Romeo and Juliet Intro


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Romeo and Juliet Intro

  1. 1. Elizabethan Age and Shakespeare Notes
  2. 2. <ul><li>Era is named after Elizabeth I, monarch of England (1558-1603) </li></ul><ul><li>During her reign, a Renaissance (French for re-birth) of the arts and sciences was occurring. </li></ul><ul><li>The Renaissance (1350-1600) marked a transition from the medieval to the modern world in Western Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>English drama produced during this time is known as Elizabethan Drama </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>In general, there was not much scenery in Elizabethan drama; costumes were quite elaborate and there were many props </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a pig bladder full of blood was used for Juliet’s death scene in Romeo and Juliet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All roles were played by men. Sometimes actors had to learn as many as six parts at a time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young boys played the female parts. That is why there are few romance scenes on stage. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Shakespeare’s Early Life <ul><ul><li>Born April 23, 1564 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birthplace: Henley Street, Stratford-on-Avon, not far from London </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents: John Shakespeare; Mary Arden, from a wealthy family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inherited land to William because he was the oldest of eight children </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Married Anne Hathaway on November 27, 1582 (he was 18, she was 26) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest daughter, Susanna, was born six months later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1585- twins born - Hamnet and Judith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamnet died at age 11 (profoundly affected Shakespeare; Hamlet is a variation of that name) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Shakespeare’s Career <ul><ul><li>He wrote 154 sonnets and two long poems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He wrote 37 plays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of his sonnets were written between 1592-1594 because the theaters were closed due to the Black Plague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the time he was 32, he was considered the best writer of comedy and tragedy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He died on his 52 nd birthday (April 23,1616) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>The Globe was the most important of the public theaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Groundlings,” - paid a penny for admission, stood in the open court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually from the lower class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>liked to throw food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>yelled at the actors on stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and sometimes even sat on the stage, especially if they didn’t like what they were seeing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher priced tickets were two and three cents. </li></ul></ul>Public Theaters
  8. 8. History of The Globe <ul><ul><li>built in 1599 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seated 2,100 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shakespeare was one of ten owners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1613—burnt down (waterproof thatch roof caught on fire during a performance of Henry VIII--- cannon) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Background to Romeo and Juliet <ul><ul><li>written about 1595 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probably his 13 th play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>idea taken from “The Tragical History of Romeo and Juliet,” a poem by Arthur Brooke (1562) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike his other tragedies, Shakespeare allows chance, or fate, to determine the destiny of the hero and heroine (Romeo and Juliet) more than their tragic flaws do. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Shakespearean Style and Figurative Language
  11. 12. Freytag’s Pyramid Act 3 : Climax Act 2: Rising Action Act I: Exposition Ac t 4: Falling Action Act 5: Resolution
  12. 13. <ul><li>The chief poetic form Shakespeare used was blank verse, or unrhymed iambic pentameter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? </li></ul></ul>Blank Verse
  13. 14. <ul><li>Soliloquies : a speech made by an actor who is alone on stage, intended to reveal his thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Asides : remarks made by a character that are meant to be heard by the audience and perhaps one other character on stage, but no one else. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asides are usually ironic because they inform the audience about something of which the other characters are ignorant. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>Conventions : agreements between the artist and the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, it was assumed that all characters spoke in poetic form unless they were commoners; the dialogue was meant to be blunt or the dialogue was relating serious information (as in a royal document or letter). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anachronisms : out of place objects, customs or beliefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, the Romans in the play Julius Caesar didn’t wear Roman attire. Rather they wore elaborate Elizabethan costumes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><ul><li>Tragic flaw : a flaw, or error, in the tragic hero that is the cause of his downfall. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foil : two contrasting characters, used to highlight the differences between the two. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Simile <ul><li>A comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words “like” or “as.” </li></ul><ul><li>It is a stated comparison, where the author says one thing is like another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., The warrior fought like a lion. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Metaphor <ul><li>A direct comparison of two seemingly unlike objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The author states the one thing is another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is usually a comparison between something that is real or concrete and something that is abstract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Life is but a dream. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Personification <ul><li>A kind of metaphor which gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., The wind cried in the dark. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Hyperbole <ul><li>A deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be used either for serious or comic effect. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., The shot that was heard ‘round the world.’ </li></ul>
  20. 21. Understatement (Meiosis) <ul><li>The opposite of hyperbole. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a kind of irony which deliberately represents something as much less than it really is. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., I could probably manage to survive on a salary of two million dollars per year. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Paradox <ul><li>A statement which contradicts itself. It may seem almost absurd. </li></ul><ul><li>Although it may seem to be at odds with ordinary experience, it usually turns out to have a coherent meaning, and it reveals a truth that is normally hidden. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., The more you know, the more you know you don’t know. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Oxymoron <ul><li>A form of paradox which combines a pair of contrary terms into a single expression. </li></ul><ul><li>This combination usually serves the purpose of shocking the reader into awareness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., sweet sorrow </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Pun <ul><li>A play on words which are identical or similar in sound but which have sharply diverse meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>Puns may have serious or humorous uses. </li></ul><ul><li>In Romeo and Juliet as Mercutio is dying, he says, “Ask for me tomorrow and you shall find me a grave man.” </li></ul>
  24. 25. Irony – contradiction between what is real and what is expected <ul><li>Verbal irony – when what is said has a different meaning than what is normally intended. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is simple to stop smoking. I’ve done it many times. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Situational Irony - When what happens contradicts what is expected. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, Romeo tries to make peace with the Capulets, ends up killing Tybalt, and is banished. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dramatic Irony – When the audience knows something the characters do not. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, we know Juliet is not dead. Romeo believes she is dead and stabs himself (dummy). </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Sarcasm <ul><li>A type of irony in which a person appears to be praising something while he is actually insulting it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As I fell down the stairs head-first, I heard her say, “Look at that coordination.” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Antithesis <ul><li>A direct contrast of structurally parallel word groupings generally for the purpose of contrast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sink or swim </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Apostrophe <ul><li>A form of personification in which the absent or dead are spoken to as if present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oh William Shakespeare, What dost thou mean by thy ramblings? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The inanimate is spoken to as if it is animate (alive). </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Allusion <ul><li>A reference to a mythological, literary, historical, or Biblical person, place, or thing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hey Romeo, cool your jets and get your hands off my daughter! </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Synecdoche (Si-neck-da-key) <ul><li>A form of metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>A part of something is used to signify the whole . </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the reverse can be true where the whole can represent the part . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada played the U.S. in the hockey finals. (In reality, the Canadian team , played the U.S. team , not the entire country.) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Synecdoche (cont’d) <ul><li>Another form involves the container representing the thing being contained. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the pot is boiling. (In reality, the pot isn’t boiling, just the water in it). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also, it can involve the material from which an object is made standing for the object. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quarterback tossed the pigskin. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Metonymy <ul><li>The name of one thing is applied to another thing with which it is closely associated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I love Shakespeare. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(A person doesn’t really love the man; he really means he loves to read Shakespeare’s plays.) </li></ul></ul></ul>