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  • 1.  
  • 2. PlanetLab, DARPA Control Plane, And Collaborative Research Rick McGeer Ides of March, 2006
  • 3. What is PlanetLab?
    • A planetary-scale “overlay” network
      • Just a bunch of Linux machines that have agreed to communicate
      • Global account: account on the whole network
      • Go beyond protocols to services and applications
      • “ The next internet will be created as an overlay in the current one” (NRC)
    • What’s it good for?
      • A virtual machine creation service
      • A platform for running planetary-scale distributed applications
      • A platform for critical, pervasive, robust services
      • Characteristic of the next generation of the Internet
    • Joint Academic/Government/Industry Consortium has formed
      • Formally announced in late June ‘03
      • Hosted by Princeton, U Washington, and UC Berkeley
      • Google has joined HP and Intel as founding industrial members
      • NSF funded
    • Extension to Japanese National Research Network Fall 2006
  • 4. PlanetLab’s Growth Start of Project SOSP ’03: 2/3 submissions are on PlanetLab HP Announces support Consortium Formed Brazil RPN Joins CERN Joins JGN-II Joins
  • 5. PlanetLab Today 718 Nodes at 345 Sites
  • 6. Today’s Internet
    • A 1973 Buick Retroffited with airbags and emission controls (Technology Review)
      • Local services distributed across the wide area
      • Smart client, smart server, dumb pipe in between
    • Vulnerable
    • To local outages, flash crowds
    • Fails when it’s needed most
      • overwhelmed on 9/11
      • When you need it, so does everybody else!
    • No intelligence or adaptivity
      • Fails on weakest link
      • Unable to adapt to single
      • point of failure
  • 7. Tomorrow’s Architecture: PlanetLab
    • Intelligence throughout the cloud
    • Planetary-scale distributed services
    • Service that runs everywhere , all the time
    • Means location of service virtualized
      • In fact, meaningless
    • Gives attributes:
      • Critical : There when it’s needed most
      • Pervasive: Always available, anytime, anywhere
      • Robust : Can’t be stopped, killed, crashed
      • Secure : Can’t be spoofed or compromised
  • 8. Case Study: Reinventing the Internet Question: How would we reinvent the Internet today? ftp, telnet, email, im, http, mmpg, voip, iptv…
    • Ftp
    • Telnet
    • Email
    Applications ~1,000,000,000 ~1,000 Number of Nodes 300kb/s-10 Gb/s ~10 kb/s Line Speeds ~2,000,000,000 ~10,000 Number of Users Today 1980
  • 9. Key Point
    • 1980 Internet model: no intelligence in the network
    • Network behavior guessed at endpoints
      • Led to complex endpoint behavior
      • Poor behavior under minimal degradation
    • Network elements had limited communication
      • Could only communicate gross network behavior
      • Couldn’t adjust to minor changes
    • Led to architecture where global conditions guessed from local observations
    • Suppose endpoints could talk to the network?
    • Suppose network elements could sense network conditions
    • Simpler endpoints
    • More adaptive network
  • 10. Research Model
    • Two levels
      • Improve core internet services
      • Leave artifacts for application services
      • Application services on top
    • Open Research
      • Developed by coalitions
      • Build coalitions to solve real-world problems
  • 11. Better Internet Behavior
    • Problem: TCP degrades badly in presence of loss
      • 5-20% packet loss common in military environments
      • Weather loss, satellite tracking,…
      • Means most Internet apps fail
    • Assumptions
      • TCP fixed (don’t want to change every client)
      • Can add some hardware to each side
      • Losses are transient
      • Alternate paths exist
    • Solution
      • Avoid packet loss by rapidly switching away from lossy links
      • Software Routing based on Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) and overlays
  • 12. CHART
    • Comprehensive Hyperplane for Adaptive Response and Throughput
    • Set of five loosely-coupled services
      • PlanetLab Classic: Base VM creation service
      • DHT-based software router: Better IP layer on the overlay
      • Information Plane: comprehensive network sensing service
      • Explicit-rate routing
        • Hardware Routing Service: next generation routers for high-bandwidth links
        • Overlay software routing service: software implementation
      • Security Service: authentication for information plane
