Tech Brief : A Survey of Recent Innovations in the Production and Distribution of Video August 2005
What is this document about? <ul><li>This technology brief is intended to highlight and define recent innovations in video production and distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>However, in such a swiftly changing industry, not every new product or idea could possibly be addressed. Therefore, the breakthroughs covered here are chosen because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They relate specifically to video, rather than audio or still-image, content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are embraced by the general public in significantly growing numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They disrupt the traditional broadcast industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The task of precisely identifying and categorizing innovations in this fast-moving industry is similarly impossible. As soon as a particular technology and its relationship with another technology is established, something new will come along and render both obsolete. Further, businesses will deliberately stretch the definitions of some technologies to include their products, creating confusion in the general public over the meaning of certain technical terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, this document defines and categorizes technologies as they have been defined and categorized by a majority of sources in a number of different contexts. </li></ul>
Innovations: The Consumer’s Viewpoint An overview of the relevant technologies. The five steps in the media consumer chain — with “author” being an optional sixth step — have not changed since media existed to be consumed. The proliferation of accessible media, however, has increased the significance of previously less important steps, such as “find” and “evaluate”. The technologies listed are specific to video, growing in popularity, and potentially disruptive to traditional broadcasters. <ul><li>“ Prosumer” Production Tools </li></ul><ul><li>“Prosumer” Distribution Platforms </li></ul><ul><li>TimeShifting </li></ul><ul><li>PlaceShifting </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Rights Management (DRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Free Content Licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Micropayments </li></ul><ul><li>User Reviews & Rankings </li></ul><ul><li>Page Ranking Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Program Guides </li></ul><ul><li>MetaData </li></ul><ul><li>Content & Speech Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband </li></ul><ul><li>Video On Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer File Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>IPTV </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Television </li></ul>These technologies aid in the creation of new media. These technologies provide the means through which the media is consumed. These technologies give the consumer the right to consume the media. These technologies help the consumer make decisions about the media. These technologies help the consumer distinguish within a category of media. These technologies make the media accessible to the consumer. The Blank Notebook The Book The Library Card The Review The Card Catalog The Library Author Experience Procure Evaluate Find Access
Access The Library Broadband Video On Demand Peer to Peer File Sharing IPTV Internet Television IN THIS SECTION Broadband connections facilitate the transmission of video content to both television and computer platforms. Video On Demand (VOD) is one method that IPTV systems use to deliver content. Similarly, Peer to Peer (P2P) file sharing is a method that is commonly used on the Internet to exchange content. IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a common label for systems that deliver video over broadband connections to a television. Internet Television is a common label for the content that users access through the Internet and view on their computers. What is an access technology? Access technologies pave the way for the content to reach consumers. Often they are intertwined with other features –Video On Demand, for instance, usually has a procurement component attached – but their fundamental contribution is connection. How have access technologies changed? Access has been the link of the consumer media chain to see the greatest change in the last ten years. The next ten years promises a solidification of these innovations – connections will be faster, cheaper, and easier to use. These improvements will lead to broader adoption rates. Why do these changes matter? Until recently, televisions and cinemas were the primary means for consumers to access video content. As access technologies proliferate, broadcasters’ roles will be challenged, and they will have to re-examine how they can continue to add value for consumers. These technologies make the media accessible to the audience.
