusaders left having captured nothing. The Fatimids had attempted to make peace, on the condition that the crusaders not continue towards Jerusalem, but this was ignored; Iftikhar ad-Daula , the Fatimid governor of Jerusalem, was aware of the Crusaders' intentions. Therefore, he expelled all of Jerusalem's Christian inhabitants. He also poisoned most of the wells in the area
  • the Fatimid governor of Jerusalem, was aware of the Crusaders' intentions. Therefore, he expelled all of Jerusalem's Christian inhabitants. He also poisoned most of the wells in the area
  • 12,000 arrive in Jerusalem in 1099 and they recapture the Holy City. They kill Turks, Jews and Christians. They loot the city taking gold, silver, goods any livestock.
  • Enthusiasm for fighting was lost once Jerusalem was captured. Many of the crusaders returned home, but many stayed in the newly conquered area of Palestine. The area was split up into 4 feudal kingdoms called the “outremer” meaning, Kingdom beyond the sea.
  • The area was split up into 4 feudal kingdoms called the “outremer” meaning, Kingdom beyond the sea. County of Edessa Principality of Antioch County of Tripoli Kingdom of Jerusalem
  • The crusaders took over Turkish and Arab estates and divided them up between their best knights and themselves. Arab peasants worked the land, orchards and vineyards for the crusaders. Some also served as advisers and managers of estates After some time, friendships began to develop between some Muslims and crusaders. They discovered that the Muslims knew much about medicine, science, and math. During times of peace, the crusaders hunted, ran estates, attended court.
  • Each noble built a castle bigger and better then the home they had back in Europe. It had a large dining hall, living room, bedchambers. Marble walls, painted ceilings. Decorated with silk hangings, gold objects etc. Their clothing habits had to change because of the warm climate. Instead of the heavy clothes, they started wearing turbans and loose fitting clothes. Women wore jewelry, learned to wear makeup and because the weather was so hot, they began to bathe on a regular basis. Eating habits changed too. They were used to eating hearty, heavy foods. The climate lent to eating a lighter diet with less meat and more fruit and veggies. Life was easier, but they still had trouble adjusting. Many died in battle or could not survive the climate.
  • Saladin, ruler of Egypt united the Muslims across the near East. He started a war against Christian occupation of the land. His armies were well organized and were very devoted to Islam. The military unites were headed by Emirs.
  • They were known for their honesty and consideration of their captives. They were also very shocked over the cruelty and greed of the Christian soldiers. The Muslims rode on ponies into battle and used short bows. The Crusaders used horses, unprotected, long bows and still wore very heavy armor. They had to adapt to a different type of weapon, the crossbow which could shoot an arrow very hard and very fast.
  • Saladin eventually overtook Jerusalem. He however, refused to massacre the Christians that were there. Because of this, he earned much respect from the crusaders.
  • The Church called for a second crusade of Kings. It was led by 3 of the most powerful rulers in Europe.
  • The crusade was a failure. Frederick died in Asia Minor and his troops return to Germany without ever fighting a battle. Philip and Richard argued all the time about how to go into battle. They did take a few towns together, but Philip finally returned to France and left Richard to fight alone. Richard was considered a brave warrior and was nicknamed “the lionhearted”. He fought for 3 years, then signed a truce with the Muslim leaders. There were still many lands under Crusader control, but Jerusalem still was under Muslim control.
  • In the early 1200’s the Pope called for yet another crusade. Many knights around Europe eagerly answered the call.
  • Instead of going by land, they used the seas. They landed in Venice and made a deal with them. They wanted Venice to become the “trading capital” of the area and take it away from Constantinople. The crusaders promised money and would give them ½ of their conquests. The Venetians promised to supply ships and equipment. The crusaders couldn’t deliver all they promised so they conquered the city of Zara for the Venetians. The Venetians persuaded them to also go an conquer Constantinople which they did. They and the Venetians looted, burned, took priceless manuscripts back to Venice. Some were lost. They stayed there instead of going on to Jerusalem and divided the city with the Venetians. This, and their behavior shocked many western Europeans.
