Scope of Video Standard Figure 1: Video encoding / decoding process Predict Transform Quantize Encode Decode Inverse-Quantization Inverse transform Reconstruct VIDEO ENCODER VIDEO DECODER Bitstream as defined by the standard Scope of the standard Video Output Video Source
Video Compression Figure 2: General block diagram of a block-based video codec 
Intra Coding …. within the same frame Figure 3: Intra coding a macroblock using previously coded pixels from the same block
Inter Coding …. using number past and future frames Figure 4: Inter coding a macroblock using past and/or future frames ... “Past” frames ... (one or more previously coded frames) Current frame “ Future” frame Predict Predict MB 1 MB 2 Predict
Modes Figure 5: Example of different modes used in AVS-China part 2 
Residual Block Figure 6: Calculation of residual information in a general block-based video codec 
Transform and Quantization residual block Coefficients Figure 7: Residual block is transformed and quantized Transform Quantize 8x8 Image Block
Entropy Coding Figure 8:The Transformed and quantized block zigzag scanned and entropy coded
Inverse Transform Reconstructed residual block At the decoder side ….. Re-scaled Coefficients Figure 9:The coefficients are re-scaled and inverse transformed to get back the residual information
Reconstruction at the Decoder Figure 10: Frame reconstruction at the decoder Form Prediction Predicted MB Decoded residual MB Reconstructed MB Previously decoded frames Current decoded frames Inter Intra
Study of H.264 Architecture Figure 11: H.264 encoder and decoder 
Study of AVS-China Architecture Figure 12 :AVS China Codec 
Study of Dirac Architecture Figure 13 : Dirac codec architecture 
Profiles in AVS-China Profiles Key applications Jizhun profile (base) Television broadcasting, HDTV, etc. Jiben profile (basic) Mobility applications, etc. Shenzhan profile (extended) Video surveillance, etc. Jiaqiang profile (enhanced) Multimedia entertainment, etc.
Algorithmic Comparison Quantization scaling matrices. Quantization scaling matrices. Quantization scaling matrices. Other 8×8 DCT 4×4 wavelet transform 4×4 integer DCT, 8×8 integer DCT Transform 2D variable length coding. Arithmetic coding CAVLC,CABAC Entropy coding De-blocking filter. None De-blocking In loop filters One reference each way, Multiple reference. Direct and symmetrical mode. One reference each way, Multiple reference One reference each way, Multiple reference, Direct & spatial direct weighted prediction. B frame type Single and multiple reference (maximum of 2 reference frames) Single reference, Multiple reference Single reference Multiple reference P frame type 1/4 pel 1/8 pel Full pel, Half pel. Quarter pel Motion vector Precision 16 × 16, 16 × 8, 8 × 16, 8 × 8 4×4 16 × 16, 16 × 8, 8 × 16, 8 × 8, 8 × 4, 4 × 8, 4×4 Motion compensation block size Frame Frame Frame, Field Picture AFF, MB AFF Picture coding type 8 × 8 block based Intra Prediction 4x4 spatial 4x4 spatial, 16x16 spatial I-PCM Intra Prediction AVS China Part 2 Dirac MPEG-4 AVC (H.264) Algorithmic Element
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VIDEO TEST SEQUENCES:
 Video test sequences (YUV 4:2:0): http:// trace.eas.asu.edu/yuv/index.html
 Video test sequences ITU601: http://www.cipr.rpi.edu/resource/sequences/itu601.html
 I. Richardson, “ The H.264 advanced video compression standard”, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010