Broadband <ul><li>Broadband Internet access, often shortened to "broadband Internet" or just "broadband“, is a high data-transmission rate internet connection. DSL and cable modem, both popular consumer broadband technologies, are typically capable of transmitting 512 kilobits per second (kbit/s) or more, approximately nine times the speed of a modem using a standard digital telephone line. </li></ul>>> Broadband use jumps 34 percent, FCC says CNet , July 8, 2005 Homes and businesses in all 50 states saw their numbers of high-speed Internet lines grow steadily last year, the Federal Communications Commission said Thursday in a semiannual report. Data collected from broadband providers showed the tally of high-speed subscribers climbed 34 percent during 2004, from 28.2 million to 37.9 million connections of 200kbps or higher. >> Study: Consumer Broadband Set to Boom CNet , June 3, 2005 The number of broadband households in the United States is projected to grow to 69 million by 2010—up from 32 million in 2004, Jupiter Research said in a statement Thursday. >> CBS/Comcast Broadband bypass Cable in Favor of Broadband DailyWireless.org , July 12, 2005 CBS Digital Media and CBS News, today announced plans for a 24-hour, multi-platform, broadband news network, bypassing cable television in favor of broadband distribution. IN THE NEWS Access These technologies make the media accessible to the audience. The Library Total U.S. Households with Broadband Connections, 1998-2005 Percent SOURCE: The Home Technology Monitor
Video On Demand <ul><li>Video on demand systems allow users to select and watch video content as part of an interactive television system. VOD systems are either "streaming", in which viewing can start as the video streams over the Internet (or other network or cable service), or "download", in which the program is brought in its entirety to a set-top box before viewing starts. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Comcast's On Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Time Warner's Video On Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Disney's Movie Beam </li></ul><ul><li>PBS's Sprout </li></ul>>> One in Ten Prefer to Control Their Own Media Arbitron/Edison Research , March 15, 2005 One in 10 Americans show a heavy preference to control how they access their media and entertainment, according to the latest study from Arbitron Inc. and Edison Media Research. >> Rupert Murdoch Takes On VOD Slate/NPR , June 14, 2005 Murdoch plans to digitally deliver movies and other programming from his satellites to home digital video recorders. >> PBS Announces VOD Deal for Schools Lost Remote , May 20, 2005 PBS and WGBH have inked a deal with Library Video Company to provide schools with their choice of educational video. >> Comcast Arms for TV Revolution The Seattle Times , September 24, 2004 According to Chief Executive Brian Roberts, “The personalization of television — that what has happened on the Internet is now going to happen on television — and on-demand is a big part of that strategy.“ IN THE NEWS Access These technologies make the media accessible to the audience. The Library Comcast’s OnDemand service allows the user to access a selected collection of shows using their remote control and television. Some shows are free, while selecting premium content automatically bills the customer a fee for 24 hour unlimited use.
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing <ul><li>A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>BitTorrent </li></ul><ul><li>BitTorrent is a recent, freely distributed peer-to-peer system. </li></ul>>> BitTorrent Traffic Accounts for One Third of Internet Traffic Wired , January 1, 2005 Analysts at CacheLogic, an Internet-traffic analysis firm in Cambridge, England, report that BitTorrent traffic accounts for more than one-third of all data sent across the Internet. IN THE NEWS Access These technologies make the media accessible to the audience. The Library In a client-to-server model, each computer can only download files from a central server. As more clients access the server, the network becomes slower and less powerful. In a peer-to-peer model, client computers can bypass the server and share files amongst each other. As more clients join the network, it becomes faster and more powerful. Client-to-Server File Sharing Peer-to-Peer File Sharing
Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) <ul><li>Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) has become a common term for systems where television and/or video signals are distributed to subscribers or viewers using a broadband connection over Intenet Protocol. </li></ul>>> Interactive TV Poised for a Rollout USAToday , February 14, 2005 Not the cable TV establishment — which questions the technology and the demand for so much interactivity — but rather three Bell telephone companies are taking IPTV off the drawing board in the United States. >> JupiterResearach Reports Digital Cable TV Will Grow to 43 Million Households By 2009 JupiterMedia , September 1, 2004 JupiterResearch announced that it forecasts that digital cable penetration will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 11%, from 26 million households in 2004 to 43 million households in 2009. >> Microsoft Tests Broadband TV PCWorld , August 24, 2004 Testers will have access to five pay-TV channels and a video-on-demand service through the set top boxes, which also function as a digital video recorder, Microsoft says. IN THE NEWS Access These technologies make the media accessible to the audience. The Library Typically, IPTV systems deliver third party content through a broadband connection to a set-top box and a television. <ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft TV </li></ul><ul><li>mVision </li></ul>Third Parties IPTV Services Provider Consumer Content Providers Interactive Program Guides Ads & Promos Digital TV Services Broadcast Services Business Mgmt. Services <ul><li>Set Top Box & Television: </li></ul><ul><li>Video On Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Video Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Program Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Other Information Services </li></ul>
