Study and Comparison of H.264, AVS-China and Dirac

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Study and Comparison of H.264, AVS-China and Dirac

  1. 1. Study and Comparison of H.264, AVS-China and Dirac - by Jennie G. Abraham EE5359 – Multimedia Processing, Fall 2009 EE Dept., University of Texas at Arlington
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Network </li></ul><ul><li>Home Media Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Project Detail </li></ul><ul><li>Example project elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture Comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Level Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feature Comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algorithmic Comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Video compression standards  aiming at high quality </li></ul><ul><li>In general standards leave the implementation open and only standardize the syntax and the decoder. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization beyond the obvious </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity reduction for implementation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H.264 : ITU-T VCEG together with the ISO/IEC MPEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AVS China : Audio Video Coding Workgroup of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirac : BBC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Different companies, different countries, different applications, royalty fees, better algorithms </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>Familiarize with the codecs : </li></ul><ul><li>H.264, AVS China and Dirac </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of the codecs in MPL @ UTA </li></ul>
  5. 5. Scope of Video Standard Figure 1: Video encoding / decoding process Predict Transform Quantize Encode Decode Inverse-Quantization Inverse transform Reconstruct VIDEO ENCODER VIDEO DECODER Bitstream as defined by the standard Scope of the standard Video Output Video Source
  6. 6. Video Compression Figure 2: General block diagram of a block-based video codec [33]
  7. 7. Intra Coding …. within the same frame Figure 3: Intra coding a macroblock using previously coded pixels from the same block
  8. 8. Inter Coding …. using number past and future frames Figure 4: Inter coding a macroblock using past and/or future frames ... “Past” frames ... (one or more previously coded frames) Current frame “ Future” frame Predict Predict MB 1 MB 2 Predict
  9. 9. Modes Figure 5: Example of different modes used in AVS-China part 2 [33]
  10. 10. Residual Block Figure 6: Calculation of residual information in a general block-based video codec [33]
  11. 11. Transform and Quantization residual block Coefficients Figure 7: Residual block is transformed and quantized Transform Quantize 8x8 Image Block
  12. 12. Entropy Coding Figure 8:The Transformed and quantized block zigzag scanned and entropy coded
  13. 13. Inverse Transform Reconstructed residual block At the decoder side ….. Re-scaled Coefficients Figure 9:The coefficients are re-scaled and inverse transformed to get back the residual information
  14. 14. Reconstruction at the Decoder Figure 10: Frame reconstruction at the decoder Form Prediction Predicted MB Decoded residual MB Reconstructed MB Previously decoded frames Current decoded frames Inter Intra
  15. 15. Study of H.264 Architecture Figure 11: H.264 encoder and decoder [21]
  16. 16. Study of AVS-China Architecture Figure 12 :AVS China Codec [37]
  17. 17. Study of Dirac Architecture Figure 13 : Dirac codec architecture [1]
  18. 18. Profiles in H.264
  19. 19. Profiles in AVS-China Profiles Key applications Jizhun profile (base) Television broadcasting, HDTV, etc. Jiben profile (basic) Mobility applications, etc. Shenzhan profile (extended) Video surveillance, etc. Jiaqiang profile (enhanced) Multimedia entertainment, etc.
