Feudalism powerpoint wk 25


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Feudalism and Medieval Society PowerPoint with 8 sections including a Class Project & Brief review

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Feudalism powerpoint wk 25

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Week 25 Ms Rocky’s Grade 7 History
  2. 2. <ul><li>Charlemagne & Feudal Society </li></ul><ul><li>Knights & Feudal Society </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of Lords & Vassals </li></ul><ul><li>The Feudal Contract </li></ul><ul><li>Nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Castles </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of the Castle </li></ul><ul><li>Review & Project </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Section 1: </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>After the fall of the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Europe had no countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous tribes fought for domination over territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No central governments or national armies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frankish tribes established control over vast areas </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>One Frankish King, Charlemagne ruled a large chunk of Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From northern Spain and Italy through France , Germany and Poland </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Charlemagne (2 April 742 or 747 – 28 January 814) </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as Charles the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon </li></ul><ul><li>King of the Franks from 768 to 814 & King of the Lombards from 774 to 814 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Is today regarded as the founding father of both France and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The first truly imperial power in the West since the fall of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Crowned Imperator Augustus in Rome on Christmas Day, 800 by Pope Leo III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is regarded as the founder of the Holy Roman Empire </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Charlemagne Documentary </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>To control such a large territory, Charlemagne instituted a feudal system of government </li></ul><ul><li>In feudalism, the King owned all of the land </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The King granted fiefs (portions of land) </li></ul><ul><li>… to N obles (Lords or Barons) in return for loyalty, protection and service </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The King could also grant fiefs to vassals (Knights) in exchange for military service </li></ul><ul><li>Many Knights were professional warriors who served in a Lord's army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Lord provided the Knight with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lodging, food, armor, weapons, horses & money </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Allowed large territories to be governed in the absence of a central government </li></ul><ul><li>Each lord or vassal raised an army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To defend his fief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To serve the King as needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Nobles were very powerful because they controlled the armies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often warred amongst themselves over territories </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Medieval Europe: Feudalism </li></ul>What is Feudalism?
  14. 14. <ul><li>Section 2: </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Almost all Nobles were Knights </li></ul><ul><li>Training began at age 7, as a page, under the guidance of the Lady of the Manor </li></ul><ul><li>Became squires at age 15 and were trained by other Knights </li></ul><ul><li>Those deemed worthy were “dubbed” Knights </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Black Knight </li></ul>What is a Knight?
  17. 17. <ul><li>Offered a means to advance within society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military service & Knighthood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knights were members of the gentry </li></ul><ul><li>Held a place in society above the peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Weren't necessarily members of the noble ruling classes or royalty </li></ul><ul><li>Knighthood was not an inherited position -- it had to be earned </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>A Man Can Change His Stars </li></ul>
  19. 19.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Medieval Europe: Knights </li></ul>What is a Knight?
  21. 21. <ul><li>Section 3: </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The Annoying Peasant </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>A HUGE part of the political and social structure of the feudal system </li></ul><ul><li>Vassals had certain duties to perform for the Lord </li></ul><ul><li>All Nobles were ultimately vassals of the King </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>There were two groups of peasant workers on the manor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freemen- skilled workers who paid rent and could leave the manor whenever they wished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usually had a skill needed by others on the manor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serfs – workers bound to the land by contract with the Nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>were the Noble’s property </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Medieval Europe: </li></ul><ul><li> A Life of Treachery </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Serfs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmed the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided the vassal or Lord with wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bound to the land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the vassal's interest to protect them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiefs -- and the obligation to serve the king -- were inherited by the eldest son of the ruling Nobleman </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Medieval Europe: Serfs </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Section 4: </li></ul>
  30. 30.
  35. 35.
