Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
RMcgeer.ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply
Published

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
173
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. PlanetLab, DARPA Control Plane, And Collaborative Research Rick McGeer Ides of March, 2006
  • 3. What is PlanetLab?
    • A planetary-scale “overlay” network
      • Just a bunch of Linux machines that have agreed to communicate
      • Global account: account on the whole network
      • Go beyond protocols to services and applications
      • “ The next internet will be created as an overlay in the current one” (NRC)
    • What’s it good for?
      • A virtual machine creation service
      • A platform for running planetary-scale distributed applications
      • A platform for critical, pervasive, robust services
      • Characteristic of the next generation of the Internet
    • Joint Academic/Government/Industry Consortium has formed
      • Formally announced in late June ‘03
      • Hosted by Princeton, U Washington, and UC Berkeley
      • Google has joined HP and Intel as founding industrial members
      • NSF funded
    • Extension to Japanese National Research Network Fall 2006
  • 4. PlanetLab’s Growth Start of Project SOSP ’03: 2/3 submissions are on PlanetLab HP Announces support Consortium Formed Brazil RPN Joins CERN Joins JGN-II Joins
  • 5. PlanetLab Today 718 Nodes at 345 Sites
  • 6. Today’s Internet
    • A 1973 Buick Retroffited with airbags and emission controls (Technology Review)
      • Local services distributed across the wide area
      • Smart client, smart server, dumb pipe in between
    • Vulnerable
    • To local outages, flash crowds
    • Fails when it’s needed most
      • cnn.com overwhelmed on 9/11
      • When you need it, so does everybody else!
    • No intelligence or adaptivity
      • Fails on weakest link
      • Unable to adapt to single
      • point of failure
  • 7. Tomorrow’s Architecture: PlanetLab
    • Intelligence throughout the cloud
    • Planetary-scale distributed services
    • Service that runs everywhere , all the time
    • Means location of service virtualized
      • In fact, meaningless
    • Gives attributes:
      • Critical : There when it’s needed most
      • Pervasive: Always available, anytime, anywhere
      • Robust : Can’t be stopped, killed, crashed
      • Secure : Can’t be spoofed or compromised
  • 8. Case Study: Reinventing the Internet Question: How would we reinvent the Internet today? ftp, telnet, email, im, http, mmpg, voip, iptv…
    • Ftp
    • Telnet
    • Email
    Applications ~1,000,000,000 ~1,000 Number of Nodes 300kb/s-10 Gb/s ~10 kb/s Line Speeds ~2,000,000,000 ~10,000 Number of Users Today 1980
  • 9. Key Point
    • 1980 Internet model: no intelligence in the network
    • Network behavior guessed at endpoints
      • Led to complex endpoint behavior
      • Poor behavior under minimal degradation
    • Network elements had limited communication
      • Could only communicate gross network behavior
      • Couldn’t adjust to minor changes
    • Led to architecture where global conditions guessed from local observations
    • Suppose endpoints could talk to the network?
    • Suppose network elements could sense network conditions
    • Simpler endpoints
    • More adaptive network
  • 10. Research Model
    • Two levels
      • Improve core internet services
      • Leave artifacts for application services
      • Application services on top
    • Open Research
      • Developed by coalitions
      • Build coalitions to solve real-world problems
  • 11. Better Internet Behavior
    • Problem: TCP degrades badly in presence of loss
      • 5-20% packet loss common in military environments
      • Weather loss, satellite tracking,…
      • Means most Internet apps fail
    • Assumptions
      • TCP fixed (don’t want to change every client)
      • Can add some hardware to each side
      • Losses are transient
      • Alternate paths exist
    • Solution
      • Avoid packet loss by rapidly switching away from lossy links
      • Software Routing based on Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) and overlays
  • 12. CHART
    • Comprehensive Hyperplane for Adaptive Response and Throughput
    • Set of five loosely-coupled services
      • PlanetLab Classic: Base VM creation service
      • DHT-based software router: Better IP layer on the overlay
      • Information Plane: comprehensive network sensing service
      • Explicit-rate routing
        • Hardware Routing Service: next generation routers for high-bandwidth links
        • Overlay software routing service: software implementation