  • Several other Crusades were fought, but were lost. The Children's Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events which happened in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a French or German boy; an intention to peacefully convert Muslims in the Holy Land to Christianity; bands of children marching to Italy ; and children being sold into slavery.
  • The long-standing view of the Children's Crusade, of which there are many variations, is some version of events with similar themes. A boy began preaching in either France or Germany claiming that he had been visited by Jesus and told to lead a Crusade to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity. Through a series of supposed portents and miracles he gained a considerable following, including possibly as many as 30,000 children. He led his followers south towards the Mediterranean , in the belief that the sea would part on their arrival, allowing him and his followers to march to Jerusalem , but this did not happen.
  • Two merchants gave "free" passage on boats to as many of the children as were willing. They were then either taken to Tunisia and sold into slavery, or died in a shipwreck on San Pietro Island off Sardinia during a gale. Some may have failed to reach the sea, dying or giving up from starvation and exhaustion. Scholarship has shown this long-standing view to be more legend than fact.
  • According to more recent research there seem to have actually been two movements of people (of all ages) in 1212 in Germany and France . [1] [2] The similarities of the two allowed later chroniclers to combine and embellish the tales. In the first movement, Nicholas, a shepherd from Germany, led a group across the Alps and into Italy in the early spring of 1212. About 7,000 arrived in Genoa in late August. However, their plans did not bear fruit when the waters failed to part as promised, and the band broke up. Some left for home, others may have gone to Rome, and some may have travelled along the coast to Marseilles , where they were probably sold into slavery. Few returned home and none reached the Holy Land.
  • The second movement was led by a 12 year old French shepherd boy named Stephen of Cloyes (a village near Châteaudun ), who claimed in June that he bore a letter for the king of France from Jesus. Attracting a crowd of over 30,000 he went to Saint-Denis , where he was seen to work miracles. On the orders of Philip II , on the advice of the University of Paris , the crowd was sent home, and most of them went. None of the contemporary sources mention plans to go to Jerusalem.
  • the participants were not children, at least not the very young. The confusion started because later chroniclers, who were not witness to the events of 1212 and who were writing 30 years or more later, began to translate the original accounts and misunderstood the Latin word pueri , meaning "boys", to mean literally "children". The original accounts did use the term pueri but it had a derogatory slang meaning, as in calling an adult man a "boy" can be condescending. [3] In the early 13th century, bands of wandering poor started cropping up throughout Europe; these were people displaced by economic changes at the time which forced many peasants in northern France and Germany to sell their land—they were often referred to as pueri in a condescending manner. This mistaken literal interpretation of pueri as "children" gave rise to the idea of a "Children's Crusade" by later authors who found the story too good not to be true, particularly with so much public support and interest in crusading. Within a generation or two after 1212, the idea of children going on crusade became ingrained in history, retold countless times over the centuries with many different versions, and only in the 20th century has the myth been re-examined by looking at the earliest sources.
  • In 1291, the Muslims conquered the last Christian stronghold in Acre. Throughout the years, they had managed to regain all of the land they had lost to the crusaders in Palestine.
  • The Byzantines were so angered about the acts of the western Europeans that their split became permanent. There was a breakdown in feudalism in Europe. While the nobles were off fighting, the Kings gained more power and authority where power became more important than religion Because of the interaction with the Muslims, the W. Europeans developed a keener interest in learning. Europeans also wanted more luxury items that they learned about in the Palestine region. Spices, sugar, rich cloth etc. To meet these demands, new trade routes opened up. With these new routes, new towns developed across Europe.

