Pre columbian south america #3 inca


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Pre columbian south america #3 inca

  1. 2. Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations Aztecs Mayas Incas
  2. 3. 1200 CE – 1550 CE
  3. 4. Where did the Inca live? <ul><li>The Inca controlled an empire in the Andes Mountain region of South America. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Location: <ul><li>Andes Mountains and Pacific coast of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Cuzco was the capital (Present day Peru) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Religion <ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Primary god was Inti , the sun god. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Religion <ul><li>Belief in Reincarnation </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced cranial deformation </li></ul><ul><li>-Wrapping tight cloth straps around the heads of newborns to alter the shape of their soft skulls into a cone-like shape </li></ul>
  7. 8. Religion: Paracas Skulls
  8. 9. Religion: <ul><li>Gods linked to the forces of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Religion tied to routines of life </li></ul><ul><li>Sapa Inca (Emperor) performed religious rituals </li></ul>
  9. 10. Government: Royal Family <ul><li>The Sapa Inca (Emperor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had absolute power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the Son of the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The religious leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1438 began a far-reaching expansion under </li></ul><ul><li> Sapa Inca Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanqui (&quot;earth-shaker“) </li></ul><ul><li>His son: Tupac Yupanqui </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought much of the Andes mountains under Inca control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>roughly modern Peru and Ecuador </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tupac Amaru = Peruvian Revolutionary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tupac Amaru Shakur = American Rap God </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Government: Management <ul><li>The Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into four regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tawantinsuyu , or the four parts together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central government with the Inca at its head </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The capital at Cuzco </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four provincial governments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chinchasuyu (NW) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antisuyu (NE) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contisuyu (SW) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collasuyu (SE) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Government: Empire Building <ul><li>Methods Used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermarriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic reliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic isolation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Government: Empire Building <ul><li>Incorporated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Andean mountain ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large parts of modern Ecuador </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modern Peru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>western and south central Bolivia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>northwest Argentina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>north and north-central Chile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>southern Colombia </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Uniting the Empire Organization: Physical <ul><li>Massive road network built </li></ul><ul><li>Through mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Across rivers and gorges </li></ul><ul><li>This made it much easier for </li></ul><ul><li>the Spanish to get around </li></ul>
  14. 15. Organization: Social <ul><li>Government Officials in each area:. </li></ul><ul><li>assigned each family a specific job </li></ul><ul><li>arranged marriages </li></ul><ul><li>organized mandatory public service building projects </li></ul>
  15. 16. Achievements: <ul><li>Built road systems through Andes that stretched over 12,000 miles (made of stone) </li></ul><ul><li>Roads united the Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering allowed them to build massive stone buildings, no cement </li></ul><ul><li>Complex record keeping system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Quipu </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Stonework <ul><li>The Inca constructed stone temples without using mortars yet the stones fit together so well that a knife would not fit between the stones. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Terrace farming on the side of the Andes Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>used llamas </li></ul><ul><li>grew 700 varieties of potatoes </li></ul>Agriculture
  18. 19. The Quipu: An Incan Database
  19. 20. Machu Picchu
  20. 21. Machu Picchu
  21. 22. Incan Terrace Farming
  22. 23. Incan Suspension Bridges
  23. 24. Inca Gold & Silver
  24. 25. Incan Ceramic Jars Peanut Potato Squash Cacao God Cacao Pod
  25. 26. Medical Advances <ul><li>The Inca performed successful skull surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>The Inca also used medicines to make patients unconscious during surgery </li></ul>
  26. 27. Incan Mummies
  27. 28. Fall of the Inca <ul><li>BUT ultimately, it was Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro that brought about the fall of the Inca Empire. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Possible Reasons for decline: <ul><li>Superior military technology of the Spanish (Francisco Pizarro) </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions and discontent among Indians the Incas ruled over </li></ul><ul><li>Disease brought by Europeans weakened the Inca </li></ul>
  29. 30. What happened to the Inca? <ul><li>Civil war in the empire broke out </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox spread, killing 65% of the Inca </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish arrived with military devestation </li></ul>
  30. 31. Where are the Inca now? <ul><li>Currently descendants live in the Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Speak Quechua </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish arrived with military devestation </li></ul>
  31. 32. Inca Video Clip <ul><li> </li></ul>
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