<ul><li>Because of the increase in broadband connections, it is increasingly common to find traditional television content, accessible freely and legally over the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Web Only Broadcasters </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasters with no parallel television channel </li></ul><ul><li>Open Media Network , The Research Channel , ifilm.com </li></ul><ul><li>Television/Web Simulcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Live events accessible both online and on television simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>AOL Live 8 Concert Simulcast , Major League Baseball </li></ul><ul><li>On-Demand Rebroadcasts from Television Broadcasters </li></ul><ul><li>Content available online after an initial television broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>CNN , PBS , Discovery Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Web-Exclusive Content from Television Broadcasters </li></ul><ul><li>Content from television broadcasters, but available only online </li></ul><ul><li>PBS’s NerdTV , Food Network’s Chef Video Tips </li></ul>Internet Television >> Broadcaster Pie Shrinks as Cable, Internet Take Off Hollywood Reporter , May 10, 2005 Traditional broadcasters are in trouble, while cable and Internet Television platform players are taking off. And the difference is starting to show up on balance sheets. >> Web Evolving Into New Entertainment Medium USAToday , July 2, 2005 Microsoft's MSN and rivals Google and Yahoo also are beginning to act, look and feel like networks in everything they do. They want to be programmers — just like traditional TV networks, only wielding tools that help you navigate the new universe of hundreds upon hundreds of Web sites and channels. >> As TV Moves to the Web, Marketers Follow New York Times , May 28, 2005 The emerging-media group at Scripps Networks, part of the E. W. Scripps Company, plans to introduce an all-video Web site that will use programming from its Food Network, Fine Living, HGTV and DIY Network brands, as well as new clips. A major advertiser in Scripps offline media, General Motors' GMC division, has paid for a video showroom on the site and a presence throughout it. IN THE NEWS Access These technologies make the media accessible to the audience. The Library A wide array of programming is easily accessible online – from international news and documentary programming to feature-length shows — such as PBS’s Web-exclusive series, NerdTV.
Find The Card Catalog IN THIS SECTION What is a find technology? Find technologies help consumers distinguish and locate a specific media item or group of items from among the media items they have access to. While many find technologies include evaluation features – such as a review in a TV Guide – their primary feature is to distinguish and locate. How have find technologies changed? As access technologies have developed, the amount of media available has dramatically proliferated. Further, the number and type of media sources have grown and diversified. Voice and image recognition software is designed to cope with this volume of media by automating the information collection process. MetaData systems aim to standardize the way multiple sources of media label their products. Why do these changes matter? Improved find technologies encourage the “long tail” approach to media consumption by allowing users to more easily manage their personal media stream. Therefore, the traditional broadcasters’ curatorial role may be threatened. These technologies help the audience distinguish within a category of media. Interactive Program Guides MetaData <ul><li>Collection Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, video content has been categorized “by hand” – someone has to watch the clip and record dialogue and image as they perceive it. As the volume of content grows, this method of collection becomes less viable. Recent advances in both image recognition and voice recognition software help automate the task of collecting information – rendering even the most up-to-the-minute news video clips, for example, accessible to search engines instantly. </li></ul><ul><li>Guides </li></ul><ul><li>The print edition of the TV Guide has recently given up offering comprehensive schedules because of the overwhelming success of Interactive Program Guides . Versions of IPGs are available for both television and computer platforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling Methods </li></ul><ul><li>As the amount of available content has grown, so have the sources of content: everyone from CNN to your next door neighbor can create video clips and make them accessible to the same online search engines and directories. However, people name things in different ways: one person’s “title” is another person’s “headline”, for example. MetaData addresses this problem by establishing a standardized way to label media. </li></ul>MetaData helps structure the information provided on Interactive Program Guides
Interactive Program Guides <ul><li>An electronic program guide (EPG) or an interactive program guide or (IPG) is an on-screen guide to scheduled broadcast and cable television programs, allowing a viewer to navigate, select and discover content by time, title, channel, genre, etc, using their remote control. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>TVGuide Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Guide Plus+ </li></ul>>> Interactive Program Guide Industry To Grow To $1B Worldwide by 2008 In-Stat/MDR , September 1, 2004 Interactive Program Guides (IPGs) are becoming the entertainment portal for TV viewers, and In-Stat/MDR expects the worldwide IPG market value to grow to nearly $1 Billion (US) by 2008. >> TV Guide Removes Listings from Print Edition Reuters , July 26, 2005 TV Guide, in a major shift to win over readers and advertisers, will be overhauled as a full-sized magazine with more celebrity features and fewer program listings, its publisher said on Tuesday. It has been hard hit by a decrease in advertising revenue as TV watchers increasingly look to the Internet or on-screen guides for program listings. IN THE NEWS Find These technologies help the audience distinguish within a category of media. The Card Catalog Total U.S. Households with IPG, 1998-2005 Percent SOURCE: The Home Technology Monitor % % % %
MetaData <ul><li>MetaData (Greek: “after” +"information"), is information that describes another set of data. A common example is a library catalog card, which contains data about the contents and location of a book. It is data about the data in the book. Other common types of metadata include the source or author of the described dataset, how it is accessed, and its limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin Core Metadata Element Set The Dublin Core is a metadata standard for describing digital objects (including webpages), often expressed in XML. It was so named because the first meeting of metadata and web specialists was held in the town of Dublin, Ohio. </li></ul><ul><li>PBCore To address the need to manage metadata within public broadcasting’s diverse community, version 1.0 of PBCore (the Public Broadcasting Metadata Dictionary) has been developed by a cross-organizational team of public radio and television producers and managers, archivists and information scientists. </li></ul>>> Intel Saves $6 for each $1 Spent on MetaData RedNova , July 23 rd , While some organizations are still struggling to help executives see the cost benefits of managing MetaData, such an effort has paid off big for Intel. After a false start six years ago, the chip maker now estimates that for every $1 it spends on metadata management, it saves $6. IN THE NEWS Find These technologies help the audience distinguish within a category of media. The Card Catalog The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set is designed to help users standardize how they categorize all types of online media, including video. When video clips are labeled in a standardized way, fast and easy exchange becomes feasible. Dublin Core tags are already used for podcast labeling and exchange.
