North american cultures moundbuilders 1 adena


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  • Imagine the amazement of early Colonial explorers when they crossed the Appalachian Mountains and discovered hundreds of conical mounds and geometric earthworks in the upper Ohio River and Kanawha River valleys. Who built these mounds? Why?
  • The Grave Creek Mound is on a plateau above the Ohio River. Early explorers said that earthen circles, squares, octagons, and walls accompanied the mounds. Mounds and earthworks extended 10-12 miles along the Ohio River in the Grave Creek Mound vicinity. Their construction was an enormous project, and workers carried dirt one bucket at a time to build them. What motivated them to do this? This so called “Mammoth Mound” was located on the Tomlinson farm. In 1838 owner Jesse Tomlinson permitted the mound excavation. His nephew, Abelard Tomlinson, assisted by Abelard’s brother-in-law, Thomas Biggs, was in charge of the excavation. Local residents helped.
  • The men abandoned digging down from the top of the mound fearful that the shaft would collapse. They probed upward from the lower tomb until they struck stone and guessed it was an upper tomb. This proved to be true when they dug a second tunnel 34 feet above ground level and struck an 18 x 8 foot log tomb filled with rotten wood, stones, earth, one large and badly decayed skeleton, and many artifacts.
  • North american cultures moundbuilders 1 adena

    1. 1. Native North American Cultures
    2. 2. Native Americans Nation = Tribe Native American = Indian
    3. 3. Cultures of the Americas <ul><li>Adena </li></ul><ul><li>Hopewell </li></ul><ul><li>Mississippian </li></ul><ul><li>Anasazi </li></ul><ul><li>Pueblo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zuni </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sioux </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Yes, Native Americans built pyramids, too. There are THOUSANDS of ruins throughout the United States to prove it !
    5. 5. <ul><li>Colonial explorers crossed the Appalachian Mountains and discovered large earthen mounds and geometric earthworks !! </li></ul>Criel Mound, South Charleston, West Virginia Who built these mounds? Why?
    6. 6. Mound Builders The Adena The Hopewell Culture The Mississippians
    7. 7. Mound Builders <ul><li>Built mounds </li></ul><ul><li>3000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Stretched from Iowa – Mississippi-Florida </li></ul>
    8. 8. Mound Builders <ul><li>Effigy Mounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iowa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minnesota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisconsin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wisconsin built more mounds than did those in any other region of North America—between 15,000 and 20,000 mounds, at least 4,000 of which remain today. </li></ul><ul><li>Native North American effigy mounds have been compared to the large-scale effigy forms depicted in the Nazca Lines of Peru . </li></ul>
    9. 9. Mound Builders <ul><li>Effigy Mounds </li></ul><ul><li>Wisconsin has more mounds than any other region of North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between 15,000 and 20,000 mounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4,000 of which remain today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Native North American effigy mounds have been compared to the large-scale effigy forms depicted in the Nazca Lines of Peru </li></ul>
    10. 10. Serpent Mound in Ohio – 1200 ft long, 3 ft high
    12. 12. The Adena Moundbuilders <ul><li>Adena built mounds to bury dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Adena occupied valleys along Ohio River and its tributaries from about 1000 B. C. to 400 A. D. </li></ul><ul><li>Hopewell and Mississippian people also built mounds </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Adena Moundbuilders <ul><li>Adena people named after estate of Ohio Governor Worthington </li></ul><ul><li>In 1901 mound on Adena estate was excavated </li></ul><ul><li>Adena mound contained distinctive artifacts that identify the Adena group </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Adena Moundbuilders <ul><li>May have migrated from Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>MtDNA indicates maternal lineage </li></ul><ul><li>Similar physical type </li></ul><ul><li>Similar decorative designs </li></ul><ul><li>Both groups erected mounds over burial tombs </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Adena pipe shows squat male, with goitered neck, and stylized hair. </li></ul><ul><li>Ear spools and a loin cloth feathered in back similar to Aztec cultures </li></ul>The Adena Moundbuilders
    16. 16. The Adena Moundbuilders: Burials of Adena Elite <ul><li>decorative objects </li></ul><ul><li>copper bracelets </li></ul><ul><li>mica </li></ul><ul><li>pipes </li></ul><ul><li>seed pearls </li></ul><ul><li>tablets incised with symbols </li></ul><ul><li>tablets with ancient writing </li></ul>
    17. 17. Adena Moundbuilders: Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, WV
    18. 18. Grave Creek Mound on Tomlinson farm excavated by local men. A tunnel started four feet above ground struck a lower tomb near the center. It contained two skeletons.
    19. 19. Adena Moundbuilders: Grave Creek Mound Excavation Shaft sunk from top A second tunnel 34 feet above ground reached upper tomb with one skeleton and grave goods including an inscribed tablet Tunnel to lower tomb