The church-and-crusades lecture ver The church-and-crusades lecture ver Presentation Transcript

  • THE CHURCH 1000 CE – 1300 CE & THE CRUSADES
  • Section 1
    • The Catholic Influence
    • Daily Life
    • Religious Ceremonies
    • Holidays to honor Saints/events
    • No meat on Fridays
    • Mass on Sunday
    • Church ran schools, hospitals
    • Monks, Nuns helped travelers
    • Priests –births, marriages,
    • burials
  • Political Life
    • Helped govern
    • Were lords and vassals
    • Advised king
    • Canon law first
    • Excommunicated
  • The Inquisition
    • Problem with heresy
    • 1129 council of bishops
    • Inquisition
    • 1 month for confession
    • Whipping and jail time
    • Seizure of non-confessors
    • 2 witnesses
    • Confessors sentenced
    • Non-confessors tortured
  •  
  • Attempts at Reform
    • Tithing at 10%
    • Nobles donated land and money
    • Monks became careless
    • Selling of “religious office”
    • Church under scrutiny
  • The Monks of Cluny
    • Devout fight back
    • Benedictine Rule
    • Cluny Monastery
    • Simple, prayerful
    • Followed the Pope
    • Leadership spread
  • Pope Gregory VII
    • Pope was powerful
      • Religiously/politically
    • Ruled from Rome
    • College of Cardinals
    • 2 goals as Pope
      • Rid the Church of kings/nobles
      • Increase Pope’s power over Church officials
    • Dismissed those who “sold” offices
    • No marriage
  • 1075 Document lays out Pope’s powers
    • Power above the kings and nobles
    • Choose bishops/church leaders
    • Government officials removed who disobeyed
    • People followed only officials who followed the Pope
  • Friars
    • 1200’s – spread the word of Christianity and reform
    • Like Monks
    • Sold all belongings
    • Depended on the people
    • Did not marry
    • Roamed from town to town
  • Orders of Friars
    • Franciscans
      • Founded by Francis of Assisi
      • Cheerfulness, confidence
      • Nature should be respected
    • Dominicans
      • Founded by Spanish monk named Dominic
      • Life of poverty
      • Studied languages
      • Words and deeds showed loyalty
  • Going to School in the Middle Ages
    • Cathedrals- headed by bishops
    • Main goal:
      • Prepare noble’s SONS for the Church
      • Government workers
      • Lawyers
      • teachers
  • What did the boys study?
    • 7 subjects
    • Grammar
    • Rhetoric
    • Logic
    • Arithmetic
    • Geometry
    • Astronomy
    • Music
    • Fæder ure, ðu ðe eart on heofenum, si ðin nama gehalgod; to-becume ðin rice; geweorþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofenum. Urne ge dæghwamlican hlaf syle us to-deag, and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgifaþ urum gyltendum, ane ne gelæde ðu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfle. Amen.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Wl-OZ3breE
  • No free education!
    • Paid fees for school
    • Rented hall
    • Few books
    • memorization
  • Off to college…
    • University system created from desire to learn
    • Union formed between students/teachers
    • Union becomes the “university”
    • 1200’s spreads throughout Europe
  • How did the University work?