Content & Speech Recognition <ul><li>Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) software “reads” an image and identifies its contents by matching colors and textures to items it has previously identified. It bypasses the need for a human to manually view and identify the image. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech recognition technologies allow computers equipped with a source of sound input, such as a microphone, to interpret human speech, e.g. for transcription or as an alternative method of interacting with a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Marvel A software program developed by IBM that uses statistical techniques to learn about relationships between colors, shapes, patterns and sounds from video footage to identify its content. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Image Retrieval Engine (FIRE) Demo This amazing demonstration offers the user a series of random images. Click on one and the demo will find similar images using CBIR technology. </li></ul><ul><li>blinkx.tv As soon as a word or phrase is mentioned in a radio broadcast or television program from a Blinkx partner, users are notified. Blinkx uses voice recognition technology to create searchable transcripts. </li></ul>>> Marvel Wins Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Award of 2004 Wall Street Journal , December 1, 2004 IN THE NEWS Find These technologies help the audience distinguish within a category of media. The Card Catalog The Flexible Image Retrieval Engine (FIRE) Demo asks users to click on one of a number of random images. The system will then use CBIR technology to “read” other images in the database and select ones it thinks may be similar.
Evaluate The Review IN THIS SECTION What is an evaluate technology? Evaluate technologies allow consumers to decide if a media item they have found is worth procuring. Evaluate technologies are distinct from find technologies in two ways: a) they provide primarily qualitative and subjective information about the item and b) they are necessarily outside the control of the producer of the media item. How have evaluate technologies changed? As with find technologies, evaluate technologies have grown in number and sophistication as the amount of available content has grown. Primarily due to interactivity limitations (i.e. keyboards), nearly all recent evaluation innovations are accessible only on the computer platform. Why do these changes matter? Since evaluation tools are necessarily outside the control of the producer, the information they provide is more credible. Further, most evaluation tools create a genuine sense of community where consumers are encouraged to browse and share, thus increasing usage and loyalty. Because nearly all evaluation innovations are on the computer platform, traditional broadcasters risk a growing competitive disadvantage. These technologies help the audience make decisions about the media. <ul><li>Ranking Methods </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999, Google broke through the Internet search engine market by moving beyond mere categorization into evaluation. Their PageRank algorithm counted links to a particular site as “votes” for that site, and listed it closer to the top of the search results page. This page ranking algorithm method has recently been applied to video clips. </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion Communities </li></ul><ul><li>As online communities have developed, often a key purpose has been the exchange of opinion. Consumer review and ranking sites are devoted to many consumer products, including television shows and movies. A variation of the consumer review site is a “Folksonomy” site (a combination of “taxonomy” and “folks”). On “folksonomy” sites, visitors don’t review things, they describe them. Distinct from MetaData-style labeling where only the producer is allowed to describe the work, “folksonomy” sites offer all visitors the chance to describe it, presumably providing more credible information about the true contents and significance of the piece. </li></ul>Page Ranking Algorithms Search Engines Tagging & Folksonomy User Reviews Folksonomy Directories Consumer Sites Different evaluation methods typically appear on different types of sites, nearly all of which are accessible only on the computer platform. This evaluation represents a significant competitive advantage for web-based video.
