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Pre columbian south america #3 inca

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations Aztecs Mayas Incas
  • 3. 1200 CE – 1550 CE
  • 4. Where did the Inca live?
    • The Inca controlled an empire in the Andes Mountain region of South America.
  • 5. Location:
    • Andes Mountains and Pacific coast of South America
    • Cuzco was the capital (Present day Peru)
  • 6. Religion
    • Polytheistic
    • Primary god was Inti , the sun god.
  • 7. Religion
    • Belief in Reincarnation
    • Practiced cranial deformation
    • -Wrapping tight cloth straps around the heads of newborns to alter the shape of their soft skulls into a cone-like shape
  • 8. Religion: Paracas Skulls
  • 9. Religion:
    • Gods linked to the forces of nature
    • Religion tied to routines of life
    • Sapa Inca (Emperor) performed religious rituals
  • 10. Government: Royal Family
    • The Sapa Inca (Emperor)
      • Had absolute power
      • Was the Son of the Sun
      • The religious leader
    • 1438 began a far-reaching expansion under
    • Sapa Inca Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanqui ("earth-shaker“)
    • His son: Tupac Yupanqui
      • Brought much of the Andes mountains under Inca control
      • roughly modern Peru and Ecuador
        • Tupac Amaru = Peruvian Revolutionary
        • Tupac Amaru Shakur = American Rap God
  • 11. Government: Management
    • The Empire
      • Divided into four regions
        • Tawantinsuyu , or the four parts together
        • Central government with the Inca at its head
          • The capital at Cuzco
        • Four provincial governments
          • Chinchasuyu (NW)
          • Antisuyu (NE)
          • Contisuyu (SW)
          • Collasuyu (SE)
  • 12. Government: Empire Building
    • Methods Used:
      • Conquest
      • Peaceful assimilation
      • Intermarriage
      • Economic reliance
      • Economic isolation
  • 13. Government: Empire Building
    • Incorporated:
      • Western South America
      • the Andean mountain ranges
      • large parts of modern Ecuador
      • modern Peru
      • western and south central Bolivia
      • northwest Argentina
      • north and north-central Chile
      • southern Colombia
  • 14. Uniting the Empire Organization: Physical
    • Massive road network built
    • Through mountains
    • Across rivers and gorges
    • This made it much easier for
    • the Spanish to get around
  • 15. Organization: Social
    • Government Officials in each area:.
    • assigned each family a specific job
    • arranged marriages
    • organized mandatory public service building projects
  • 16. Achievements:
    • Built road systems through Andes that stretched over 12,000 miles (made of stone)
    • Roads united the Empire
    • Engineering allowed them to build massive stone buildings, no cement
    • Complex record keeping system
      • The Quipu
  • 17. Stonework
    • The Inca constructed stone temples without using mortars yet the stones fit together so well that a knife would not fit between the stones.
  • 18.
    • Terrace farming on the side of the Andes Mountains
    • used llamas
    • grew 700 varieties of potatoes
    Agriculture
  • 19. The Quipu: An Incan Database
  • 20. Machu Picchu
  • 21. Machu Picchu
  • 22. Incan Terrace Farming
  • 23. Incan Suspension Bridges
  • 24. Inca Gold & Silver
  • 25. Incan Ceramic Jars Peanut Potato Squash Cacao God Cacao Pod
  • 26. Medical Advances
    • The Inca performed successful skull surgery.
    • The Inca also used medicines to make patients unconscious during surgery
  • 27. Incan Mummies
  • 28. Fall of the Inca
    • BUT ultimately, it was Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro that brought about the fall of the Inca Empire.
  • 29. Possible Reasons for decline:
    • Superior military technology of the Spanish (Francisco Pizarro)
    • Divisions and discontent among Indians the Incas ruled over
    • Disease brought by Europeans weakened the Inca
  • 30. What happened to the Inca?
    • Civil war in the empire broke out
    • AND
    • Smallpox spread, killing 65% of the Inca
    • AND
    • The Spanish arrived with military devestation
  • 31. Where are the Inca now?
    • Currently descendants live in the Andes
    • Speak Quechua
    • AND
    • The Spanish arrived with military devestation
  • 32. Inca Video Clip
    • http://www.watchknow.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=2301

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