  36. 36. <ul><li>The World is divided into 4 parts called the Four Alls and was “fixed by God”: </li></ul><ul><li>“ the peasants who worked for all, </li></ul><ul><li>Priests who prayed for all, </li></ul><ul><li>Knights who fought for all, </li></ul><ul><li>And Kings who ruled all.” </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Section 5 : </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>&quot;I Dub Thee....&quot; </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Medieval nobility origin : knights or a mounted warriors who swore allegiance to their sovereign and promised to fight for him in exchange for an allocation of lands </li></ul><ul><li>European nobility: the highest ranking citizens of a country besides the royal family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone who had been summoned to Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually they were the owners of a vassalage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although titles were given different names in different countries, the system of ranking the nobility is pretty much the same throughout Europe </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Nobility were part of the Aristocracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an upper or ruling class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knights were members of the gentry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>class below the Nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Held a place in society above the peasants / serfs </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Emperor / Empress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An emperor (from the Latin “imperator”) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. In medieval times title was used in Holy Roman Empire. Currently, the Emperor of Japan is the only Monarch who has the title of Emperor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King / Queen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A King is the second highest sovereign title, only looking up to an emperor. King is head of state called a Kingdom or a realm. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prince / Princess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prince, from French “Prince” (itself from the Latin root princeps), is a general term for a monarch, for a member of a Monarchs’ or former Monarch’s family, and is a hereditary title in some members of Europe’s highest Nobility. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Duke / Duchess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duke’s lands are called a duchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The closest and highest ranking peers of the King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually relatives of a sovereign family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marquess / Marchioness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ruler of a frontier area called a mark or march </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for defense of border lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had more men at arms than other nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earl (Count) / Countess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often an honorary title given by a Monarch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could also be given as a title with no feudal estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counts who were granted land, were usually given a small area called a county or countship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a hereditary title however those counts with extensive estates were occasionally able to pass down their lands to their sons </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Viscount / Viscountess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscount was the deputy of a Count </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The equivalent of Sheriffs & appointed by the Monarch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The title eventually became hereditary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baron / Baroness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held a Barony granted to him directly from the Monarch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally anyone who was given land from the King for military service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created either by letters patent or by a writ of summons that invited someone to Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baronet / Baronetess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A title usually given to a commoner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hereditary honor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike other titles within the Nobility a Baronet is not entitled to a seat in Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not considered an order of Knighthood but ranks above all Knightly orders except the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Thistle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Esquire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally squire – an assistant of knight (shield bearer), eldest son of knight or sons of peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentleman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A man with an income, independently wealthy and did not need to work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who could not claim nobility or even the rank of esquire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>The Monarch, followed by other members of the Royal Family The Archbishop of Canterbury The Lord Chancellor The Archbishop of York The Prime Minister The Lord President of the Privy Council The Speaker of the House of Commons The Lord Speaker of the House of Lords The Lord Privy Seal The Nobility in the following order: Dukes Marquesses Earls Viscounts Bishops of the Church of England Barons Knights of the Order of the Garter Knight (or Dame) Grand Cross Knight (or Dame) Commander of the British Empire </li></ul>
  45. 45.
  46. 46. <ul><li>The Nobility: </li></ul><ul><li> Castle Homes </li></ul>Nobility
  47. 47. <ul><li>Section 6 : </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Originated as housing for military forces </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved into residences for Nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for defense </li></ul><ul><li>Had to Provide centralized protection for those under the protection of the Noble </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Stone castles were built: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To symbolize the power of the Lords of the Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Protection </li></ul></ul>Even if the King did not order a particular castle to be built for his use, he still retained the ability to seize any of his Lords'
  50. 50. <ul><li>Designs of castles improved over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to keep up with improvements in siege technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide necessities for living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sanitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fresh water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cooking areas </li></ul></ul></ul>Functional and modern design became especially important when the castle was under siege