Page Ranking Algorithms <ul><li>Page ranking algorithms, such as Google's PageRank, have revolutionized the search engine approach. Before PageRank, a search engine could list sites that matched the user's requested key word, but the search engine could not inform the user as to the site’s relevance as determined by the entire web community. </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>From the Google Site: "PageRank relies on the uniquely democratic nature of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page's value. Google interprets a link from page A to page B as a vote, by page A, for page B. But Google looks at more than the sheer volume of votes, or links a page receives; it also analyzes the page that casts the vote. Votes cast by pages that are themselves 'important' weigh more heavily and help to make other pages 'important.'" </li></ul>>> Google Revenues Up 98% Year Over Year; "We Had an Excellent Quarter," Says CEO ITSolutions , June 30, 2005 "We had an excellent quarter. We continued to innovate, we continued to execute and we stayed focused on our users," said Google's CEO Eric Schmidt, as Google Inc. on Thursday announced financial results for the quarter ended June 30, 2005, including record revenues of $1.384 billion for the quarter - up 98% year over year. IN THE NEWS Evaluate These technologies help the audience make decisions about the media. The Review Google assigns a value to each page in its directory based on a PageRank algorithm that counts links to that page as “votes”. Among the highest ranked sites are FirstGov.gov, Apple.com, and Google’s own google.com.
User Reviews and Rankings <ul><li>The Internet's instantaneous nature shortens the feedback loop between customer and producer. Most online media entities — commercial and otherwise — include user feedback systems of varying complexity to help users distinguish between several items in the same category. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Movie Data Base ( imdb.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon Consumer Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>ePinions.com </li></ul><ul><li>NetFlix Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Rotten Tomatoes </li></ul>Evaluate These technologies help the audience make decisions about the media. NetFlix Friends is an update of the now-familiar user review. With this innovation, you can select your “reviewers” from a group of your trusted taste-makers. Many sites offering video clips include evaluation tools like this to increase traffic and site loyalty. The Review
Tagging & Folksonomy <ul><li>A specialized version of the consumer review, folksonomy (a combination of "folk" and "taxonomy") is a system that allows any user to label, or "tag“, any category of stuff — news articles, digital photos, video and audio clips, even life aspirations — and share those associations with other users. Online entities devoted to this practice list the most popular tags, their associated items, and other tags associated with those same items. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Technorati </li></ul><ul><li>43 Things </li></ul>Evaluate These technologies help the audience make decisions about the media. Tags from three different types of “folksonomy” sites: YouTube, on the left, describes video clips. 43 Things, in the middle, describes life aspirations, and Technorati, on the right, describes blogs. The Review
Procure The Library Card IN THIS SECTION What is a procure technology? Procure technologies give the audience the right to consume media. Often they involve financial transactions and security systems, but sometimes they consist only of licenses limiting usage. The procurement process can be, and is, bypassed. How have procure technologies changed? Digitized media is easy for consumers to copy and distribute with an imperceptible loss in quality. The marketplace has responded by creating free content licenses for some media and by developing new payment and security systems to limit the usage and transmission of other media. Why do these changes matter? New procure technologies make profitable distribution equally viable for both established and independent media companies thus creating a larger marketplace, but with many more competitors. These technologies give the audience the right to consume the media. <ul><li>Business Models </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly, media entities fund themselves through advertising or subscription, but some companies have recently found success with the micropayment model, like Apple’s 99 ¢ songs. For businesses that deliver content through the Internet, the micropayment model improves on the subscription model by protecting them from the penalties of popularity and the associated bandwidth costs. </li></ul><ul><li>License Types </li></ul><ul><li>Home-grown producers and publicly-funded media entities are embracing free content licenses as a way of fostering creativity while trying to maintain certain rights over the source material. </li></ul><ul><li>Security Systems </li></ul><ul><li>In the same way anti-theft devices on store merchandise prevent illegal use, digital rights systems (often just referred to as DRM ) restrict the illegal use of digital content. For example, a song bought through the Apple Music Store is programmed to play on only registered computers. </li></ul>
Micropayments <ul><li>Micropayments are means for transferring money in situations where collecting money with the usual payment systems is very expensive relative to amount of money being collected. For example, a system that allows customers to charge 99 ¢ on a credit card is a micropayment system. </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Music Store The most successful recent procurement innovator, Apple recognized that "free" music downloads came with a price tag of download time, unreliable quality, and legal liability, and determined that consumers priced those drawbacks at one dollar. </li></ul>>> Consumers Want Micropayments for Television According to CBS Los Angeles Times , January 18, 2005 Among CBS executive VP for Research and Planning David Poltrack's findings is that consumers appear to be receptive to an economic model that provides an alternative to DVRs. In this scenario, viewers would pay $1 to see an episode of a favorite TV show on demand — much as music fans do when they download a song from Apple Computer Inc.'s iTunes music store. >> Apple Celebrates 500 Million Downloads Softpedia , July 20, 2005 "Just over two years ago, we sold our first song. Yesterday, we sold our half billionth song. WOW!" said Steve Jobs, Apple's CEO. "As we cross this major milestone, we couldn't be more excited about the future of digital music , iTunes and the iPod." IN THE NEWS Procure These technologies give the audience the right to consume the media. The Library Card Apple Music Store allows users to pay 99 cents for each song and around $10 for most albums. After just two years, it has sold over 500 million songs.