  20. 20. Algorithmic Comparison Quantization scaling matrices. Quantization scaling matrices. Quantization scaling matrices. Other 8×8 DCT 4×4 wavelet transform 4×4 integer DCT, 8×8 integer DCT Transform 2D variable length coding. Arithmetic coding CAVLC,CABAC Entropy coding De-blocking filter. None De-blocking In loop filters One reference each way, Multiple reference. Direct and symmetrical mode. One reference each way, Multiple reference One reference each way, Multiple reference, Direct & spatial direct weighted prediction. B frame type Single and multiple reference (maximum of 2 reference frames) Single reference, Multiple reference Single reference Multiple reference P frame type 1/4 pel 1/8 pel Full pel, Half pel. Quarter pel Motion vector Precision 16 × 16, 16 × 8, 8 × 16, 8 × 8 4×4 16 × 16, 16 × 8, 8 × 16, 8 × 8, 8 × 4, 4 × 8, 4×4 Motion compensation block size Frame Frame Frame, Field Picture AFF, MB AFF Picture coding type 8 × 8 block based Intra Prediction 4x4 spatial 4x4 spatial, 16x16 spatial I-PCM Intra Prediction AVS China Part 2 Dirac MPEG-4 AVC (H.264) Algorithmic Element
  21. 21. Performance Comparison Results
  22. 22. Results
  23. 23. Results
  24. 24. Results
  25. 25. Outcome <ul><li>The project helped in increasing familiarity in working with these codecs. </li></ul><ul><li>The experimental results gave an insight into the efficiency of these codecs compared to each other </li></ul><ul><li>The different aspects of simulation of each codec such as the following was learned and understood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modes of Configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of Parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input sequence specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the codec output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of time and re-use of knowledge </li></ul>
  26. 26. References <ul><li>DIRAC: </li></ul><ul><li>[1] T. Borer, and T. Davies, “Dirac video compression using open technology”, BBC EBU Technical Review, July 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>[2] BBC Research on Dirac: http:// www.bbc.co.uk/rd/projects/dirac/index.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>[3] The Dirac web page: http:// dirac.sourceforge.net </li></ul><ul><li>[4] T. Davies, “The Dirac Algorithm”: http:// dirac.sourceforge.net /documentation/algorithm/ , 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>[5] Dirac developer support: Overlapped block-based motion compensation: </li></ul><ul><li>http://dirac.sourceforge.net/documentation/algorithm/algorithm/toc.htm </li></ul><ul><li>[6] “Dirac Pro to bolster BBC HD links”: http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/news/multi-platform/news/dirac-pro-to-bolster-bbc-hd-links/1732462.article </li></ul><ul><li>[7] Dirac software and source code: http:// diracvideo.org/download/dirac -research/ </li></ul><ul><li>[8] Dirac video codec - A programmer's guide: </li></ul><ul><li>http://dirac.sourceforge.net/documentation/code/programmers_guide/toc.htm </li></ul><ul><li>[9] Daubechies wavelet: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daubechies_wavelet </li></ul><ul><li>[10] Daubechies wavelet filter design: http://cnx.org/content/m11159/latest/ </li></ul><ul><li>[11] Dirac developer support: Wavelet transform: http://dirac.sourceforge.net/documentation/algorithm/algorithm/wlt_transform.xht </li></ul><ul><li>[12] Dirac developer support: RDO motion estimation metric: </li></ul><ul><li>http://dirac.sourceforge.net/documentation/algorithm/algorithm/rdo_mot_est.xht </li></ul><ul><li>[13] A. Ravi and K.R. Rao, “Performance analysis and comparison of the Dirac video codec with H.264/ MPEG-4 Part 10 AVC&quot;, IJWMIP, Jan. 2010. </li></ul>
  27. 27. References <ul><li>H.264: </li></ul><ul><li>[14] T.Wiegand, et al “Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard”, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol.13, pp 560-576, July 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>[15] T. Wiegand and G. J. Sullivan, “The H.264 video coding standard”, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, pp. 148-153, March 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>[16] D. Marpe, T. Wiegand and G. J. Sullivan, “The H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard and its applications”, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 44, pp. 134-143, Aug. 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>[17] S.K.Kwon, A.Tamhankar and K.R.Rao, “Overview of H.264 / MPEG-4 Part 10” J. Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol 17, pp.186-216, April 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>[18] A. Puri, X. Chen and A. Luthra, “Video coding using the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC compression standard”, Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 19, pp. 793-849, Oct. 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>[19] H.264/MPEG-4 AVC: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H.264 </li></ul><ul><li>[20] M.Fieldler, “Implementation of basic H.264/AVC decoder”, seminar paper at Chemnitz University of Technology, June 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>[21] H.264 encoder and decoder: http://www.adalta.it/Pages/407/266881_266881.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>[22] R. Schäfer, T. Wiegand and H. Schwarz, “The emerging H.264/AVC standard”, EBU Technical Review, Jan. 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>[23] H.264 reference software download : http:// iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml / </li></ul><ul><li>[24] D. Marpe, T. Wiegand, and S. Gordon, &quot;H.264/mpeg4-avc fidelity range extensions: tools, profiles, performance, and application areas,&quot; IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 1, pp. I-593-6, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>[25] S. Saponara, et al, &quot;The JVT advanced video coding standard: complexity and performance analysis on a tool-by-tool basis,&quot; in Packet Video Workshop, Nantes, France, April 2003. </li></ul>