    • Chancellor
      • Permission to teach
      • Set times for class
      • Listened to lectures
      • Pass tests
    • Lecturers (teachers)
      • 21 yrs old
      • 6 yrs study
  • Dorm Life…
    • 1 st lived in boarding houses
    • Rich sponsors
      • Built special buildings (dorms)
    • Rules for the dorm
      • Attend daily Mass
      • Could not gamble, disturb the peace
      • Could not practice sword fighting
      • punished
  • The Crusades 1071- 1800’s (11 th to 17 th Century)
  • The Crusades
    • Traditional Numbering = 9
    • Traditional Timeline = 11th to 13th Century
    • Arbitrary & Exclusionary
    • Modern View
    • 16-20 Recognized “Crusades”
    • Expeditions continued into the 17 th Century
    • Areas included:
      • Iberian Peninsula
      • Central Europe
      • Holy Land
    • People Persecuted
      • Muslims
      • Jews
      • Pagans
      • Christian Heretics
      • Personal Enemies of the Pope
      • Personal Enemies of Kings
  • List of Crusades
    • First Crusade of Jerusalem 1095–1099
      • “ Peasants Crusade”
      • “ Nobles Crusade”
    • Siege of Jerusalem 1099
    • Crusade of 1101
    • Norwegian Crusade 1107–1110
    • Second Crusade 1147–1149
    • Third Crusade 1187–1192
    • Fourth Crusade 1202–1204
    • Albigensian Crusade
    • Children's Crusade
    • Fifth Crusade 1217–1221
    • Sixth Crusade 1228–1229
    • Seventh Crusade 1248–1254
    • Eighth Crusade 1270
    • Ninth Crusade 1271–1272
    • Northern Crusades
      • Crusades of the Teutonic Order
      • Swedish Crusades
    • Other
      • Wendish Crusade
      • Stedinger Crusade
      • Aragonese Crusade
      • Alexandrian Crusade
      • Mahdian Crusade
      • Crusade against the Tatars
      • Hussite Crusade
  • The “CAUSE”
    • 1071 Turks conquered Jerusalem
    • Controlled shrines
    • Trouble for Christians
    • Shock in Europe
    • 200 years of “holy wars”
  • and then…
    • Turks continue to expand
    • Threaten Byzantine empire
    • Pope Urban II for help
    • Unite Eastern Orthodox Church
  • Change the focus….
    • Stop “civil war,” focus on Turks
    • Underfed
    • Rich, fertile land
    • Free debts, taxes
    • God would forgive sins
    • Red Cross on tunics
  • The First Crusade of Jerusalem
  • Europe at the Time of the First Crusades
  • The Peasants’ Crusade (part of the First Crusade)
    • Deus Vult
      • It Is The Will of God
    • 6 months campaigning
    • April to October 1096
    • Christians and duty
    • Nobles wanted land/fame
    • Peasants wanted change
  • and so it goes….
    • 1096: 12,000 untrained men from France
    • 2 groups of peasants from Germany
    • “ God’s help”
    • Attacked, looted, burned
    • Massacred Jews
      • Non-Christian = enemy
    • Villagers fought back
      • Poison
      • Attacked camps
  • Route of the First Crusade : Peasant’s Crusade
  • and so it ends….
    • Constantinople
      • 1/3 gone, broke, rags, stealing
    • Sent to Asia Minor
      • Supplies/ships
      • Wiped out
  • The Nobles’ Crusade (also part of the First Crusade)
    • 1097: Lords their Crusade
      • Vassals, wives, kids, clerks, cooks, blacksmiths
      • Supplied themselves
    • 30,000 to Asia Minor
      • Defeat Turks
      • Head for Syria
  • Route of the First Crusade : Noble’s Crusade
  • and they trudge forward…
      • Syria
      • Starvation, dehydration
      • Capture Syrian cities
      • Toward the final Destination:
          • Jerusalem, The Holy City
  • The Path to Jerusalem
    • Raymond of Toulouse
      • Successful Siege of Edessa in February 1098
      • Successful Siege of Antioch in June 1098
      • Successful Seige of Ma’arrat January 1099
  • moving ever closer…
    • January 13, 1099
      • Godfrey of Bouillon
      • Raymond of Toulouse
      • Robert of Flanders
      • Robert of Normandy
      • Tancred of Bohemond
    • March to Arqa
      • Little resistance along Mediterranean Coast
      • Peace treaties & supplies
      • Sunni had problems with Shi’ite Fatimid rule
  • Arqa & Jerusalem
    • Siege of Arqa lasted until May 13
      • left having captured nothing
    • The Fatimids who ruled Arqa
      • Attempted to make peace
      • Asked that the crusaders not continue towards Jerusalem
  • Arqa & Jerusalem
    • The Fatimid governor of Jerusalem was aware of the Crusaders' intentions
    • Expelled all of Jerusalem's Christian inhabitants
    • Poisoned most of the wells outside the City proper
  • Siege of Jerusalem End of the First Crusade
    • 1099: June 7 to July 15
    • City held by Fatimid Egypt
    • Stormed & captured the City
    • Killed Turks, Jews &
    • Eastern Christians
    • City was looted of:
      • Gold Relics
      • Goods Silver
      • Livestock Slaves
      • Silver
  • “ The Kingdom Beyond the Sea”
    • Crusades lose steam
    • Return home
    • 4 feudal kingdoms
    • Outremer
      • The Kingdom Beyond the Sea
  • Outremer
    • County of Edessa
    • Principality of Antioch
    • County of Tripoli
    • Kingdom of Jerusalem
    • Takeover of estates
      • Turkish
      • Arab
    • How the system worked
      • Arab peasants worked the land, orchards, vineyards
      • Served as advisers, managers
      • Friendships developed with Muslims
        • Knew much about medicine, science, math
      • Times of peace
        • Crusaders hunted, ran estates, attended court
    • How did they live?