Free Content Licenses <ul><li>Free content licenses are a category of standardized license, the Creative Commons License being the most prominent, that copyright holders can grant to users. These licenses are designed to facilitate the free flow of material such as software, written works, music, and video while allowing the authoring entity to designate certain restrictions. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons License The Creative Commons License refers to the name of several copyright licenses released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a US nonprofit corporation founded in 2001. These licenses all grant certain baseline rights, such as the right to distribute the copyrighted work on file sharing networks. The copyright holder has the option of specifying certain extra conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Creative Archive Licence Group The BBC, the bfi, Channel 4 and the Open University set up the Creative Archive Licence Group to make their archive content available for download under the terms of the Creative Archive Licence - a single, shared user license scheme for the downloading of moving images, audio and stills. </li></ul>>> bfi Downloads Success Story CALG , May 5, 2005 The British Film Institute ( bfi ) is delighted to report that the first four clips it made legally available under the Creative Archive Licence at launch on April 13 th have already attracted more than 3,000 downloads. IN THE NEWS Procure These technologies give the audience the right to consume the media. The Library Card The Creative Archive Licence Group aims to ease the process of acquiring public domain footage in the hopes of fostering creativity among the United Kingdom film and video community.
Digital Rights Management Systems <ul><li>Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems, or simply “DRM”, refer to several technical methods used to control or restrict the use of digital media content on electronic devices with such technologies installed. The media most often restricted by DRM techniques include music, visual artwork, and movies. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Media DRM Windows Media Digital Rights Management (WMDRM) is a platform for the secure delivery of audio and video content over a network, to a PC or other device. </li></ul><ul><li>Apple’s FairPlay FairPlay is Apple Computer's digital rights management system built into the QuickTime multimedia technology and used by iPod, iTunes, and the iTunes Music Store. Every file bought from the iTunes Music Store is encoded with FairPlay. It digitally encrypts audio files and prevents users from playing these files on unauthorized computers. </li></ul>>> Consumer Electronics Giants Agree on Digital Rights Management PCPro , January 20, 2005 Sony, Matsushita (Panasonic), Samsung and Philips have agreed to adopt a common method of digital rights management (DRM) and have formed the Marlin Joint Development Association (Marlin JDA) in order to establish a common standard for playing 'appropriately licensed video and music on any device'. IN THE NEWS Procure These technologies give the audience the right to consume the media. The Library Card
Experience The Book IN THIS SECTION What is a experience technology? Experience technologies affect where, when, and how media is experienced. Often, they are combined with other types of technologies – for example, DVRs often include an Interactive Program Guide– but their primary innovation is to allow consumers control over how they view the content they have access to. How have experience technologies changed? Developments in procurement technologies are giving consumers unprecedented control over how they experience their media at the same time that the potential sources of media are proliferating. Why do these changes matter? Both timeshifting and placeshifting technologies shift consumers’ focus away from the source of the content and towards the content itself, thus easing the way for new, independent producers to compete with established media entities. These technologies provide the means through which the media is consumed. Placeshifting <ul><li>Placeshifting </li></ul><ul><li>Placeshifting technologies allow media originally or traditionally accessed through one platform to be viewed on another platform. Many placeshifting technologies transfer content between computers and televisions, while others allow programming to be viewed on mobile video devices like cell phones. </li></ul><ul><li>Timeshifting </li></ul><ul><li>Timeshifting allows programs to be recorded from a broadcast signal and viewed at a later time. The VCR might be considered the original timeshifting device. Today, TiVos perform the same function. </li></ul>Placeshifting technologies allow content to be exchanged between the television and computer platform, effectively blurring the line between broadcast television and Internet television.