    • Big idea
      • Fix TCP/IP and leave artifacts for application services
  • 13. CHART Solution Concept
    • Conventional TCP: Slowly ramp up to line rate
    • CHART TCP:
      • Get line rate from routers
      • Transmit immediately at line rate
    • Conventional TCP: Backoff in presence of loss since congestion-free transmission rate unknown
    • CHART TCP: Keep going in presence of loss since congestion-free transmission rate known
    Click for next slide 0 60 40 20 0 60 40 20
  • 14. Chart Routing Concept Conventional : losses in network undetected Continued transmission over poor links When combined with TCP backoff, leads to very poor performance CHART : Links constantly monitored Rapid switch away from failing links When combined with TCP explicit rate, line rate performance Backoff! Backoff! Switch Paths
  • 15. Adaptive Routing Scenario Switch 10% link loss detected
  • 16. Adaptive Routing Implementation Router continually queries sensor servers for loss/latency/bandwidth data Router switched routes when sensor servers report better path Switch Sensor Servers
  • 17. Phase I accomplishments
  • 18. Do More Than Routing
    • Control Plane makes networks intelligent, adaptive
    • “ Send me the best picture you can of downtown Baghdad in the next five minutes”
      • Sensing of link quality, QoS can optimize request
    • End-system multicast (CMU)
      • On-the-fly multicast tree based on load, b/width, latency
    • Intelligent, bandwidth-aware media/file distribution
  • 19. Today’s Web Service
  • 20. Tomorrow’s Web Service: CoDeeN
    • Network of proxies spread across the whole net
      • Looks in cache for page
      • Finds it? Done
      • Doesn’t find it
        • hashes URL
        • Goes to hash proxy for page
        • Replicates requested pages
    • Load on each host manageable
    • Load on each proxy manageable
    • No flash crowds unless whole Internet overloaded
      • Has never happened
    • Running today on PlanetLab
  • 21. Tomorrow’s Web Service
  • 22. Today’s Filesystem
    • One location only
      • If it is down, so are you
      • Major security concerns on the system
    X ?!@#
  • 23. Today’s File System
    • Files attached to one computer
      • Accessable (easily) there only
      • Vulnerable to local disruption
      • Hard to back up (media expensive, hard to administer)
      • Vulnerable to multiple failures
        • crash
        • media failure
        • power failure
        • localized network disruption
  • 24. Tomorrow’s File System: OceanStore
    • Spread Across the network
      • n pieces
      • m sufficient to reconstruct
      • pieces spread across network
    • File Lives everywhere!
      • Can’t be destroyed unless n-m+1 destroyed
      • Accessable everywhere
      • Backed up by copy in network
      • Lasts for 1000 years
    • Running today on PlanetLab
    X X
  • 25. PlanetLab Grand Challenges
    • Intel/HP/AT&T Initiative
    • Largely driven by Mic Bowman (Intel)
      • Help from Jack Brassil, Rick McGeer (HP)
      • Rick Schlichting, Lee Breslau (AT&T)
    • Mobilize academic/research community to solve large problems
    • Model: Work with end customer to define RFP
    • Offer opportunity to research groups
    • One initiative: PBS Content Distribution
    • Coming: Large-scale multicast
  • 26. Media Distribution
    • Currently done through satellite or conventional Internet distribution
      • Satellites cheaper than conventional Internet for > 40 sites
      • Satellites have a variety or problems
        • Theft
        • Vulnerability to weather disruption (rain fade)
  • 27. Conventional Internet Distribution
    • Send media to each endpoint (e.g., TV station)
    • Bandwidth required
      • size of media x number of endpoints
    • More expensive than satellite for many endpoints
  • 28. New Idea: Use PlanetLab distribution techniques (CoBlitz)
    • Send media collaboratively from endpoint to endpoint
    • Send chunks of file to each endpoint
    • Endpoints send to each other
    • Much more efficient than conventional Internet
    • More secure, cheaper and reliable than satelite
  • 29. Conclusion
    • CHART
      • Model of new research model
      • Coalition of Industrial Lab/Startup/University Research to solve large problem
      • Solve specified problem and leave artifacts for future research
    • Grand Challenges
      • Use distributed infrastructure to solve real-world problems
      • Mine industrial/academic consumer community for research opportunities
    • We want to do more of this!
  • 30.