      • Built a castle, bigger and better
      • Changed clothing styles
      • Changed hygiene habits
      • Changed eating habits
  • Saladin and the Crusade of Kings
    • 1174- Saladin, ruler of Egypt
    • United Muslims
    • Christian occupation
    • The Military
      • Emirs
        • Honesty, consideration
      • Shocked by Christians
      • Rode on ponies
      • Short bows
      • Crusaders had long bows and heavy armor
        • Learned to use the crossbow
  •  
    • Saladin took Jerusalem
      • Refusal to massacre
      • Much respect
  • Route of the Second Crusade
  • 2nd Crusade of Kings
    • Urged by the Church
    • Led by 3 most powerful rulers in Europe
      • King Richard I, England
      • Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany
      • King Philip II Augustus of France
  • King Phillip II King Richard Emperor Barbarossa
  • A Failure of a Crusade
    • Frederick dies in Asia Minor
    • Philip & Richard always fighting
      • Took a few towns together
      • Philip returns to France
      • Richard left to fight alone
    • Richard the Lionheart
      • Brave warrior
      • 3 years signed truce
      • Jerusalem still under Muslim control
  • The Loss of an Ideal
    • 1202 Pope Innocent III calls for another crusade
    • Knights answered the call
    • Came by sea
    • Used Venice as a port
      • Made deal with Venetians
      • Zara
      • Constantinople
        • Divided city
        • Shocked western Europeans
  • Route of the Third Crusade
  • Other Crusades
    • Several fought—none won
    • Children’s crusade- 1212
    • Elements:
      • Visions by a Boy
      • French or German
      • Convert Muslims Peacefully
      • Bands of Children marching
      • Italy & / or ships
      • Children being sold
  • Traditional Interpretation
    • A Boy was called by Jesus
    • Lead a Crusade
    • Convert Muslims
  • Traditional Interpretation
    • Two merchants gave "free" passage on
    • Taken to Tunisia and sold into slavery
    • Died in a shipwreck on off Sardinia
    • Some failed to reach the sea
    • Died from starvation and exhaustion.
    • Scholarship has shown this long-standing view to be more legend than fact.
  • Modern Interpretation
    • Two Movements
      • Germany, across the Alps
      • French city of Cloyes
    • GERMANY
      • Nicolas
      • Spring of 1212
      • Arrived in Genoa
  • Modern Interpretation
    • Two Movements
      • Germany, across the Alps
      • French city of Cloyes
    • FRANCE
      • 12 yr old Shepherd named Stephen
      • 30,000 people gathered to see Miricles
      • No plans for Jerusalem
  • Modern Interpretation
    • Not really children
      • Latin “ pueri ” = “boys”
    • 1300’s = “wandering poor”
    • 1291- Acre
      • Last Christian stronghold
      • Managed to regain all the land in Palestine
  • Effects of the Crusades
    • Interest in learning
    • Luxuries items
    • New trade – new towns
  • Effects of the Crusades
    • Effected by Near East and western Europe
    • Permanent split between Byzantines Church (eastern) and western church
    • Broke down feudalism in Europe
      • Kings increased power/authority
      • Power overcame religion