  51. 51. <ul><li>Outer defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Moat </li></ul><ul><li>Walls (inner and outer) </li></ul><ul><li>Towers (inner and outer) </li></ul><ul><li>Gatehouses, drawbridges and barbicans </li></ul><ul><li>Inner defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Baileys or wards </li></ul><ul><li>Living quarters and support buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps </li></ul><ul><li>Great halls </li></ul><ul><li>Chapels </li></ul><ul><li>Stables </li></ul><ul><li>Wells </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Section 7: </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Iron Age Hill-forts </li></ul><ul><li>Rocky outcrops </li></ul><ul><li>Steep slopes and ditches </li></ul><ul><li>Roman rectangular forts </li></ul><ul><li>Re-used by later Britains </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Early Norman Castles - before Norman Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly circular enclosure ( bailey ) </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive walls ( palisades ) and ditches </li></ul><ul><li>Central stronghold ( keep ) for added defense </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Norman Castles - after Norman Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Central stronghold ( keep ) raised on mound ( moat ) </li></ul><ul><li>Extra ditches around moat </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Norman keeps </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as a donjon, a French word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dungeon = small room used as a prison </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>An inner and outer wall </li></ul><ul><li>Inner walls higher than outer walls </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple gatehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively two castles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer wall with a gatehouse as in an ordinary castle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more inner walls with one or more gatehouses. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>I Postern </li></ul><ul><li>A small gate from which the castle's occupants could escape in an emergency </li></ul><ul><li>A Outer Gatehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Main entrance </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbridge </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden gates </li></ul><ul><li>Portcullis </li></ul><ul><li>B Outer Bailey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space for workshops etc. </li></ul></ul>C Outer Wall D Inner Wall H Keep Noble’s residence G Moat F Inner Bailey E Inner Gatehouse Fortified access to the inner bailey
  59. 59. <ul><li>Bailey (Inner & Outer) </li></ul><ul><li>Gatehouse (Inner & Outer) </li></ul><ul><li>Wall (Inner & Outer) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep </li></ul><ul><li>Moat (Motte) </li></ul><ul><li>Postern </li></ul><ul><li>Towers </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbridge </li></ul><ul><li>Dungeon </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Courtyard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The open area with the curtain walls of a castle. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Battlements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the structures at the tops of the walls surrounding a castle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also referred to as crenellations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rampart : access to battlements </li></ul><ul><li>Parapet: an elevation raised above the main wall or rampart of a permanent fortification. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Barbican </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defensive element that protected an entrance to the castle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>narrow passage that allowed a limited number of attackers access to a gate, forcing them into a confined area where they could be shot at by defenders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early barbicans built from earthworks were designed to add complexity to the layout of the entrance to confuse attackers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Curtain Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the outer wall of a castle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technically it means the sections of wall between the towers, but generally it refers to the entire wall including the towers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gatehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the main entrance to the castle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consisted of a stone-built building with a central entrance guarded either by a bridge, gates, portcullis or combination of these </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palisade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually a wooden fence erected around the edge of a bailey or at the top of a moat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portcullis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a large wooden gate that was lowered through slots in the gatehouse to defend the entrance to the castle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tilting Yard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where jousting tournaments and combats took place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meant survival for the inhabitants of the castle in the time of sieges even if they had little food </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Section 8: </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>A Short Medieval Summary </li></ul>Medieval Life
  64. 64. <ul><li>Everyone owed loyalty to the ________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______ were really the most powerful. They got _______ from the king. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser nobles (knights) gave _________ _________ in return for land </li></ul><ul><li>_______ were bound to the land. They worked in return for ____________. </li></ul><ul><li>__________ were skilled workers. They paid rent to the ______ and were free to move if they wanted to. </li></ul>Let’s see how much you remember!
  65. 65. <ul><li>Everyone owed loyalty to the King . </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles were really the most powerful. They got land from the King. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser nobles (Knights) gave military service in return for land. </li></ul><ul><li>Serfs were bound to the land. They worked in return for protection . </li></ul><ul><li>Freemen were skilled workers. They paid rent to the nobles and were free to move if they wanted to. </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Get in pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Share 1 computer in the lab. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin at the Class Project Prompt Page and choose 1 topic to give a brief but complete explanation of to the class. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU HAVE ONE CLASS PERIOD TO COMPILE YOUR INFORMATION. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose 3 images relating to your topic to show the class </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to answer the “5-W’s” about your topic. </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>YOU HAVE ONE CLASS PERIOD TO COMPILE YOUR INFORMATION. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose 3 images relating to your topic to show the class. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place images into a PowerPoint on a JumpDrive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your PP should have 5 slides: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 Image slides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Citation Slide (both images & info) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Be able to answer the “5-W’s” about your topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Both of you must speak in front of the class. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>In Class Castle Project Prompt Page </li></ul>