  28. 28. References <ul><li>VC-1: </li></ul><ul><li>[26] VC-1 technical overview - http://www.microsoft.com/windows/windowsmedia/howto/articles/vc1techoverview.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>[27] Microsoft Windows Media: http:// www.microsoft.com/windows/windowsmedia </li></ul><ul><li>[28] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VC-1 </li></ul><ul><li>[29] S Srinivasan, et al, “Windows media video 9: overview and applications”, Signal Processing: Image Communication, Vol. 19, Issue 9, pp. 851-875, Oct. 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>AVS: </li></ul><ul><li>[31] AVS Video Expert Group, “Information technology – Advanced coding of audio and video – Part 2: Video (AVS1-P2 JQP FCD 1.0),” Audio Video Coding Standard Group of China (AVS), Doc. AVS-N1538, Sep. 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>[32] AVS Video Expert Group, “Information technology – Advanced coding of audio and video – Part 3: Audio,” Audio Video Coding Standard Group of China (AVS), Doc. AVS-N1551, Sep. 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>[33] L. Yu et al., “Overview of AVS-Video: Tools, performance and complexity,” SPIE VCIP, vol. 5960, pp. 596021-1~ 596021-12, Beijing, China, July 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>[34] L. Fan, S Ma and F Wu, “Overview of AVS video standard,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Multimedia and Expo, ICME '04, vol. 1, pp. 423–426, Taipei, Taiwan, June 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>[35] W Gao et al., “AVS – The Chinese next-generation video coding standard,” National Association of Broadcasters, Las Vegas, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>[36] Special issue on 'AVS and its Applications' Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 24, pp. 245-344, April 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>[37] AVS China software : ftp://159.226.42.57/public/avs_doc/avs_software </li></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>PERFORMANCE COMPARISON: </li></ul><ul><li>[38] K. Onthriar, K. K. Loo and Z. Xue, “Performance comparison of emerging Dirac video codec with H.264/AVC”, IEEE International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, Vol. 06, Page: 22, Issue: 29-31, Aug. 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>[39] X. Wang and D. Zhao &quot;Performance comparison of AVS and H.264/AVC video coding standards&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>J. of computer science and technology, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 310-314, May 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>[40] Comparison of H.264 and VC-1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_H.264_and_VC-1 </li></ul><ul><li>[41] A. A. Ramirez, et al. &quot;MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 and VC-1 codecs comparison used in IPTV video streaming technology,&quot; Electronics, Robotics and Automotive Mechanics Conference, pp.122-126, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>[42] Comparison between AVC/H.264, VC-1 and MPEG-2 - http://www.ebu.ch/en/technical/trev/trev_302-sunna.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>[43] H. Kalva and J.B Lee, “The VC-1 and H.264 video compression standards for broadband video Services”, Springer, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>SSIM: </li></ul><ul><li>[44] Z. Wang, et al “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity”, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, vol. 13, pp. 600-612, Apr. 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>[45] SSIM index for image quality assessment: http://www.ece.uwaterloo.ca/~z70wang/research/ssim/ </li></ul><ul><li>[46]    Z. Wang, et al “ Multi -scale structural similarity for image quality assessment ,” IEEE Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Vol.2 , pp. 1398 - 1402 Nov. 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>[47] SSIM: http:// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/SSIM </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEO TEST SEQUENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>[48] Video test sequences (YUV 4:2:0): http:// trace.eas.asu.edu/yuv/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>[49] Video test sequences ITU601: http://www.cipr.rpi.edu/resource/sequences/itu601.html   </li></ul><ul><li>BOOKS: </li></ul><ul><li>[50] I. Richardson, “ The H.264 advanced video compression standard”, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010 </li></ul>

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