      • Security Service: authentication for information plane
    • Big idea
      • Fix TCP/IP and leave artifacts for application services
  • 13. CHART Solution Concept
    • Conventional TCP: Slowly ramp up to line rate
    • CHART TCP:
      • Get line rate from routers
      • Transmit immediately at line rate
    • Conventional TCP: Backoff in presence of loss since congestion-free transmission rate unknown
    • CHART TCP: Keep going in presence of loss since congestion-free transmission rate known
    Click for next slide 0 60 40 20 0 60 40 20
  • 14. Chart Routing Concept Conventional : losses in network undetected Continued transmission over poor links When combined with TCP backoff, leads to very poor performance CHART : Links constantly monitored Rapid switch away from failing links When combined with TCP explicit rate, line rate performance Backoff! Backoff! Switch Paths
  • 15. Adaptive Routing Scenario Switch 10% link loss detected
  • 16. Adaptive Routing Implementation Router continually queries sensor servers for loss/latency/bandwidth data Router switched routes when sensor servers report better path Switch Sensor Servers
  • 17. Phase I accomplishments
  • 18. Do More Than Routing
    • Control Plane makes networks intelligent, adaptive
    • “ Send me the best picture you can of downtown Baghdad in the next five minutes”
      • Sensing of link quality, QoS can optimize request
    • End-system multicast (CMU)
      • On-the-fly multicast tree based on load, b/width, latency
    • Intelligent, bandwidth-aware media/file distribution
  • 19. Today’s Web Service
  • 20. Tomorrow’s Web Service: CoDeeN
    • Network of proxies spread across the whole net
      • Looks in cache for page
      • Finds it? Done
      • Doesn’t find it
        • hashes URL
        • Goes to hash proxy for page
        • Replicates requested pages
    • Load on each host manageable
    • Load on each proxy manageable
    • No flash crowds unless whole Internet overloaded
      • Has never happened
    • Running today on PlanetLab
  • 21. Tomorrow’s Web Service
  • 22. Today’s Filesystem
    • One location only
      • If it is down, so are you
      • Major security concerns on the system
    X ?!@#
  • 23. Today’s File System
    • Files attached to one computer
      • Accessable (easily) there only
      • Vulnerable to local disruption
      • Hard to back up (media expensive, hard to administer)
      • Vulnerable to multiple failures
        • crash
        • media failure
        • power failure
        • localized network disruption
  • 24. Tomorrow’s File System: OceanStore
    • Spread Across the network
      • n pieces
      • m sufficient to reconstruct
      • pieces spread across network
    • File Lives everywhere!
      • Can’t be destroyed unless n-m+1 destroyed
      • Accessable everywhere
      • Backed up by copy in network
      • Lasts for 1000 years
    • Running today on PlanetLab
    X X
  • 25. PlanetLab Grand Challenges
    • Intel/HP/AT&T Initiative
    • Largely driven by Mic Bowman (Intel)
      • Help from Jack Brassil, Rick McGeer (HP)
      • Rick Schlichting, Lee Breslau (AT&T)
    • Mobilize academic/research community to solve large problems
    • Model: Work with end customer to define RFP
    • Offer opportunity to research groups
    • One initiative: PBS Content Distribution
    • Coming: Large-scale multicast
  • 26. Media Distribution
    • Currently done through satellite or conventional Internet distribution
      • Satellites cheaper than conventional Internet for > 40 sites
      • Satellites have a variety or problems
        • Theft
        • Vulnerability to weather disruption (rain fade)
  • 27. Conventional Internet Distribution
    • Send media to each endpoint (e.g., TV station)
    • Bandwidth required
      • size of media x number of endpoints
    • More expensive than satellite for many endpoints
  • 28. New Idea: Use PlanetLab distribution techniques (CoBlitz)
    • Send media collaboratively from endpoint to endpoint
    • Send chunks of file to each endpoint
    • Endpoints send to each other
    • Much more efficient than conventional Internet
    • More secure, cheaper and reliable than satelite
  • 29. Conclusion
    • CHART
      • Model of new research model
      • Coalition of Industrial Lab/Startup/University Research to solve large problem
      • Solve specified problem and leave artifacts for future research
    • Grand Challenges
      • Use distributed infrastructure to solve real-world problems
      • Mine industrial/academic consumer community for research opportunities
    • We want to do more of this!
  • 30.