Timeshifting & Digital Video Recorders <ul><li>Timeshifting is the technique of recording television/satellite/cable transmissions for later viewing. Timeshifted content can be viewed as long as days, months or years later, or as soon as a few minutes behind actual broadcast time, to provide a buffer for fast-forwarding through commercials. </li></ul><ul><li>The personal video recorder (PVR), also called digital video recorder (DVR) or digital personal video recorder, is a consumer electronics device that records television shows to a hard disk in digital format. Since first introduced by TiVo in 1999, PVRs have steadily made the "time shifting" feature (traditionally done by a VCR) much more convenient. Popular abilities are: pausing live TV, instantly replaying interesting scenes, and skipping advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>TiVo </li></ul><ul><li>ReplayTV </li></ul>>> Worldwide PVR Unit Shipments More Than Double in 2004 In-Stat , May 1, 2005 Demand for PVR products increased tremendously during the past year, as unit shipments rose from 4.6 million in 2003 to over 11.4 million in 2004. Leading the surge in unit shipments were products designed for satellite TV subscribers and for consumers wanting a DVD recorder with an integrated hard disk drive. >> Gartner: Half of U.S. Households to Have DVRs within 5 Years Cnet , April 11, 2005 About 8 percent of U.S. households have DVRs, according to research firm GartnerG2, but in five years, half of all homes with TVs are expected to have the recording devices. >> TiVo , Comcast Reach a Deal Cnet , March 15, 2005 TiVo and cable giant Comcast have reached a distribution deal, easing some investor concerns over the digital video recorder pioneer's future. IN THE NEWS Experience These technologies provide the means through which the media is consumed. The Book The first and still most popular DVR. “TiVo” is sometimes also used as a verb to describe the digital recording of a television program, regardless of whether the equipment is a TiVo brand DVR (e.g. "Could you TiVo Star Trek for me tonight?").
PlaceShifting <ul><li>Watching or listening to recorded media on any device - not just the television, computer, or DVR that originally received it. Placeshifting technologies threaten to blur the line, in the eyes of the audience, between independent and traditional broadcast entities. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Slingbox This small device, which retails for about $250, can beam any live TV show coming into your home to an Internet-connected Windows PC anywhere in the world. It also allows you to remotely watch shows you have recorded at home on a digital video recorder. </li></ul><ul><li>cyberSky A free software application for sharing television signals, it allows users with a broadband Internet connection to share the TV channels they are able to receive. TV channels can be shared regardless of the means of reception ( cable, terrestrial or satellite) as long as there is a way of getting the signal to one’s pc. </li></ul><ul><li>Akimbo Akimbo is a $229 set-top box that allows the user to download video from their broadband Internet connection to play back on their television. </li></ul><ul><li>Video iPod Apple is reportedly releasing a video iPod in the fall, designed to play music videos sold through the Apple Music Store. </li></ul>>> Television Networks Threatened with Extinction: Change or Die, Says Deloitte Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu , April 1, 2005 What was previously considered "television content" is now being burned into DVDs, time delayed by Personal Video Recorders (PVRs), broken into fragments, piped on demand over the Internet, downloaded into mobile devices and syndicated around the globe. Such changes are having a profound effect on the structure, dynamics and future of the global broadcast television industry, both private and public, according to Deloitte. IN THE NEWS Experience These technologies provide the means through which the media is consumed. The Book Akimbo allows users to access Internet channels like ifilm.com and National Geographic through their television sets, effectively blurring the line between broadcast and cable entities and Internet Television.
Author IN THIS SECTION What is an author technology? Author technologies support the production and distribution of new media. How have author technologies changed? At the same time the Internet has broken down the media distribution monopoly, technological developments have put professional-quality production tools within the reach of consumers. Why do these changes matter? As the barriers to entry into the media world drop, the value of each media item similarly plummets – especially in the case of video, where many of the new entrants are motivated not by profit, but simply by creative expression. These technologies support the production of new media. The Blank Notebook <ul><li>“ Prosumer” Production Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Since the term “prosumer” (“professional” or “producer” combined with “consumer”) was introduced in 1980 by futurist Alvin Toffler, the market for “ prosumer ” production tools has proliferated dramatically, particularly in the medium of video. Twenty-five years later, a “prosumer” can outfit a professional quality production studio for less than $5,000. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Prosumer” Distribution Platforms </li></ul><ul><li>From vlogs to microchannels, many different types of “ prosumer ” distribution platforms have blossomed recently. Many of them cater to the amateur simply interested in creative expression, but some hope to develop businesses around enabling producers to sell downloads of clips and then keeping a percentage of the proceeds. </li></ul>
“ Prosumer” Production Tools <ul><li>This grade of production equipment is marketed to the hobbyist interested in creating professional quality media. In the last fifteen years, these products have dropped dramatically in price and increased in quality and usability. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Final Cut Pro A $1200 software editing package offered by Apple, this is the industry standard for independent producers. The most recent version provides High Definition Video (HDV) support. </li></ul><ul><li>Sony HDR-FX1 HDV Handycam ® Camcorder Retailing for $3800, this new Sony product claims to be the first consumer level high definition camcorder. CNet gave it an editor’s choice award in May of this year, calling it ideal for early adopter prosumers. </li></ul>>> Sony HDV Camera Under $2000 USA Today , July 13, 2005 “ When it comes to consumer electronics, price is typically a moving target, and the good news is that it almost always moves south. How fast it gets there is another matter.” – Edward C. Baig IN THE NEWS Author These technologies provide the ability to create new media. For about $5000, a “prosumer” can be fully equipped to shoot and edit HDV compatible programs. For another $300, she can add special effects. The Blank Notebook $1200 $3800 $300
“ Prosumer” Distribution Platforms <ul><li>As broadband connections have proliferated, so have Internet-accessible channels of video distribution. Some are simply collections of clips, such as Google Video and Brightcove, while others have special intents, such as Bridges. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Google Video The next step in Google’s quest to “organize the world’s information”, Google Video includes content from a large number of traditional media entities like CNN, C-SPAN, PBS, and KQED. They also encourage “prosumers” to upload their own videos. </li></ul><ul><li>Brightcove </li></ul><ul><li>Brightcove aims to provide an online service to allow mainstream and emerging video publishers to offer material directly to consumers over the internet. Producers set their price and BrightCove takes a finder’s fee. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges Bridges is an interactive online program that helps connect middle school students in the developed world with their peers in indigenous communities across the globe. </li></ul>>> Akimbo Enables Vlog Delivery to Television Silicon Valley Business Journal , June 18, 2005 Akimbo Systems Inc. says it is adding video blogs to the content available to its subscribers. Five of the Internet's most popular video blogs are now available on the Akimbo service, including Rocketboom, FreshWave.TV, Clint Sharp's Vlog, Steve Garfield's Video Blog and "The Carol and Steve Show." >> BBC Opens TV Listings to Programmers TechWire , May 15, 2005 The British Broadcasting Corporation announced that it has launched a new program that will allow coders, computer-program writers and graphic designers the chance to tweak digital content into new applications and Internet-based prototypes that can be shared with others. IN THE NEWS Author These technologies provide the ability to create new media. Bridges provide the tools and training that enable middle school students to share stories from their own lives and communities with their contemporaries in indigenous communities. These stories are shared through bridgesweb.org where students can engage each other, ask questions about each others' lives and collaborate on creating multimedia stories exploring their cultures. The Blank Notebook
Appendix : Video Innovation from the Producer’s Viewpoint
Innovations: The Producer’s Viewpoint Procure Access Find Evaluate <ul><li>Currently, video distribution centers around two platforms: the television and the computer. However, </li></ul><ul><li>the computer allows access to more types of content </li></ul><ul><li>only the computer platform provides evaluation tools </li></ul><ul><li>placeshifting technologies allow content to be moved from one platform to the other, blurring the line between traditional and independent producers. </li></ul>Commercial Content Web-Intended Commercial Content Prosumer Content Experience IPTV Internet Television Interactive Program Guide Video On Demand Timeshifting Placeshifting Broadband MetaData DRM Free Content Licenses Tagging & Folksonomy Page Ranking Algorithms P2P Micropayments Broadband IPGs MetaData Content Recognition User Reviews DRM Timeshifting Placeshifting a c c b
Tech Brief : A Survey of Recent Innovations in the Production and Distribution of Video August 2005 For more information, contact: Andy Russell [email_address] 202-879-9702 Loren Mayor [email_address] 202-879-9735